Paper Money - Vol. I, No. 3 - Whole No. 3 - Summer 1962

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R. Rourr a MINCINNVICINVINUMMUNCINCIUMMINNUNCINUMMUffit 3 a 3 SUMMER 1962 tr(i-e/ 4,-/-0 3 OFFICIAL PUBLICATION OF ociety ojf Pripet' Money Collectop,4 MIAMMNIPAMM/BAMMIAMMMIANAMIAMMMMEMANIP.MAIMMNYAMEt Property of SPMC Library 0 R. ROUTE 2 MITCHELL.. IND. VOLUME 1 SUMMER 1962 NUMBER 3 PUBLISHED QUARTERLY BY THE SOCIETY OF PAPER MONEY COLLECTORS Editor Hank Bieciuk Assistant Editors Foster W. Rice, Arlie Slabaugh, Fred R. Marckhoff, C. J. Af fleck, Dwight L. Musser Subscription $3.00 Per Year ADVERTISING RATES One Time Yearly Outside Rear Cover $35.00 $130.00 Inside Front & Rear Cover 32.50 120.00 Full Page 27.50 100.00 Half Page 17.50 60.00 Quarter Page 10.00 35.00 Direct Advertising to the Editor. The Right Is Reserved to Reject Any Advertisement. CONTENTS "Call for Annual Meeting" by Hank Bieciuk PAGE 3 "Jacob Perkins—American Genius" by Arlie R. Slabaugh PAGE 4-5-6 "The Origin of the Provision) Government Drafts of Texas" by John H. Swanson PAGE 6-7 "Query from a Confederate Treasury Note Collector" by Philip H. Chase __PAGE 8 "Puerto Rico Varieties Reported" by Dwight L. Musser PAGE 8 "Some of the Minor Varieties in the Commoner Large Size Notes" by Rev. Frank H. Hutchins PAGE 8-9-10 New Membership PAGE 10-11 society of Paper Iltone9 Collector, OFFICERS — 1962 President Hank Bieciuk First Vice President James J. Curto Second Vice President Thomas C. Bain Secretary George W. Wait Treasurer Glenn B. Smedley APPOINTEES — 1962 Historian-Curator Earl Hughes Attorney Ellis Edlowitz BOARD OF GOVERNORS — 1962 Julian Blanchard, Harold L. Bowen, Ben Douglas, Amon G. Carter, Jr., Philip H. Chase, James Kirkwood, Walter M. Loeb, Dwight L. Musser, Eric P. Newman, William A. Philpott, Jr., Peter Robin. VOL. 1, NO. 3 Paper !honey PAGE 3 Call For Annual Meeting Wednesday, August 15, will be a day to be remembered! On that day, the Society of Paper Money Collectors will hold their first annual meeting. To be held in conjunction with the American Numismatic Association Convention in Detroit, this meeting will afford all paper money collectors an opportunity to meet each other. Many know each other only through correspondence. Geography and the lack of an organization previously prevented paper money collectors to meet and know each other. This has been solved in part by our present society. The rest is up to you Date: Wednesday, August 15 Time: 8:00 P. M. Place: The English Room, Sheraton-Cadillac Hotel, Detroit, Michigan See you in Detroit! Hank Bieciuk, President, Society of Paper Money Collectors PAGE 4 Paper Money VOL. 1, NO. 3 Jacob Perkins - American Genius, by Arlie R. Slabaugli JACOB PERKINS Although such large and excellent one-volume encyclo- pedias as the Columbia Encyclopedia do not today even mention Jacob Perkins, here was one of our truly American geniuses of all time, both numismatic and otherwise. In fact, the diversity of his inventions make one think of an earlier day Thomas Edison. It is to be regretted that he is not better known since he made many valuable inventions in America including the revolution of paper money—then he went to England where he produced a whole new series of inventions; perhaps he was given more recognition there as he never returned to America. Jacob Perkins was born on July 9, 1766 in Newbury- port, Massachusetts, the fifteenth of 20 children. He at- tended school as a child, but when he was 13 and the Revolutionary War had taken most of the able-bodied men from town, he decided it was time to learn a trade. He thereupon entered a 7-year apprenticeship with Edward Davis, a goldsmith and clockmaker. At 15 his master died and he continued the business alone rather than seek a new apprenticeship. While learning the business he made his first invention—a new method of silver plating shoe buckles for the buckle shoes then popular. He seems to have had a natural ingenuity. Even though he was not completely trained before his master died, he became so skillful a die sinker on his own, that at the age of 21, Massachusetts engaged him to cut the dies for its 1787 and 1788 cents and half cents which show an Indian standing on obverse with an eagle on reverse. On November 11, 1790 he married Hannah Greenleaf of Newburyport. They had nine children. It was at about the time of his marriage that he invented a machine for cutting and heading nails in one operation—before that the heads were put on the nails. A company was formed for their production but through mismanagement of his partners the firm failed and he was involved in financial troubles. In 1792 Perkins traveled to Philadelphia to secure a position as die sinker in the newly organized United States Mint but the position went to Joseph Wright. Per- kins' proof of ability was based on his work on the Massa- chusetts' copper and on a pattern dollar, the border of which was done on a jeweler's lathe. The Washington portrait on this dollar was later used by Perkins nor the Washington funeral medals. It was after 1800 that Jacob Perkins began to reach his stride. During the period 1801 to 1816 he obtained 14 U.S. patents on fire engines, pumps, polishing and graining of leather, the manufacture of spoons, etc. As a result, he was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1813. But his principal contribution during this period, and the one known at least by name to many numismatists was his invention of patent steel plates for banknote engraving, or "Perkins' plate notes" as they are often called. These "stereo-type" plates were a major advance in the production of paper money as we know it today. In Colonial times, paper money was printed from cop- per plates. But copper is relatively soft and did not give long printing runs before wearing out. Because of this the plates had to be reproduced frequently and this made it necessary to use comparatively simple designs although it was known that more intricate designs were harder to counterfeit. But intricate designs on copper would have cost too much to reproduce many times, so they were kept simple, which also made it simple for counterfeiters. Jacob Perkins' invention was a hard, long-lasting steel plate that permitted the use of detailed designs and letter- ing, making it difficult for counterfeiters to reproduce with- out special equipment, and saving millions of dollars for the public. Perkins did not invent the hardening and soft- ening of steel but he was the first to successfully apply it to steel engravings. A steel plate was first engraved and hard- ened. A cylinder of soft steel, two to three inches in diameter, was then rolled back and forth across the plate surface until the design of the plate was impressed in the softer metal in reverse. The steel had first been softened by burying it in pure iron filings which were then fired to a white heat for four hours in a tightly closed cast iron box. This removed the carbon from the steel. The cylinder was now ready for hardening which was done by again adding carbon to the steel. In this process it was placed in a box of charcoal powder at just above a red heat for several hours. Afterward it was withdrawn and plunged into cold water and tempered. The hardened cylinder bear- ing the design in reverse could now be rolled on any number of soft steel plates to make a facsimile of the original. One will find many notes printed by Perkins during the early 1800's, particularly in the New England area where he lived. They are generally distinguishable by the use of the denomination repeated over and over in very small letters as a background. Later he invented a means of re- CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE VOL. 1, NO. 3 Pagel' liteney PAGE 5 JACOB PERKINS CONT'D FROM PAGE 4 producing engravings through his invention of the sidero- graphic press, the use of which permits the reproduction of portraits and other engravings on our banknotes to this day. While Mr. Perkins did not eliminate counterfeiting, he did so far reduce it that widespread use of paper money became practical, and the Massachusetts legislature passed a law requiring all State banks to use his process after May 1809. OBVERSE OF EARLY PERKIN'S NOTE. REVERSE OF EARLY PERKIN'S NOTE. After living in Boston and New York for some years, he moved to Philadelphia in 1816 and joined the banknote printing firm of Murray, Draper, Fairman & Co. This firm was already well established and with the addition of Mr. Perkins its reputation was enhanced. I may also add that Christian Gobrecht was employed by this firm at the same time. Some years later after Gobrecht became Chief En- graver of the U. S. Mint, there was a dispute as to who invented the medal-ruling machine, "a device whereby medals, etc., could be engraved directly from the relief face and a plate thus prepared for reproduction on paper." Both Gobrecht and Asa Spencer claimed its invention. Spencer was also associated with Perkins and Gobrecht in the Murray, Draper, Fairman firm. While practical appli- cation of the invention must go to Gobrecht, I believe either he or Spencer got their ideas for it from Perkins. In 1818 Sir Charles Bagot, British Minister to the United States, having heard of their fine work, persuaded the firm to offer their services to the Bank of England which was then having trouble with its notes being coun- terfeited. Mr. Fairman, one of the officers of the firm, Mr. Perkins, Mr. Spencer, and Charles Toppan went to Eng- land for the purpose of obtaining a commission from the Bank of England to print its notes. (Charles Toppan later formed his own banknote firm in 1829. From 1837 to 1840 the firm was "Draper, Toppan, Longacre & Co." Draper was one of the original partners of Murray, Draper, Fair- man & Co. which, in various re-organizations at one time included Spencer in its firm name. Lonacre, of course, is the man who later became Chief Engraver of the U. S. Mint. All of these firms were predecessors of the American Bank Note Co.) In England they produced a number of fine proof notes for various English banks and India, but did not procure the contract for their production. Mr. Perkins wanted too high a price for the use of his patent. A banknote company was formed in England wherein they were joined by Charles Heath, an English engraver, whose family lended financial assistance. This firm, Per- kins, Fairman and Heath was established in 1819 but in 1820 Fairman, Toppan and Spencer returned to America, and the firm name was changed to Perkins and Heath, as Mr. Perkins decided that his future lay in England. This firm prospered as they produced excellent notes consid- ered to be the finest of the day. Later the firm became Perkins, Bacon & Co. They pro- duced many early banknotes around the world, such as Brazil, etc. An important honor belongs to them as in 1840 they received the contract to produce the first postage stamps—the Penny Black. The firm continued in business until 1936. Another printing invention credited to Mr. Perkins is the use of a roller instead of a dauber for more even distri- bution of ink on engraved plates. In physics he is known for his experiments proving the compressibility of water CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE PAGE 6 Paper litche9 VOL. 1, NO. 3 JACOB PERKINS CONT'D FROM PAGE 5 as measured by a piezometer he invented. Other inventions made while in England include refrigeration machinery, a uniflow steam engine, a central hot-air heating system, various steam engines and boilers, ship pumps and other equipment connected with water and steam. He invented an instrument to measure the depth of water, another to measure the speed a vessel moved through water. He even constructed a gun in which steam instead of gunpowder generated the explosive force—with it a shot went through eleven planks of hard wood, each an inch thick. In England Jacob Perkins' inventive genius was recog- nized. By the time of his death on July 30, 1849, 19 British patents had been granted to him and he had received many honors and awards. It is time that we recognize his scien- tific and numismatic contributions, too. The Origin Of The Provisional Government Drafts Of Texas by John H. Swanson The exact sites where civil authority was exercised in Texas during the struggle with Mexico are not always clearly discerned. Hence it does not seem too surprising that we should find collectors of paper items who presume that the drafts issued by the auditor of the Provisional Government were "obviously from Washington on the Brazos" 1 , whereas an ex-governor of the state has asserted that: "The Constitution of 1836, by which the first provis- ional government of Texas was organized, and which represented different municipalities, met at San Felipe de Austin on the Brazos River. That continued to be the meeting place of the executive offices, i. e., the governor, the lieutenant governor, and the members of the Executive Council, of whom there was one for each community, until their powers ceased upon the meeting of the Convention, March 1, 1836."2 The Handbook of Texas, which presents the views of the Texas State Historical Association, places the site of government at San Felipe during the period now being considered, but it does not specifically exclude the possi- bility that one or more civil functionaries could have held forth in some adjacent settlement. The drafts of the Provisional Government were issued during the months of January and February, with all of the extant specimens being signed by John W. Moody and H. C. Hudson. Since there were no other signers or official handlers of the instruments at the time of their preparation, it is clear that any attempt to determine their geographic source could begin and end with determination of the whereabouts of these men during the initial two months of 1836. However, it seems desirable to locate for the reader all of the civil functionaries whose work could have related in any way to the issuance of the drafts we are considering. The General Consultation of 1835 had chosen the gov- ernor and the members of the General Council, but it had not specified the place where they would hold forth. On November 17th the Council voted to move the seat of government from San Felipe to Washington on the Brazos; but Governor Smith vetoed the proposal, and it failed to carry over his veto. 4 Hence, according to one historian, "the seat of government remained at San Felipe until about the 22nd of February, 1836."5 During mid-November the Council had passed on all expenditures, subject to approval of Governor Smith.6 However, on November 24 this arangement was changed, the signature of the chairman of the Finance Committee being all that was required for items to be allowed and paid.7,8 This arrangement was also vetoed by Governor Smith,9 but it may have been put into immediate use, and the measure was passed over the governor's veto on Decem- ber 10.* From that time on Governor Smith was without control over expenditures.10,11 A Treasurer was arranged for, and "a Standing Com- mittee of Public Accounts" was created, which Committee was to "receive, audit, and register all accounts, and report the same each week" to the Counci1. 12 Joshua Fletcher was appointed as Treasurer. However, the Treasury became barren on or about December 23, 13 soon after which date we cease to hear of Mr. Fletcher, and the use of drafts of nonnegotiable type, signed by the auditor and the comp- troller, was instituted as standard monetary practice. The offices of Auditor and Comptroller were arranged for on or near December 26. The first and only auditor to be appointed was John W. Moody, about whom very little has ever been written. Insofar as is known, he held forth at the old municipality headquarters—the "state- house" in the rather metropolitan settlement of San Felipe. He avoided involvement in the factional quarrels of that time, and the quality of his service rendered him acceptable to subsequent administrations as well as to the factions within the Provisional Government. No writer has ever reported Moody's presence in Washington on the Brazos. Whereas the governor, lieutenant governor and officials of the Council turned their records over to the Convention, Moody retained his papers at San Felipe. At some time subsequent to February 29 Moody packed his records and moved out. His whereabouts cannot be reported for the next few months. He became the auditor of the Republic's government at Columbia in October, 1836. While serving there he put his Provisional Government records in proper order, and when Houston became the temporary capitol in 1837 he supervised the transport of his papers to that place. A few months after Lamar became President of the Re- public, Moody left the Treasury Department to open a drug store in Houston. His records were presumed to have been among those which were moved from Houston to Austin by oxen in September and October, 1839. 14 , 15 They apparently survived the Archive War but may have been CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE VOL. 1, NO. 3 Paper I1tehe9 PAGE 7 THE ORIGIN OF THE PROVISIONAL GOV. CONT'D FROM PAGE 6 partially or wholly destroyed in one of the Capitol fires, as that of 1881. The first Comptroller of the Provisional Government seems to have been John H. Mony, 16 but he was replaced by H. C. Hudson in mid-January. The accompanying illustration places him on duty as late as February 29. His desk is presumed to have been in the old statehouse in San Felipe. There are no reports of his ever having been at Washington on the Brazos. He regarded himself as a "con- troller" (see illustration). He served the ad-interim govern- ment at Velasco and was also associated with the Treasury at Columbus, but he soon received appointment as a dis- trict attorney from President Houston, and we hear of him no more in connection with drafts or warrants.17 Governor Smith is known to have still been in San Felipe on February 27. 18 He is not named among early arrivals at Washington by Col. Gray, whose notes give us our most complete single account of the Convention. 1 9 He seems to have arrived in Washington on or about March 1st. Lieutenant Governor Robinson, regarded as "Acting Governor Robinson" by members of the Council after January 10, was reportedly in San Felipe during mid-Feb- ruary. 20 A letter was addressed to him there from Wash- ington on February 26. He is reported to have been among the early arrivals at Washington on February 28 by Col. Gray. Soon after the advent of open breach between Governor Smith and the Council, certain members of the latter body began to depart, as for service in the army, and on January 16 it appeared that a quorum could not be mustered after the following day. The remaining members immediately sought means of keeping the government functional. A resolution was prepared which gave to the auditor and comptroller the independent right to pass on all items of expenditure and issue drafts in payment where the sums involved did not exceed five hundred dollars. Since few if any individual obligations were expected to exceed this amount, the measure would have the effect of turning money matters over to the control of the above two officers. Another measure was prepared which was to create a new committee of the Council, called the "Committee on Finance." It was to consist of the Council president or chairman and of one member of each of the standing com- mittees. This new committee was to be empowered to handle most of the functions formerly handled by the Council. The two resolutions were passed on January 17, and the Council then adjourned, "to meet at Washington on February 22nd." 21 The newly-formed committee con- tinued to meet at San Felipe until February 16, when it also adjourned, to reconvene thereafter at Washington on February 22.22Two members of the Council, being also members of the above committee, are known to have arrived at Washington on or before February 26. 23,24 Their single known act was to write to Robinson, who was still at San Felipe. On February 28 Col. Gray observed only a "fragment of the Council" at Washington.25 During the only study ever made of the source of the Provisional Government drafts it is found that they were issued from San Felipe rather than from Washington on the Brazos, as many collectors have presumed. They were caused to be issued, insofar as extant specimens are con- cerned, by John W. Moody and H. C. Hudson, their signers, who, from January 17 until February 29, inclusive, had virtually complete control over the Government's financial matters. No record was found which indicated that either of these men was ever seen at Washington on the Brazos. The fate of Hudson's records is currently unknown, but Moody's records are traced by way of Co- lumbia and Houston to Austin, where they may have been destroyed in one of the capitol fires. REFERENCES 1. Criswell, G. C., and Criswell, C. L., Confederate and Southern States Currency. Criswell's Currency Series, Vol. 1, 1957, p. 220. 2. Roberts, 0. M., The Capitols of Texas. Quart. Texas State Hist. Assn., Vol. 2, 1892. p. 117. 3. Handbook of Texas (W. P. Webb, et al, Eds.). Texas State Hist. Assn., Austin, Vol. 2, p. 550. 4. Smith, W. R.: The Quarrel between Governor Smith and the Council of the Provisional Government of he Republic. Quart. Texas State Historical Assn., Vol. 5, 1902, p. 291-292. 5. Winkler, E. W.: The Seat of Government in Texas. Quart. Texas Hist. Assn., Vol. 5, 1902, p. 291-292. 6. Gouge, W. M.: The Fiscal History of Texas. Lippen- cott, Grambe and Company, Phila., 1852, p. 24. 7. Smith, op. cit. p. 297-298. 8. Gouge, po. cit., p. 33. 9. Smith, op. cit., p. 310-311. Gouge gives the date of December 12. (Gouge, op. cit., p. 24). 10. Smith op. cit., p. 294. 11. Houston, A. J.: Texas Independence. The Anson Jones Press, Houston, 1938, p. 93. 12. Smith, op. cit., p. 298. 13. Smith, op. cit., p. 304. Gouge gives the date of December 29 for the arrange- ment of these appointments. (Gouge, op. cit., p. 24). 14. Winkler, E. W.: The Seat of Government in Texas. (2) The Permanent Location of the Seat of Govern- ment. Quart. Texas State Hist. Soc., Vol. 10, 1907, p. 234, (Ftn. No. 2) 15. Connor, S. V.: A Preliminary Guide to the Archives of Texas. Southw. Hist. Quart. 59; 1956, p. 256. 16. Steen, R. W.: Analysis of the Work of the General Council, Provisional Government of Texas, 1835-1836. S. W. Hist. Quart. Vol. 41, p. 227. 17. Handbook of Texas, op. cit. Vol. 1, p. 757. 18. Barker, E. C.: Readings in Texas History. Southw. Press, Dallas, 1929, p. 263, (headnote). 19. Gray, W. F. From Virginia to Texas (Quoted by Mar- ques James, in The Raven, Gossett and Dunlap, N. Y., 1929, pp. 224, 225). 20. Houston, A. J., op. cit., pp. 110, 118. 21. Smith, op. cit., p. 335. 22. Winkler, op. cit., p. 151 23. Conner, op. cit., p. 227. 24. Winkler, op. cit., p. 151. 25. Gray, loc. sit. PAGE 8 Pape/. I1tette9 VOL. 1, NO. 3 Query From A Confederate Treasury Note Collector by Philip H. Chase Does any member of SOPMC have a specimen of the $100 Confederate Treasury note, July 25, 1861 issue, with "for Treas'r" printed twice? This variety has appeared in various listings over many years. Bradbeer's book (1915) shows it as No. 18, with serial letter "B," and even gives note numbers 3726 to 4026. The undersigned, because of Bradbeer's explicit "say- so," though never having seen one, listed it as No. 112C in his book "Confederate Treasury Notes" published in 1947. He now has reason to doubt the accuracy of Brad- beer's listing and asks for information from anyone having a note or notes meeting the above description. He would especially appreciate the opportunity to examine such notes. Philip H. Chase Puerto Rican Varieties Reported, by Dwight L Musser The recently published Whitman reference series book- let, The Money of Puerto Rico, will be of interest to col- lectors of paper money. Although the bulk of the contents pertains to coins, the authors included such information as was available to them on paper money issued in Puerto Rico. Thirteen different types of notes are illustrated and a few others mentioned. The appearance of the book has stimulated collectors to "compare notes" by checking over their own collections and looking up additional informa- tion. Some supplementary data has come to light which will no doubt be included if the booklet comes out in a revised edition. Sr. Leon Burstyn, of Santiago, Chile, found a reference to a note which seems to be the Five Dollar companion to the Ten Dollar note illustrated on page 80. He states that such a note is illustrated and described in a book called La Moneda y los Sistemas Monetarios de Todos los Paises (The Money and Monetary Systems of All Countries) by Constantino de Horta y Prado, published in Havana in 1914. The description of the note leaves little doubt but that it is of the same series as the Bank of Porto Rico note, No. 510 in the Whitman book. The dimensions are given as 184 x 80 cm. which check out to practically the same size as the 7 1/4 x 3 1/4 inches given for the Ten Dollar de- nomination. Collectors should not be greatly surprised if other de- nominations are found to exist, although it is possible that only the Five and Ten Dollar values were printed. Since the notes were produced by the American Bank Note Com- pany, it can be surmised that additional information exists in the company records, but these are not normally avail- ble to the numismatic researcher. Gordon Dodrill of Pittsburgh reports having a note of El Banco Espanol de Puerto Rico, Five Pesos, 1 Diciembre, 1894. This is apparently the same type as No. 505 pictured on page 75 of the Whitman booklet except that the date shows the notes to have been have issued earlier than 1896. The final story of Puerto Rican paper money remains to be written. This is just another example of the never ending search for information which confronts the collec- tor of paper money, but this, after all, is what makes the game interesting, challenging and worthwhile. Some Of The Minor Varieties In The Commoner Large Size Notes, by Rev. Frank H. Hutchins With the exception of the Onepapa five-dollar silver certificates, the reverses of all the notes from the terms of office of Lyons and Roberts to those of Elliott and Burke are uniform for each series, but in the terms of office of Elliott and White there were changes made throughout all the lower denominations. In the case of the Onepapas, a change had been made during the terms of office of Tee- hee and Burke—slight, but readily perceived. The plate number, which had been definitely inside the leaf in the upper right-hand corner of the reverse, was dropped at this time to a position definitely under the leaf. During the time of Elliott and White, however, it was shifted to a position inside the leaf at the upper left-hand corner. At this time, the following changes were made in the reverses of the other silver certificates and the legal tender notes: On the $1.00 legal tenders the plate number was shifted from the bottom of the space at the left of the reverse to a position on the right-hand side of that space. On the $2.00 legal tenders it was shifted from the left- hand corner of the triangle at the left to the bottom of the triangle. CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE VOL. 1. NO. 3 Paper iltette9 PAGE 9 SOME OF THE MINOR VARIETIES... CONT'D FROM PAGE 8 On the $5.00 legal tenders it was shifed from the top of the space at the left to a position on the left-hand side of that space, and on the $10.00 legal tenders it was shifted from the lower right-hand corner to the lower left-hand corner of the note. On the $1.00 silver certificates it was shifted from a position inside the central design to the lower right-hand corner of the note, and on the $2.00 silver certificates it was shifted from the lower right-hand corner to the lower left. These changes seem to have been made once for all in the case of the legal tender twos and fives and the $5.00 silver certificates, but both varieties to have been preserved in the case of the one-dollar notes, and apparently the legal tender fives. Much earlier than this, however, changes were made in the obverses of all these series. Friedberg notes the addi- tion of a monogram at the right of the legal tender dollar notes of 1862, but these are only two of five varieties. The first reads, "NATIONAL BANK NOTE COMPANY— American Bank Note Company," and has the lower left- hand serial number in the seal. The second has the serial number shifted to its position across the figure 1 in the lower left-hand corner and the monogram added. The third reads " NATIONAL BANK NOTE COMPANY— NA- TIONAL BANK NOTE COMPANY," and keeps the mon- ogram. The fourth leaves out the mongram again, and the fifth shifts the number of the series from the left to the right of "ACT OF JULY 11TH 1862." On the legal tender fives the number, which had been under the right-hand check letter, was shifted, during the terms of office of Teehee and Burke, to a position after the, letter, and the same change was made on the legal tender tens and silver twos, while on the silver fives it was shifted from a position under the left-hand check letter to a posi- tion after the right-hand one. The change on the obverses of the $1.00 silver certif- icates was different, consisting of a shift of the words "SERIES OF 1899" from a position above the upper right- hand serial number to a position under it during the terms of office of Lyons and Roberts and its shift again, when Napier took office, to a position running down the right- hand side of the note. I have noticed no changes on either the obverse or the reverse of the silver tens or either of the twenties. The following table, then, shows the variations I have found, and I'd be more than happy to discover that it's incomplete by having other subvarieties discovered. I hope the publishers will note them and apprise me of them if they're notified of any that the readers find among their notes, and hope that many will be interested in discovering and reporting new varieties. It's my personal feeling that that's what numismatics is. I've used a fairly simple key, the part before the hyphen referring to the obverse and that after it referring to the reverse. Minute varieties are incidental. Only deliberate changes of position are considered relevant. But these I have discovered, and I'd welcome anybody finding any more. KEY OBVERSES ul—plate number under left- hand check letter. ur—plate number under right-hand check letter. ar—plate number after right-hand check letter. osn—"SERIES OF 1899." over the serial number in the upper right corner. usn—"SERIES OF 1899." under the serial number in the upper right corner. s—"SERIES OF 1899." running down the right-hand side of the note. REVERSES b—plate number at the bottom of the space at the left. t—plate number at the top of the space at the left. r—plate number at the right-hand side of the space at the left. 1—plate number at the left-hand side of the space at the left. icd—plate number inside the central design. h.—plate number in the lower right-hand corner of the note. 11—plate number in the lower left-hand corner of the note. it—plate number inside leaf in the upper right-hand cor- ner. ur--plate number under leaf in the upper right-hand cor- ner. il—plate number inside leaf in the upper left-hand corner. THE FOLLOWING VARIETIES ARE KNOWN TO EXIST: LEGAL TENDER NOTES: Friedberg 36—Teehee-Burke $1.00 37—Elliott-Burke $1.00 38—Elliott-White $1.00 ar-b ar-b ar-b ar-r 39—Speelman-White $1.00 ar-b ar-r 57—Teehee-Burke $2.00 ar-I 58—Elliott-Burke $2.00 ar-1 CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE PAGE 10 Paper Mette9 VOL. 1, NO. 3 KEY CONTD FROM PAGE 9 59-Elliott-White $2.00 ar-1 ar-b 60-Speelman-White $2.00 ar-b 83-Vernon-Treat $5.00 ur-t 84-Vernon-McClung $5.00 ur-t 85-Napier-McClung $5.00 ur-t 86-Napier-Thompson $5.00 ur-t 87-Parker-Burke $5.00 ur-t 88-Teehee-Burke $5.00 ur-t ar-t 89-Elliott-Burket $5.00 ar-t ar-1 90-Elliott-White $5.00 ar-t ar-1 SILVER 91-Speelman-White $5.00 ar-1 92-Woods-White $5.00 ar-1 114-Lyons-Roberts $10.00 ur-lr 115-Lyons-Treat $10.00 ur-lr 116-Vernon-Treat $10.00 ur-lr 117-Vernon-McClung $10.00 ur-lr 118-Napier-McClung $10.00 ur-lr 119-Parker-Burke $10.00 ur-Ir 120-Teehee-Burke $10.00 ur-lr 121-Elliott-White $10.00 ar-Ir 122-Speelman-White $10.00 ar-lr ar-II CERTIFICATES: Friedberg 226-Lyons-Roberts $1.00 osn-icd usn-icd 227-Lyons-Treat $1.00 usn-icd 228-Vernon-Treat $1.00 usn- icd 229-Vernon-McClung $1.00 usn-icd 230-Napier-McClung $1.00 s-icd 231-Napier- Thompson $1.00 s-icd 232-Parker-Burke $1.00 s-icd 233-Teehee-Burke $1.00 s-icd 234-Elliott-Burke $1.00 s-icd 235-Elliott-White $1.00 s-icd s-lr 236-Speelman-White $1.00 s-icd s-Ir 249-Lyons-Roberts $2.00 ur-lr 250-Lyons-Treat $2.00 ur-lr 251-Vernon-Treat $2.00 ur-Ir 252-Vernon-McClung $2.00 ur-lr 253-Napier-McClung $2.00 ur-lr There should be other notes. There certainly should be a Teehee-Burke $5.00 Onepapa with the obverse plate number under the left-hand check letter and the reverse plate number inside-not completely under-the leaf in the upper right-hand corner, and there might well be an Elliott-White buffalo ten with the reverse plate number in the lower left, a Speelman-White capitol two with the reverse plate number at the left-hand side of the space at the left, or a Speelman-White pioneer family five with 254-Napier-Thompson $2.00 ur-lr 255-Parker-Burke $2.00 ur-Ir 256-Teehee-Burke $2.00 ur-lr ar-lr 257-Elliott-Burke $2.00 ar-lr 258-Speelman-White $2.00 ar-lr ar-11 271-Lyons-Roberts $5.00 ul-ir 272-Lyons-Treat $5.00 ul-ir 273-Vernon-Treat $5.00 ul-ir 274-Vernon-McClung $5.00 ul-ir 275-Napier-McClung $5.00 ul-ir 276-Napier-Thompson $5.00 ul-ir 277-Parker-Burke $5.00 ul-ir 278-Teehee-Burke $5.00 ar-ir ul-ur ar-ur 279-Elliott-Burke $5.00 ar-ur 280-Elliott-White $5.00 ar-ur ar-il 281-Speelman-White $5.00 ar-il it at the top of the space. I do hope this will move collectors to examining their notes more carefully, perhaps discover- ing some new variety, and I myself should be extremely glad of information leading to revisions in my list. If even those who don't collect these large size notes would look, whenever they have opportunity, at dealers' stocks, they too might make discoveries, and I'd be graeful to whoever bought for me a subvariety not on the list, and glad to give, in reason, anything he asks for his trouble. New Membership Roster 420 Guy L. Libby, 6021 North Figueroa, Los Angeles 42, California C-D U.S. Coins and Currency 421 Harold C. Johnson, 4212 Kings Court, Jacksonville, Florida C U.S. Currency and Broken Bank Notes 422 Paul A. Younce, 5010 Daleview Avenue, Temple City, California C U.S. and Foreign Obsolete Currency 423 George W. Killian, 162 Seneca Road, Rochester 22, New York C U.S. Coins and Currency 424 Henry 0. Nouss, Box 2775, Hamilton Station, Pompano C General Beach, Florida 425 Cliff J. Murk, Box 131, Agate Beach, Oregon C CSA, Southern States, Colonial and Broken Banks VOL, 1. NO. 3 Paper Money, PAGE 11 426 Philip A. Stewart, 409 South 5th Street, Missoula, Montana C U.S. and Obsolete 427 R. H. Porter, P. 0. Box 406, Austin, Texas C CSA - Texas - Southern States 428 W. M. Morison, Box 3277, Waco, Texas D Texas 429 Thomas B. Ross, P. 0. Box 255, Norwalk, Connecticut C-D All Fields, Especially U.S. Small Notes 430 Meredity L. Young, RFD. No. 1, Box 520, Oberlin, Ohio C U.S. Currency 431 Ted Rogers, 3933 Main Avenue, Norwood 12, Ohio D All Types of Paper Money 432 Carl DiFalco, 12100 Robertson Cleveland 5, Ohio C U.S. Currency 433 Robert W. Chilcote, 706 Johnson Avenue, Beford, Ohio C U.S. Currency CORRECTIONS OF PREVIOUSLY PUBLISHED LISTS: 120 Alfred D. Hoch, 18 Irving Avenue, Natick, Massa- chusetts 130 Charles T. Heaton, 135 Kensington Place, Syracuse 10, New York 147 David I. Strahan, Apt. 1, 328 Bellevue Avenue E., Seattle 2, Washington 193 C. Elizabeth Osmun, 418 Acorn Avenue, Telford, Penn- sylvania 195 George B. Schwarz, 3785 Northampton, Cleveland Heights 21, Ohio 312 Richard D. Brandt, 452 Sutton Avenue, Hackensack, New Jersey ADDENDA: WANTED • Obsolete and Broken Bank Notes • Canadian Obsolete Notes • Sutler Notes • Colonial and Continental Notes of Southern Colonies • Uncut Sheets • Or . . . What Have You? B. M. Douglas 402 Twelfth St. N. W. Washington 4, D. C. WANTED Buy or Trade Virginia Colonial, Broken Bank, State, County, Town Notes and Bonds Charles J. Affleck 34 Peyton Street Winchester, Virginia Can Use-- Large U. S. Currency $1.00, $2.00, $5.00 & $10 Notes Can Use Up To 100 Pieces (or more) of Each Denomination. These Are Not for Collectors, But Must Be Nice, VG—F or Better. A. Hege/ Wanted to buy notes of EL BANCO DE PANAMA 1880 or will trade notes of ESTADO SOBERANO DE PANAMA 1865 for them. James B. Shaffer Box 1335 Balboa, Canal Zone Box 959 Indio, Calif. BROKEN BANK NOTES The most colorful of all paper money issued. The notes are masterpieces of art and engraving. Even if you do not collect paper money, a few of these notes will dress up any collection. All notes are of our choice and will range from Fine to Uncirculated. Early orders receive the best notes. Buy a few from your home state! 3 Diff. 3 Diff. State Each Notes State Each Notes Alabama 2.50 7.00 Nebraska 3.50 9.50 Colorado (wntd.) - - Nevada 17.50 - Connecticut 2.50 7.00 New Hampshire 3.00 8.00 Delaware 3.50 - New Jersey 2.50 7.00 D. C. 3.50 New York 2.50 7.00 Florida 4.00 - North Carolina 2.00 5.00 Georgia 1.50 4.00 Ohio 2.00 - Illinois 5.00 - Oklahoma (wntd.) - Indiana 3.00 Pennsylvania 2.50 7.00 Iowa 4.50 Rhode Island 2.50 7.00 Kansas (wntd.) - South Carolina 1.50 4.00 Louisiana 1.50 4.00 Tennessee 2.50 7.00 Maine 2.50 7.00 Texas (wntd.) - - Maryland 2.00 5.00 Utah (wntd.) - - Massachusetts 3.00 8.00 Vermont 2.50 7.00 Michigan 2.50 7.00 Virginia 2.00 5.00 Minnesota 4.50 12.00 Wisconsin (wntd.) - - Mississippi 3.00 8.00 Wyoming (wntd.) - - Missouri (wntd.) - - SPECIAL Type set of notes, including rare $3 note. $1, $2, $3, $5, $10, five pieces all crisp Uncirculated. Set of 5 notes $13.50. All items sent postpaid in heavy acetate holder. Satisfaction always guaran- teed. WANTED We wish to purchase quantities of broken bank notes and Texas county notes and scrip. Send with price wanted. Hank Bieciuk, Inc. ANA TNA "America's full-time obsolete currency dealer" Phone 6414 Box 1235 Kilgore, Texas Property of SPMC Library (blank page)