R. Rourr a
tr(i-e/ 4,-/-0 3
ociety ojf Pripet' Money Collectop,4
0 R. ROUTE 2
VOLUME 1 SUMMER 1962 NUMBER 3
PUBLISHED QUARTERLY BY THE SOCIETY OF PAPER MONEY COLLECTORS
Editor Hank Bieciuk
Foster W. Rice, Arlie Slabaugh,
Fred R. Marckhoff, C. J. Af fleck, Dwight L. Musser
Subscription $3.00 Per Year
One Time Yearly
Outside Rear Cover $35.00 $130.00
Inside Front & Rear Cover 32.50 120.00
Full Page 27.50 100.00
Half Page 17.50 60.00
Quarter Page 10.00 35.00
Direct Advertising to the Editor. The Right Is Reserved to Reject Any Advertisement.
"Call for Annual Meeting" by Hank Bieciuk PAGE 3
"Jacob Perkins—American Genius" by Arlie R. Slabaugh PAGE 4-5-6
"The Origin of the Provision) Government Drafts of Texas"
by John H. Swanson PAGE 6-7
"Query from a Confederate Treasury Note Collector" by Philip H. Chase __PAGE 8
"Puerto Rico Varieties Reported" by Dwight L. Musser PAGE 8
"Some of the Minor Varieties in the Commoner Large Size Notes"
by Rev. Frank H. Hutchins PAGE 8-9-10
New Membership PAGE 10-11
society of Paper Iltone9 Collector,
OFFICERS — 1962
President Hank Bieciuk
First Vice President James J. Curto
Second Vice President Thomas C. Bain
Secretary George W. Wait
Treasurer Glenn B. Smedley
APPOINTEES — 1962
Historian-Curator Earl Hughes
Attorney Ellis Edlowitz
BOARD OF GOVERNORS — 1962
Julian Blanchard, Harold L. Bowen, Ben Douglas, Amon G. Carter, Jr., Philip H.
Chase, James Kirkwood, Walter M. Loeb, Dwight L. Musser, Eric P. Newman,
William A. Philpott, Jr., Peter Robin.
VOL. 1, NO. 3
Paper !honey PAGE 3
Call For Annual Meeting
Wednesday, August 15, will be a day to be remembered! On that day, the
Society of Paper Money Collectors will hold their first annual meeting. To be held
in conjunction with the American Numismatic Association Convention in Detroit,
this meeting will afford all paper money collectors an opportunity to meet each
Many know each other only through correspondence. Geography and the lack
of an organization previously prevented paper money collectors to meet and know
each other. This has been solved in part by our present society. The rest is up to
Date: Wednesday, August 15
Time: 8:00 P. M.
Place: The English Room, Sheraton-Cadillac Hotel, Detroit, Michigan
See you in Detroit!
Society of Paper Money Collectors
Paper Money VOL. 1, NO. 3
Jacob Perkins - American Genius, by Arlie R. Slabaugli
Although such large and excellent one-volume encyclo-
pedias as the Columbia Encyclopedia do not today even
mention Jacob Perkins, here was one of our truly American
geniuses of all time, both numismatic and otherwise. In
fact, the diversity of his inventions make one think of an
earlier day Thomas Edison. It is to be regretted that he is
not better known since he made many valuable inventions
in America including the revolution of paper money—then
he went to England where he produced a whole new series
of inventions; perhaps he was given more recognition there
as he never returned to America.
Jacob Perkins was born on July 9, 1766 in Newbury-
port, Massachusetts, the fifteenth of 20 children. He at-
tended school as a child, but when he was 13 and the
Revolutionary War had taken most of the able-bodied
men from town, he decided it was time to learn a trade.
He thereupon entered a 7-year apprenticeship with Edward
Davis, a goldsmith and clockmaker. At 15 his master died
and he continued the business alone rather than seek a
new apprenticeship. While learning the business he made
his first invention—a new method of silver plating shoe
buckles for the buckle shoes then popular.
He seems to have had a natural ingenuity. Even though
he was not completely trained before his master died, he
became so skillful a die sinker on his own, that at the age
of 21, Massachusetts engaged him to cut the dies for its
1787 and 1788 cents and half cents which show an Indian
standing on obverse with an eagle on reverse.
On November 11, 1790 he married Hannah Greenleaf
of Newburyport. They had nine children. It was at about
the time of his marriage that he invented a machine for
cutting and heading nails in one operation—before that
the heads were put on the nails. A company was formed
for their production but through mismanagement of his
partners the firm failed and he was involved in financial
In 1792 Perkins traveled to Philadelphia to secure a
position as die sinker in the newly organized United
States Mint but the position went to Joseph Wright. Per-
kins' proof of ability was based on his work on the Massa-
chusetts' copper and on a pattern dollar, the border of
which was done on a jeweler's lathe. The Washington
portrait on this dollar was later used by Perkins nor the
Washington funeral medals.
It was after 1800 that Jacob Perkins began to reach his
stride. During the period 1801 to 1816 he obtained 14 U.S.
patents on fire engines, pumps, polishing and graining of
leather, the manufacture of spoons, etc. As a result, he was
elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in
But his principal contribution during this period, and
the one known at least by name to many numismatists
was his invention of patent steel plates for banknote
engraving, or "Perkins' plate notes" as they are often
called. These "stereo-type" plates were a major advance in
the production of paper money as we know it today.
In Colonial times, paper money was printed from cop-
per plates. But copper is relatively soft and did not give
long printing runs before wearing out. Because of this the
plates had to be reproduced frequently and this made it
necessary to use comparatively simple designs although
it was known that more intricate designs were harder to
counterfeit. But intricate designs on copper would have
cost too much to reproduce many times, so they were kept
simple, which also made it simple for counterfeiters.
Jacob Perkins' invention was a hard, long-lasting steel
plate that permitted the use of detailed designs and letter-
ing, making it difficult for counterfeiters to reproduce with-
out special equipment, and saving millions of dollars for
the public. Perkins did not invent the hardening and soft-
ening of steel but he was the first to successfully apply it to
steel engravings. A steel plate was first engraved and hard-
ened. A cylinder of soft steel, two to three inches in
diameter, was then rolled back and forth across the plate
surface until the design of the plate was impressed in the
softer metal in reverse. The steel had first been softened
by burying it in pure iron filings which were then fired to
a white heat for four hours in a tightly closed cast iron
box. This removed the carbon from the steel. The cylinder
was now ready for hardening which was done by again
adding carbon to the steel. In this process it was placed
in a box of charcoal powder at just above a red heat for
several hours. Afterward it was withdrawn and plunged
into cold water and tempered. The hardened cylinder bear-
ing the design in reverse could now be rolled on any
number of soft steel plates to make a facsimile of the
One will find many notes printed by Perkins during the
early 1800's, particularly in the New England area where
he lived. They are generally distinguishable by the use of
the denomination repeated over and over in very small
letters as a background. Later he invented a means of re-
CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE
VOL. 1, NO. 3
liteney PAGE 5
JACOB PERKINS CONT'D FROM PAGE 4
producing engravings through his invention of the sidero-
graphic press, the use of which permits the reproduction of
portraits and other engravings on our banknotes to this
day. While Mr. Perkins did not eliminate counterfeiting,
he did so far reduce it that widespread use of paper money
became practical, and the Massachusetts legislature passed
a law requiring all State banks to use his process after May
OBVERSE OF EARLY PERKIN'S NOTE.
REVERSE OF EARLY PERKIN'S NOTE.
After living in Boston and New York for some years,
he moved to Philadelphia in 1816 and joined the banknote
printing firm of Murray, Draper, Fairman & Co. This firm
was already well established and with the addition of Mr.
Perkins its reputation was enhanced. I may also add that
Christian Gobrecht was employed by this firm at the same
time. Some years later after Gobrecht became Chief En-
graver of the U. S. Mint, there was a dispute as to who
invented the medal-ruling machine, "a device whereby
medals, etc., could be engraved directly from the relief
face and a plate thus prepared for reproduction on paper."
Both Gobrecht and Asa Spencer claimed its invention.
Spencer was also associated with Perkins and Gobrecht in
the Murray, Draper, Fairman firm. While practical appli-
cation of the invention must go to Gobrecht, I believe
either he or Spencer got their ideas for it from Perkins.
In 1818 Sir Charles Bagot, British Minister to the
United States, having heard of their fine work, persuaded
the firm to offer their services to the Bank of England
which was then having trouble with its notes being coun-
terfeited. Mr. Fairman, one of the officers of the firm, Mr.
Perkins, Mr. Spencer, and Charles Toppan went to Eng-
land for the purpose of obtaining a commission from the
Bank of England to print its notes. (Charles Toppan later
formed his own banknote firm in 1829. From 1837 to 1840
the firm was "Draper, Toppan, Longacre & Co." Draper
was one of the original partners of Murray, Draper, Fair-
man & Co. which, in various re-organizations at one time
included Spencer in its firm name. Lonacre, of course, is
the man who later became Chief Engraver of the U. S.
Mint. All of these firms were predecessors of the American
Bank Note Co.)
In England they produced a number of fine proof notes
for various English banks and India, but did not procure
the contract for their production. Mr. Perkins wanted too
high a price for the use of his patent.
A banknote company was formed in England wherein
they were joined by Charles Heath, an English engraver,
whose family lended financial assistance. This firm, Per-
kins, Fairman and Heath was established in 1819 but in
1820 Fairman, Toppan and Spencer returned to America,
and the firm name was changed to Perkins and Heath, as
Mr. Perkins decided that his future lay in England. This
firm prospered as they produced excellent notes consid-
ered to be the finest of the day.
Later the firm became Perkins, Bacon & Co. They pro-
duced many early banknotes around the world, such as
Brazil, etc. An important honor belongs to them as in
1840 they received the contract to produce the first postage
stamps—the Penny Black. The firm continued in business
Another printing invention credited to Mr. Perkins is
the use of a roller instead of a dauber for more even distri-
bution of ink on engraved plates. In physics he is known
for his experiments proving the compressibility of water
CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE
Paper litche9 VOL. 1, NO. 3
JACOB PERKINS CONT'D FROM PAGE 5
as measured by a piezometer he invented. Other inventions
made while in England include refrigeration machinery,
a uniflow steam engine, a central hot-air heating system,
various steam engines and boilers, ship pumps and other
equipment connected with water and steam. He invented
an instrument to measure the depth of water, another to
measure the speed a vessel moved through water. He even
constructed a gun in which steam instead of gunpowder
generated the explosive force—with it a shot went through
eleven planks of hard wood, each an inch thick.
In England Jacob Perkins' inventive genius was recog-
nized. By the time of his death on July 30, 1849, 19 British
patents had been granted to him and he had received many
honors and awards. It is time that we recognize his scien-
tific and numismatic contributions, too.
The Origin Of The Provisional Government Drafts Of Texas
by John H. Swanson
The exact sites where civil authority was exercised in
Texas during the struggle with Mexico are not always
clearly discerned. Hence it does not seem too surprising
that we should find collectors of paper items who presume
that the drafts issued by the auditor of the Provisional
Government were "obviously from Washington on the
Brazos" 1 , whereas an ex-governor of the state has asserted
"The Constitution of 1836, by which the first provis-
ional government of Texas was organized, and which
represented different municipalities, met at San Felipe
de Austin on the Brazos River. That continued to be
the meeting place of the executive offices, i. e., the
governor, the lieutenant governor, and the members
of the Executive Council, of whom there was one for
each community, until their powers ceased upon the
meeting of the Convention, March 1, 1836."2
The Handbook of Texas, which presents the views of
the Texas State Historical Association, places the site of
government at San Felipe during the period now being
considered, but it does not specifically exclude the possi-
bility that one or more civil functionaries could have held
forth in some adjacent settlement.
The drafts of the Provisional Government were issued
during the months of January and February, with all of
the extant specimens being signed by John W. Moody and
H. C. Hudson. Since there were no other signers or official
handlers of the instruments at the time of their preparation,
it is clear that any attempt to determine their geographic
source could begin and end with determination of the
whereabouts of these men during the initial two months of
1836. However, it seems desirable to locate for the reader
all of the civil functionaries whose work could have related
in any way to the issuance of the drafts we are considering.
The General Consultation of 1835 had chosen the gov-
ernor and the members of the General Council, but it had
not specified the place where they would hold forth. On
November 17th the Council voted to move the seat of
government from San Felipe to Washington on the Brazos;
but Governor Smith vetoed the proposal, and it failed to
carry over his veto. 4 Hence, according to one historian,
"the seat of government remained at San Felipe until about
the 22nd of February, 1836."5
During mid-November the Council had passed on all
expenditures, subject to approval of Governor Smith.6
However, on November 24 this arangement was changed,
the signature of the chairman of the Finance Committee
being all that was required for items to be allowed and
paid.7,8 This arrangement was also vetoed by Governor
Smith,9 but it may have been put into immediate use, and
the measure was passed over the governor's veto on Decem-
ber 10.* From that time on Governor Smith was without
control over expenditures.10,11
A Treasurer was arranged for, and "a Standing Com-
mittee of Public Accounts" was created, which Committee
was to "receive, audit, and register all accounts, and report
the same each week" to the Counci1. 12 Joshua Fletcher was
appointed as Treasurer. However, the Treasury became
barren on or about December 23, 13 soon after which date
we cease to hear of Mr. Fletcher, and the use of drafts of
nonnegotiable type, signed by the auditor and the comp-
troller, was instituted as standard monetary practice.
The offices of Auditor and Comptroller were arranged
for on or near December 26. The first and only auditor
to be appointed was John W. Moody, about whom very
little has ever been written. Insofar as is known, he held
forth at the old municipality headquarters—the "state-
house" in the rather metropolitan settlement of San Felipe.
He avoided involvement in the factional quarrels of that
time, and the quality of his service rendered him acceptable
to subsequent administrations as well as to the factions
within the Provisional Government. No writer has ever
reported Moody's presence in Washington on the Brazos.
Whereas the governor, lieutenant governor and officials
of the Council turned their records over to the Convention,
Moody retained his papers at San Felipe. At some time
subsequent to February 29 Moody packed his records and
moved out. His whereabouts cannot be reported for the
next few months. He became the auditor of the Republic's
government at Columbia in October, 1836. While serving
there he put his Provisional Government records in proper
order, and when Houston became the temporary capitol in
1837 he supervised the transport of his papers to that place.
A few months after Lamar became President of the Re-
public, Moody left the Treasury Department to open a
drug store in Houston. His records were presumed to have
been among those which were moved from Houston to
Austin by oxen in September and October, 1839. 14 , 15 They
apparently survived the Archive War but may have been
CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE
VOL. 1, NO. 3
Paper I1tehe9 PAGE 7
THE ORIGIN OF THE PROVISIONAL GOV.
CONT'D FROM PAGE 6
partially or wholly destroyed in one of the Capitol fires, as
that of 1881.
The first Comptroller of the Provisional Government
seems to have been John H. Mony, 16 but he was replaced
by H. C. Hudson in mid-January. The accompanying
illustration places him on duty as late as February 29. His
desk is presumed to have been in the old statehouse in San
Felipe. There are no reports of his ever having been at
Washington on the Brazos. He regarded himself as a "con-
troller" (see illustration). He served the ad-interim govern-
ment at Velasco and was also associated with the Treasury
at Columbus, but he soon received appointment as a dis-
trict attorney from President Houston, and we hear of him
no more in connection with drafts or warrants.17
Governor Smith is known to have still been in San
Felipe on February 27. 18 He is not named among early
arrivals at Washington by Col. Gray, whose notes give us
our most complete single account of the Convention. 1 9 He
seems to have arrived in Washington on or about March
Lieutenant Governor Robinson, regarded as "Acting
Governor Robinson" by members of the Council after
January 10, was reportedly in San Felipe during mid-Feb-
ruary. 20 A letter was addressed to him there from Wash-
ington on February 26. He is reported to have been among
the early arrivals at Washington on February 28 by Col.
Soon after the advent of open breach between Governor
Smith and the Council, certain members of the latter body
began to depart, as for service in the army, and on January
16 it appeared that a quorum could not be mustered after
the following day. The remaining members immediately
sought means of keeping the government functional. A
resolution was prepared which gave to the auditor and
comptroller the independent right to pass on all items of
expenditure and issue drafts in payment where the sums
involved did not exceed five hundred dollars. Since few
if any individual obligations were expected to exceed this
amount, the measure would have the effect of turning
money matters over to the control of the above two officers.
Another measure was prepared which was to create a new
committee of the Council, called the "Committee on
Finance." It was to consist of the Council president or
chairman and of one member of each of the standing com-
mittees. This new committee was to be empowered to
handle most of the functions formerly handled by the
Council. The two resolutions were passed on January 17,
and the Council then adjourned, "to meet at Washington
on February 22nd." 21
The newly-formed committee con-
tinued to meet at San Felipe until February 16, when it
also adjourned, to reconvene thereafter at Washington on
February 22.22Two members of the Council, being also
members of the above committee, are known to have
arrived at Washington on or before February 26. 23,24
Their single known act was to write to Robinson, who was
still at San Felipe. On February 28 Col. Gray observed
only a "fragment of the Council" at Washington.25
During the only study ever made of the source of the
Provisional Government drafts it is found that they were
issued from San Felipe rather than from Washington on
the Brazos, as many collectors have presumed. They were
caused to be issued, insofar as extant specimens are con-
cerned, by John W. Moody and H. C. Hudson, their
signers, who, from January 17 until February 29, inclusive,
had virtually complete control over the Government's
financial matters. No record was found which indicated
that either of these men was ever seen at Washington on
the Brazos. The fate of Hudson's records is currently
unknown, but Moody's records are traced by way of Co-
lumbia and Houston to Austin, where they may have been
destroyed in one of the capitol fires.
1. Criswell, G. C., and Criswell, C. L., Confederate and
Southern States Currency. Criswell's Currency Series,
Vol. 1, 1957, p. 220.
2. Roberts, 0. M., The Capitols of Texas. Quart. Texas
State Hist. Assn., Vol. 2, 1892. p. 117.
3. Handbook of Texas (W. P. Webb, et al, Eds.). Texas
State Hist. Assn., Austin, Vol. 2, p. 550.
4. Smith, W. R.: The Quarrel between Governor Smith
and the Council of the Provisional Government of he
Republic. Quart. Texas State Historical Assn., Vol. 5,
1902, p. 291-292.
5. Winkler, E. W.: The Seat of Government in Texas.
Quart. Texas Hist. Assn., Vol. 5, 1902, p. 291-292.
6. Gouge, W. M.: The Fiscal History of Texas. Lippen-
cott, Grambe and Company, Phila., 1852, p. 24.
7. Smith, op. cit. p. 297-298.
8. Gouge, po. cit., p. 33.
9. Smith, op. cit., p. 310-311.
Gouge gives the date of December 12. (Gouge, op.
cit., p. 24).
10. Smith op. cit., p. 294.
11. Houston, A. J.: Texas Independence. The Anson Jones
Press, Houston, 1938, p. 93.
12. Smith, op. cit., p. 298.
13. Smith, op. cit., p. 304.
Gouge gives the date of December 29 for the arrange-
ment of these appointments. (Gouge, op. cit., p. 24).
14. Winkler, E. W.: The Seat of Government in Texas.
(2) The Permanent Location of the Seat of Govern-
ment. Quart. Texas State Hist. Soc., Vol. 10, 1907, p.
234, (Ftn. No. 2)
15. Connor, S. V.: A Preliminary Guide to the Archives
of Texas. Southw. Hist. Quart. 59; 1956, p. 256.
16. Steen, R. W.: Analysis of the Work of the General
Council, Provisional Government of Texas, 1835-1836.
S. W. Hist. Quart. Vol. 41, p. 227.
17. Handbook of Texas, op. cit. Vol. 1, p. 757.
18. Barker, E. C.: Readings in Texas History. Southw.
Press, Dallas, 1929, p. 263, (headnote).
19. Gray, W. F. From Virginia to Texas (Quoted by Mar-
ques James, in The Raven, Gossett and Dunlap, N. Y.,
1929, pp. 224, 225).
20. Houston, A. J., op. cit., pp. 110, 118.
21. Smith, op. cit., p. 335.
22. Winkler, op. cit., p. 151
23. Conner, op. cit., p. 227.
24. Winkler, op. cit., p. 151.
25. Gray, loc. sit.
Pape/. I1tette9 VOL. 1, NO. 3
Query From A Confederate Treasury Note Collector
by Philip H. Chase
Does any member of SOPMC have a specimen of the
$100 Confederate Treasury note, July 25, 1861 issue, with
"for Treas'r" printed twice? This variety has appeared in
various listings over many years. Bradbeer's book (1915)
shows it as No. 18, with serial letter "B," and even gives
note numbers 3726 to 4026.
The undersigned, because of Bradbeer's explicit "say-
so," though never having seen one, listed it as No. 112C
in his book "Confederate Treasury Notes" published in
1947. He now has reason to doubt the accuracy of Brad-
beer's listing and asks for information from anyone having
a note or notes meeting the above description. He would
especially appreciate the opportunity to examine such
Philip H. Chase
Puerto Rican Varieties Reported, by Dwight L Musser
The recently published Whitman reference series book-
let, The Money of Puerto Rico, will be of interest to col-
lectors of paper money. Although the bulk of the contents
pertains to coins, the authors included such information
as was available to them on paper money issued in Puerto
Rico. Thirteen different types of notes are illustrated and
a few others mentioned. The appearance of the book has
stimulated collectors to "compare notes" by checking over
their own collections and looking up additional informa-
tion. Some supplementary data has come to light which will
no doubt be included if the booklet comes out in a revised
Sr. Leon Burstyn, of Santiago, Chile, found a reference
to a note which seems to be the Five Dollar companion to
the Ten Dollar note illustrated on page 80. He states that
such a note is illustrated and described in a book called La
Moneda y los Sistemas Monetarios de Todos los Paises
(The Money and Monetary Systems of All Countries) by
Constantino de Horta y Prado, published in Havana in
1914. The description of the note leaves little doubt but
that it is of the same series as the Bank of Porto Rico note,
No. 510 in the Whitman book. The dimensions are given
as 184 x 80 cm. which check out to practically the same
size as the 7 1/4 x 3 1/4
inches given for the Ten Dollar de-
Collectors should not be greatly surprised if other de-
nominations are found to exist, although it is possible that
only the Five and Ten Dollar values were printed. Since
the notes were produced by the American Bank Note Com-
pany, it can be surmised that additional information exists
in the company records, but these are not normally avail-
ble to the numismatic researcher.
Gordon Dodrill of Pittsburgh reports having a note of
El Banco Espanol de Puerto Rico, Five Pesos, 1 Diciembre,
1894. This is apparently the same type as No. 505 pictured
on page 75 of the Whitman booklet except that the date
shows the notes to have been have issued earlier than 1896.
The final story of Puerto Rican paper money remains
to be written. This is just another example of the never
ending search for information which confronts the collec-
tor of paper money, but this, after all, is what makes the
game interesting, challenging and worthwhile.
Some Of The Minor Varieties In The Commoner Large
Size Notes, by Rev. Frank H. Hutchins
With the exception of the Onepapa five-dollar silver
certificates, the reverses of all the notes from the terms of
office of Lyons and Roberts to those of Elliott and Burke
are uniform for each series, but in the terms of office of
Elliott and White there were changes made throughout
all the lower denominations. In the case of the Onepapas,
a change had been made during the terms of office of Tee-
hee and Burke—slight, but readily perceived. The plate
number, which had been definitely inside the leaf in the
upper right-hand corner of the reverse, was dropped at
this time to a position definitely under the leaf. During the
time of Elliott and White, however, it was shifted to a
position inside the leaf at the upper left-hand corner.
At this time, the following changes were made in the
reverses of the other silver certificates and the legal tender
On the $1.00 legal tenders the plate number was shifted
from the bottom of the space at the left of the reverse to a
position on the right-hand side of that space.
On the $2.00 legal tenders it was shifted from the left-
hand corner of the triangle at the left to the bottom of
CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE
VOL. 1. NO. 3
Paper iltette9 PAGE 9
SOME OF THE MINOR VARIETIES...
CONT'D FROM PAGE 8
On the $5.00 legal tenders it was shifed from the top
of the space at the left to a position on the left-hand side
of that space, and on the $10.00 legal tenders it was
shifted from the lower right-hand corner to the lower
left-hand corner of the note.
On the $1.00 silver certificates it was shifted from a
position inside the central design to the lower right-hand
corner of the note, and on the $2.00 silver certificates it
was shifted from the lower right-hand corner to the lower
These changes seem to have been made once for all in
the case of the legal tender twos and fives and the $5.00
silver certificates, but both varieties to have been preserved
in the case of the one-dollar notes, and apparently the
legal tender fives.
Much earlier than this, however, changes were made
in the obverses of all these series. Friedberg notes the addi-
tion of a monogram at the right of the legal tender dollar
notes of 1862, but these are only two of five varieties. The
first reads, "NATIONAL BANK NOTE COMPANY—
American Bank Note Company," and has the lower left-
hand serial number in the seal. The second has the serial
number shifted to its position across the figure 1 in the
lower left-hand corner and the monogram added. The third
reads " NATIONAL BANK NOTE COMPANY— NA-
TIONAL BANK NOTE COMPANY," and keeps the mon-
ogram. The fourth leaves out the mongram again, and the
fifth shifts the number of the series from the left to the
right of "ACT OF JULY 11TH 1862."
On the legal tender fives the number, which had been
under the right-hand check letter, was shifted, during the
terms of office of Teehee and Burke, to a position after the,
letter, and the same change was made on the legal tender
tens and silver twos, while on the silver fives it was shifted
from a position under the left-hand check letter to a posi-
tion after the right-hand one.
The change on the obverses of the $1.00 silver certif-
icates was different, consisting of a shift of the words
"SERIES OF 1899" from a position above the upper right-
hand serial number to a position under it during the terms
of office of Lyons and Roberts and its shift again, when
Napier took office, to a position running down the right-
hand side of the note. I have noticed no changes on
either the obverse or the reverse of the silver tens or either
of the twenties.
The following table, then, shows the variations I have
found, and I'd be more than happy to discover that it's
incomplete by having other subvarieties discovered. I hope
the publishers will note them and apprise me of them if
they're notified of any that the readers find among their
notes, and hope that many will be interested in discovering
and reporting new varieties. It's my personal feeling that
that's what numismatics is.
I've used a fairly simple key, the part before the hyphen
referring to the obverse and that after it referring to the
reverse. Minute varieties are incidental. Only deliberate
changes of position are considered relevant. But these I
have discovered, and I'd welcome anybody finding any
ul—plate number under left- hand check letter.
ur—plate number under right-hand check letter.
ar—plate number after right-hand check letter.
osn—"SERIES OF 1899." over the serial number in the
upper right corner.
usn—"SERIES OF 1899." under the serial number in the
upper right corner.
s—"SERIES OF 1899." running down the right-hand side
of the note.
b—plate number at the bottom of the space at the left.
t—plate number at the top of the space at the left.
r—plate number at the right-hand side of the space at the
1—plate number at the left-hand side of the space at the
icd—plate number inside the central design.
h.—plate number in the lower right-hand corner of the
11—plate number in the lower left-hand corner of the note.
it—plate number inside leaf in the upper right-hand cor-
ur--plate number under leaf in the upper right-hand cor-
il—plate number inside leaf in the upper left-hand corner.
THE FOLLOWING VARIETIES ARE KNOWN TO
LEGAL TENDER NOTES:
39—Speelman-White $1.00 ar-b ar-r
CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE
Paper Mette9 VOL. 1, NO. 3
KEY CONTD FROM PAGE 9
59-Elliott-White $2.00 ar-1 ar-b
60-Speelman-White $2.00 ar-b
83-Vernon-Treat $5.00 ur-t
84-Vernon-McClung $5.00 ur-t
85-Napier-McClung $5.00 ur-t
86-Napier-Thompson $5.00 ur-t
87-Parker-Burke $5.00 ur-t
88-Teehee-Burke $5.00 ur-t ar-t
89-Elliott-Burket $5.00 ar-t ar-1
90-Elliott-White $5.00 ar-t ar-1
92-Woods-White $5.00 ar-1
114-Lyons-Roberts $10.00 ur-lr
115-Lyons-Treat $10.00 ur-lr
116-Vernon-Treat $10.00 ur-lr
117-Vernon-McClung $10.00 ur-lr
118-Napier-McClung $10.00 ur-lr
119-Parker-Burke $10.00 ur-Ir
120-Teehee-Burke $10.00 ur-lr
121-Elliott-White $10.00 ar-Ir
122-Speelman-White $10.00 ar-lr ar-II
226-Lyons-Roberts $1.00 osn-icd usn-icd
227-Lyons-Treat $1.00 usn-icd
228-Vernon-Treat $1.00 usn- icd
229-Vernon-McClung $1.00 usn-icd
230-Napier-McClung $1.00 s-icd
231-Napier- Thompson $1.00 s-icd
232-Parker-Burke $1.00 s-icd
233-Teehee-Burke $1.00 s-icd
234-Elliott-Burke $1.00 s-icd
235-Elliott-White $1.00 s-icd s-lr
236-Speelman-White $1.00 s-icd s-Ir
249-Lyons-Roberts $2.00 ur-lr
250-Lyons-Treat $2.00 ur-lr
251-Vernon-Treat $2.00 ur-Ir
252-Vernon-McClung $2.00 ur-lr
253-Napier-McClung $2.00 ur-lr
There should be other notes. There certainly should
be a Teehee-Burke $5.00 Onepapa with the obverse plate
number under the left-hand check letter and the reverse
plate number inside-not completely under-the leaf in
the upper right-hand corner, and there might well be an
Elliott-White buffalo ten with the reverse plate number
in the lower left, a Speelman-White capitol two with the
reverse plate number at the left-hand side of the space
at the left, or a Speelman-White pioneer family five with
254-Napier-Thompson $2.00 ur-lr
255-Parker-Burke $2.00 ur-Ir
256-Teehee-Burke $2.00 ur-lr ar-lr
257-Elliott-Burke $2.00 ar-lr
258-Speelman-White $2.00 ar-lr ar-11
271-Lyons-Roberts $5.00 ul-ir
272-Lyons-Treat $5.00 ul-ir
273-Vernon-Treat $5.00 ul-ir
274-Vernon-McClung $5.00 ul-ir
275-Napier-McClung $5.00 ul-ir
276-Napier-Thompson $5.00 ul-ir
277-Parker-Burke $5.00 ul-ir
278-Teehee-Burke $5.00 ar-ir ul-ur ar-ur
it at the top of the space. I do hope this will move collectors
to examining their notes more carefully, perhaps discover-
ing some new variety, and I myself should be extremely
glad of information leading to revisions in my list. If even
those who don't collect these large size notes would look,
whenever they have opportunity, at dealers' stocks, they
too might make discoveries, and I'd be graeful to whoever
bought for me a subvariety not on the list, and glad to give,
in reason, anything he asks for his trouble.
New Membership Roster
420 Guy L. Libby, 6021 North Figueroa, Los Angeles 42,
C-D U.S. Coins and Currency
421 Harold C. Johnson, 4212 Kings Court, Jacksonville,
C U.S. Currency and Broken Bank Notes
422 Paul A. Younce, 5010 Daleview Avenue, Temple City,
C U.S. and Foreign Obsolete Currency
423 George W. Killian, 162 Seneca Road, Rochester 22,
C U.S. Coins and Currency
424 Henry 0. Nouss, Box 2775, Hamilton Station, Pompano C General
425 Cliff J. Murk, Box 131, Agate Beach, Oregon C CSA, Southern States, Colonial and Broken
VOL, 1. NO. 3
Paper Money, PAGE 11
426 Philip A. Stewart, 409 South 5th Street, Missoula,
C U.S. and Obsolete
427 R. H. Porter, P. 0. Box 406, Austin, Texas C CSA - Texas - Southern States
428 W. M. Morison, Box 3277, Waco, Texas D Texas
429 Thomas B. Ross, P. 0. Box 255, Norwalk, Connecticut C-D All Fields, Especially U.S. Small Notes
430 Meredity L. Young, RFD. No. 1, Box 520, Oberlin, Ohio C U.S. Currency
431 Ted Rogers, 3933 Main Avenue, Norwood 12, Ohio D All Types of Paper Money
432 Carl DiFalco, 12100 Robertson Cleveland 5, Ohio C U.S. Currency
433 Robert W. Chilcote, 706 Johnson Avenue, Beford, Ohio C U.S. Currency
CORRECTIONS OF PREVIOUSLY PUBLISHED LISTS:
120 Alfred D. Hoch, 18 Irving Avenue, Natick, Massa-
130 Charles T. Heaton, 135 Kensington Place, Syracuse 10,
147 David I. Strahan, Apt. 1, 328 Bellevue Avenue E.,
Seattle 2, Washington
193 C. Elizabeth Osmun, 418 Acorn Avenue, Telford, Penn-
195 George B. Schwarz, 3785 Northampton, Cleveland
Heights 21, Ohio
312 Richard D. Brandt, 452 Sutton Avenue, Hackensack,
Obsolete and Broken Bank Notes
Canadian Obsolete Notes
Colonial and Continental Notes
of Southern Colonies
Or . . . What Have You?
B. M. Douglas
402 Twelfth St. N. W. Washington 4, D. C.
Buy or Trade
Colonial, Broken Bank,
State, County, Town
Notes and Bonds
Charles J. Affleck
34 Peyton Street
Large U. S. Currency
$1.00, $2.00, $5.00 & $10 Notes
Can Use Up To 100 Pieces (or more)
of Each Denomination.
These Are Not for Collectors, But Must
Be Nice, VG—F or Better.
Wanted to buy notes of
EL BANCO DE PANAMA 1880
or will trade notes of
ESTADO SOBERANO DE PANAMA
James B. Shaffer
Balboa, Canal Zone
BROKEN BANK NOTES
The most colorful of all paper money issued. The notes are masterpieces of
art and engraving. Even if you do not collect paper money, a few of these
notes will dress up any collection. All notes are of our choice and will range
from Fine to Uncirculated. Early orders receive the best notes. Buy a few
from your home state!
3 Diff. 3 Diff.
State Each Notes
2.50 7.00 Nebraska 3.50 9.50
Colorado (wntd.) - - Nevada 17.50 -
7.00 New Hampshire 3.00 8.00
Delaware 3.50 - New Jersey 2.50 7.00
D. C. 3.50
New York 2.50 7.00
Florida 4.00 - North Carolina 2.00 5.00
4.00 Ohio 2.00 -
5.00 - Oklahoma (wntd.) -
Pennsylvania 2.50 7.00
Rhode Island 2.50 7.00
Kansas (wntd.) - South Carolina 1.50 4.00
4.00 Tennessee 2.50 7.00
7.00 Texas (wntd.) - -
5.00 Utah (wntd.) - -
8.00 Vermont 2.50 7.00
2.50 7.00 Virginia 2.00 5.00
12.00 Wisconsin (wntd.) - -
8.00 Wyoming (wntd.) - -
Missouri (wntd.) - -
Type set of notes, including rare $3 note. $1, $2, $3, $5, $10, five pieces all
crisp Uncirculated. Set of 5 notes $13.50.
All items sent postpaid in heavy acetate holder. Satisfaction always guaran-
We wish to purchase quantities of broken bank notes and Texas county notes
and scrip. Send with price wanted.
Hank Bieciuk, Inc.
"America's full-time obsolete currency dealer"