Paper Money - Vol. LVI, No. 2 - Whole No. 308 - March/April 2017

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Table of Contents

The 1st National Bank of Princeton, MN--Shawn Hewitt

Uncoupled--Joe Bowling & Fred Schwan

Brazil's National Treasury Notes--Carlson Chambliss

Venable's Hotel, Huntsville, AL--David Hollander

Mystery of Face Plate 307 Solved--Jamie Yakes

$500 Counterfeit Program--Bob Ayers

Treasury Signatures on National Bank Notes--Peter Huntoon

Paper Money Vol. LVI, No. 2, Whole No. 308 March/April 2017 Official Journal of the Society of Paper Money Collectors Lucius Chittenden Who signed your National? B(lanche) K(elso) Bruce A(lbert) U. Wyman E(nos) H(ook) Nebeker William Tecumseh Vernon William Starke Rosecrans James Carroll Napier A masterful and massive, years long research project by Peter Huntoon outlines them by bank! Terms and Conditions  PAPER MONEY (USPS 00-3162) is published every other month beginning in January by the Society of Paper Money Collectors (SPMC), 711 Signal Mt. Rd #197, Chattanooga, TN 37405. Periodical postage is paid at Hanover, PA. Postmaster send address changes to Secretary Jeff Brueggeman, 711 Signal Mtn. Rd, #197, Chattanooga, TN 37405. ©Society of Paper Money Collectors, Inc. 2014. All rights reserved. Reproduction of any article in whole or part without written approval is prohibited. Individual copies of this issue of PAPER MONEY are available from the secretary for $8 postpaid. Send changes of address, inquiries concerning non - delivery and requests for additional copies of this issue to the secretary. PAPER MONEY  Official Bimonthly Publication of The Society of Paper Money Collectors, Inc. Vol. LVI, No. 2 Whole No. 308 March/April 2017 ISSN 0031-1162 MANUSCRIPTS Manuscripts not under consideration elsewhere and publications for review should be sent to the Editor. Accepted manuscripts will be published as soon as possible, however publication in a specific issue cannot be guaranteed. Include an SASE if acknowledgement is desired. Opinions expressed by authors do not necessarily reflect those of the SPMC. Manuscripts should be submitted in WORD format via email ( or by sending memory stick/disk to the editor. Scans should be grayscale or color JPEGs at 300 dpi. Color illustrations may be changed to grayscale at the discretion of the editor. Do not send items of value. Manuscripts are submitted with copyright release of the author to the Editor for duplication and printing as needed. ADVERTISING All advertising on space available basis. Copy/correspondence should be sent to editor. All advertising is payable in advance. All ads are accepted on a “good faith” basis. Terms are “Until Forbid.” Ads are Run of Press (ROP) unless accepted on a premium contract basis. Limited premium space/rates available. To keep rates to a minimum, all advertising must be prepaid according to the schedule below. In exceptional cases where special artwork, or additional production is required, the advertiser will be notified and billed accordingly. Rates are not commissionable; proofs are not supplied. SPMC does not endorse any company, dealer or auction house. Advertising Deadline: Subject to space availability, copy must be received by the editor no later than the first day of the month preceding the cover date of the issue (i.e. Feb. 1 for the March/April issue). Camera ready art or electronic ads in pdf format are required. ADVERTISING RATES Space 1 Time 3 Times 6 Times Fullcolor covers $1500 $2600 $4900 B&W covers 500 1400 2500 Fullpagecolor 500 1500 3000 Full page B&W 360 1000 1800 Halfpage B&W 180 500 900 Quarter page B&W 90 250 450 Eighthpage B&W 45 125 225 Required file submission format is composite PDF v1.3 (Acrobat 4.0 compatible). If possible, submitted files should conform to ISO 15930-1: 2001 PDF/X-1a file format standard. Non-standard, application, or native file formats are not acceptable. Page size: must conform to specified publication trim size. Page bleed: must extend minimum 1/8” beyond trim for page head, foot, front. Safety margin: type and other non-bleed content must clear trim by minimum 1/2” Advertising copy shall be restricted to paper currency, allied numismatic material, publications and related accessories. The SPMC does not guarantee advertisements, but accepts copy in good faith, reserving the right to reject objectionable or inappropriate material or edit copy. The SPMC assumes no financial responsibility for typographical errors in ads, but agrees to reprint that portion of an ad in which a typographical error occurs upon prompt notification. Benny Bolin, Editor Editor Email— Visit the SPMC website— The 1st National Bank of Princeton, MN Shawn Hewitt .................................................................. 88 Uncoupled—Joe Boling & Fred Schwan ................................. 93 Brazil’s National Treasury Notes Carlson Chambliss ......................................................... 99 Venable’s Hotel, Huntsville, AL David Hollander .............................................................. 106 Small Notes—Mystery of Face Plate 307 Solved Jamie Yakes ................................................................... 114 New Members ........................................................................ 115 Interesting Mining Notes--David Schwenkman ...................... 116 Obsolete Corner--Robert Gill ................................................. 118 Chump Change--Loren Gatch ................................................ 122 Presidents Message .............................................................. 123 Editor’s Report ....................................................................... 124 $500 Counterfeit Program Bob Ayers ....................................................................... 125 Treasury Signatures on National Bank Notes Peter Huntoon ................................................................128 Money Mart .............................................................................. 170 ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 85 Pierre Fricke—Buying and Selling Confederate and Obsolete Money!  P.O. Box 1094, Sudbury, MA 01776;;  And many more CSA, Southern and Obsolete Bank Notes for sale ranging from $10 to five figures  Society of Paper Money Collectors Officers and Appointees ELECTED OFFICERS: PRESIDENT--Pierre Fricke, Box 1094, Sudbury, MA 01776 VICE-PRESIDENT--Shawn Hewitt, P.O. Box 580731, Minneapolis, MN 55458-0731 SECRETARY—Jeff Brueggeman, 711 Signal Mtn., Rd. #197, Chattanooga, TN 37405 TREASURER --Bob Moon, 104 Chipping Court, Greenwood, SC 29649 BOARD OF GOVERNORS: Mark Anderson, 115 Congress St., Brooklyn, NY 11201 Jeff Brueggeman,711 Signal Mtn. Rd #197, Chattanooga, TN Gary J. Dobbins, 10308 Vistadale Dr., Dallas, TX 75238 Pierre Fricke, Box 1094, Sudbury, MA 01776 Loren Gatch 2701 Walnut St., Norman, OK 73072 Shawn Hewitt, P.O. Box 580731, Minneapolis, MN 55458-0731 Scott Lindquist, Box 2175, Minot, ND 58702 Michael B. Scacci, 216-10th Ave., Fort Dodge, IA 50501-2425 Robert Vandevender, P.O. Box 1505, Jupiter, FL 33468-1505 Wendell A. Wolka, P.O. Box 5439, Sun City Ctr., FL 33571 Joshua Herbstman, Box 351759, Palm Coast, FL 32135 Fred Maples, 7517 Oyster Bay Way, Montgomery Village, MD 20886 Vacant APPOINTEES: PUBLISHER-EDITOR---- Benny Bolin, 5510 Bolin Rd. Allen, TX 75002 EDITOR EMERITUS--Fred Reed, III ADVERTISING MANAGER--Wendell A. Wolka, Box 5439 Sun City Center, FL 33571 LEGAL COUNSEL--Robert J. Galiette, 3 Teal Ln., Essex, CT 06426 LIBRARIAN--Jeff Brueggeman, 711 Signal Mountain Rd. # 197, Chattanooga, TN 37405 MEMBERSHIP DIRECTOR--Frank Clark, P.O. Box 117060, Carrollton, TX, 75011-7060 IMMEDIATE PAST PRESIDENT- - Mark Anderson, 115 Congress St., Brooklyn, NY 11201 WISMER BOOK PROJECT COORDINATOR--Pierre Fricke, Box 1094, Sudbury, MA 01776 REGIONAL MEETING COORDINATOR  The Society of Paper Money Collectors was organized in 1961 and incorporated in 1964 as a non-profit organization under the laws of the District of Columbia. It is affiliated with the ANA. The Annual Meeting of the SPMC is held in June at the International Paper Money Show. Information about the SPMC, including the by-laws and activities can be found at our website, .The SPMC does not does not endorse any dealer, company or auction house. MEMBERSHIP—REGULAR and LIFE. Applicants must be at least 18 years of age and of good moral character. Members of the ANA or other recognized numismatic societies are eligible for membership. Other applicants should be sponsored by an SPMC member or provide suitable references. MEMBERSHIP—JUNIOR. Applicants for Junior membership must be from 12 to 17 years of age and of good moral character. Their application must be signed by a parent or guardian. Junior membership numbers will be preceded by the letter “j” which will be removed upon notification to the secretary that the member has reached 18 years of age. Junior members are not eligible to hold office or vote. DUES—Annual dues are $39. Dues for members in Canada and Mexico are $45. Dues for members in all other countries are $60. Life membership—payable in installments within one year is $800 for U.S.; $900 for Canada and Mexico and $1000 for all other countries. The Society no longer issues annual membership cards, but paid up members may request one from the membership director with an SASE. Memberships for all members who joined the S o c i e t y prior to January 2010 are on a calendar year basis with renewals due each December. Memberships for those who joined since January 2010 are on an annual basis beginning and ending the month joined. All renewals are due before the expiration date which can be found on the label of Paper Money. Renewals may be done via the Society website or by check/money order sent to the secretary. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 86 800.458.4646 West Coast Office • 800.566.2580 East Coast Office 1231 E. Dyer Road, Suite 100, Santa Ana, CA 92705 • 949.253.0916 123 West 57th Street, New York, NY 10019 • 212.582.2580 • California • New York • New Hampshire • Hong Kong • Paris SBG PM MarBalt2017 170210 America’s Oldest and Most Accomplished Rare Coin Auctioneer Showcase Auctions Peter A. Treglia LM #1195608 John M. Pack LM # 5736 Peter A. Treglia John M. Pack Brad Ciociola Peter A. Treglia Aris Maragoudakis John M. Pack Brad Ciociola Manning Garrett Consign U.S. material to our June 2017 Summer Baltimore Auction! Auction: June 21-24, 2017 • Consignment Deadline: April 25, 2017 Call one of our currency consignment specialists to discuss opportunities for upcoming auctions. They will be happy to assist you every step of the way. 800.458.4646 West Coast Office • 800.566.2580 East Coast Office Dallas, TX. $50 1929 Ty. 2. Fr. 1803-2. Mercantile NB. Charter #13743. PMG Choice Uncirculated 64. Fr. 181. 1880 $100 Legal Tender Note. PMG Very Fine 30 Net. Fr. 1601. 1928A $1 Silver Certificate. Solid Serial Number T33333333A. PMG Choice Uncirculated 63EPQ. Fr. 2180-F. 2006 $100 Federal Reserve Note. Test Note Error. PMG Choice Uncirculated 64EPQ. San Francisco, CA. $5 1902 Red Seal. Fr. 587. Citizens NB. Charter #7713. PMG Very Fine 25. Medicine Lodge, Kansas. $5 1882 Brown Back. Fr. 467. The First NB. Charter #3253. PMG Very Fine 30. Serial Number 1. Honolulu, HI. $100 1929 Ty. 1. Fr. 1804-1. Bishop FNB. Charter #5550. PMG About Uncirculated 55. Stack’s Bowers Galleries Official Auction of the Whitman Coin and Collectibles Expo Auction & Lot Viewing March 29-31, 2017 • Baltimore, Maryland We invite you to join us in Baltimore for another outstanding auction of U.S. currency, including these standout highlights. Make your plans now to enjoy the excitement of the live auction in Baltimore, or bid online at! • 1% credit back on all currency purchases through the Kagin’s Auction Loyalty ProgramTM • Free memberships in the Society of Paper Money Collectors • Free grading from PMG Order your free catalog, phone 888-852-4467, or e-mail Come join us at the Orange County Conventi on Center Room W240C or bid online at aucti KAGIN’S AUCTIONS Lot 3239 Fr. 2408. 1928 $1,000 Gold Certifi cate. PMG Choice About Uncirculated 58. Lot 3021 SC-158. February 8, 1779. $90 Colonial Note. PMG About Uncirculated 55 EPQ. Lot 3038 T-32, PF-1. 1861 $5 Confederate Note. PMG Very Fine 30. Lot 3115 Palatka, Florida. Palatka Atlantic NB. Fr. 1801-1. 1929 $10 Type I. Charter 13214. PMG Very Fine 25. Serial Number 1. Lot 3135 Tampa, Florida. American NB. Fr. 624. 1902 $10 Plain Back. Charter 7153. PMG Fine 12 Net. Foreign Substance, Paper Damage. Lot 3140 Lincoln, Illinois. The First National Bank. 1865 $2 Original Series, Charter 2126. PCGS Very Choice New 64 PPQ. Lot 3159 Fr. 107. 1880 $10 Legal Tender Note. PMG Superb Gem Uncirculated 69 EPQ. Lot 3185 Fr. 263. 1886 $5 Silver Certifi cate. PMG Gem Uncirculated 66 EPQ. Lot 3187 Fr. 263. 1886 $5 Silver Certifi cate. PMG Choice Uncirculated 64. Lot 3237 Fr. 2231-B. 1934 $10,000 Federal Reserve Note. New York. PCGS Apparent Choice New 63. Pinholes Filled. Ex: Binion’s Hoard. Kagins PM ANA Curr 02-07-17 Presents CURRENCY HIGHLIGHTS From the Offi cial ANA Nati onal Money Show Aucti on MARCH 9-10 | ORLANDO, FL Kagin-PM-ANA-Curr-02-04-17.indd 2 2/7/17 10:38 AM     The First National Bank of Princeton, Minnesota Charter 4807 by R. Shawn Hewitt   $5 1882 Brown Back (#2) issued by The First National Bank of Princeton, Minnesota (charter 4807) signed by S. S Petterson, cashier and Frank Hense, president. Princeton Brown Back (#593) signed by George Newbert, assistant cashier and T. H. Caley, vice president. History: The Bank The First National Bank of Princeton, Minnesota (charter 4807) was one of the shortest lived national banks in the state, having been organized on October 18, 1892 and liquidating just 14 months later on December 18, 1893. Recent research in a contemporary newspaper, the Princeton Union, reveals the story of this esoteric institution. Frank Hense became president of the Mille Lacs County Bank in July 1890. It was the first and only bank in this rural and sparsely populated county, and Hense saw opportunities for growth as the local agricultural economy expanded. While Hense called the Princeton area his home, he frequently traveled west to Centralia, Washington to nurture other businesses, including another banking enterprise, The First National Bank of Centralia. On the local scene, competition in the banking business ramped up dramatically in the summer of 1892. When Hense heard talk of another bank being organized in town, backed by many of the town’s leading citizens, he upped the stakes and opted to go national. The Citizens State Bank opened before Hense could fully convert his operations into a national bank, but only by a few weeks. The First National Bank of Princeton was capitalized at $50,000 while the competition was much smaller. It opened under the new title on ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 88 Monday, October 31, 1892. While Hense tended to business in Centralia, cashier Swan S. Petterson managed the operations. It did not take long for the first shipment of National Currency to arrive in Princeton. National bank notes promoting the home town would be yet another competitive edge, and Petterson took advantage of the free advertising that came with them in an eye catching story in the Union on December 8: A pile of sheets of five dollar bills several inches high lying on the paper cutter in the Union office last Saturday morning excited the cupidity of the editor, and had it not been for the restraining presence of Cashier Petterson of the First National Bank the editorial “we” might have turned up missing. The “boodle” in question had just been received from Washington by the First National, and as the notes were printed in sheets of four Mr. Petterson utilized our keen-bladed paper-cutter in severing and trimming the same. The notes bear date of Oct. 18, 1892 and are signed by S. S. Petterson as cashier and T. H. Caley as vice president of the bank, and on the upper left hand corner of the note is an excellent vignette of the late President Garfield. We volunteered to take charge of the currency but Cashier Petterson declined our offier with thanks. While the First National Bank had bragging rights for its financial power, its physical presence did not carry the same weight. The structure did not compare well to the newly built two-story Citizens State Bank, a vignette of which proudly appeared on its newspaper advertisements immediately adjacent to Hense’s ads. The dry spring and summer of 1893 led to predictable events in many small towns. Old wood-framed buildings were susceptible to fire, and late in the evening on Thursday, August 3 a business block of downtown Princeton was victimized. The inferno claimed several businesses. The brick walls of the First National Bank proved to be a flimsy barrier to the progression of the fire that night. The bank building was a total loss, but the safe withstood the ravages and kept its vital records intact, and saved its remaining inventory of national bank notes. Within days a makeshift office of the bank was established within the same building as the Citizens State Bank. The newspaper was quick to point out that the two institutions had not consolidated, but that negotiations were pending to that end. Hense came to the conclusion that continued competition in the face of this loss would not be a productive use of his capital. He sold his interest and merged the First National Bank in November, and in the reorganization, cashier Petterson was promoted to president of the new Citizens State Bank. This began a turbulent period of time for Frank Hense. A year later he closed his national bank in Centralia. He returned to Minnesota in 1895 to open a bank in Aitkin, about 75 miles due north of Princeton. While in Aitkin he was indicted by a grand jury in Washington State on the charge of larceny in connection with his failed Washington bank, although Minnesota Governor Clough refused the demand for extradition. Hense resigned his position with the Aitkin County Bank in 1897. He continued to live in Aitkin for the remainder of his life, being a judge of probate, occasionally stopping in Princeton to see his old friends, as observed by the Union. Swan S. Petterson took a page from the Hense play book and converted his state bank into the second First National Bank of Princeton (charter 7708) in 1905. He was president of the bank until it closed in the Great Depression. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 89 Statistics: The Issue The First National Bank, while capitalized at $50,000, opted to maintain a minimal circulation of only $11,250. This was accomplished with an initial shipment of 562 ½ sheets (2,250 notes) of $5 Series of 1882 Brown Backs, the only denomination and type employed by the bank. Another 35 ½ sheets (142 notes) were delivered to the bank in the summer of 1893 to replace worn notes that were returned for redemption, totaling 598 sheets (2,392 notes) with bank serial numbers 1-598. After the bank closed, its outstanding circulation continued to decline, as noted in the books of the Comptroller of the Currency. In 1910, the last year for which the circulation was tracked, it had the smallest outstanding circulation of any Minnesota bank, at only $105 or just 21 $5 notes. Collector’s Experience: The Notes A note from charter 4807 was on my want list the first day I discovered (in the late 1970s) that Princeton had a national bank, being one of only three note- issuing banks in Mille Lacs County, Minnesota, where I was born and grew up. I did not realize at that time how greatly the odds would be stacked against me in this quest. I learned that surviving national bank notes from charter 4807 were found only in the dreams in serious collectors. John Hickman’s records (in the late 1980s) had a notation of single well circulated note with no serial number recorded, but no collector had seen it and there was no confirmation of a note in existence. With a miniscule outstanding circulation in 1910, how could any notes have survived for collectors to appreciate? I thought I would never live to see a note from this elusive home county bank. The unthinkable happened in a 2006 Lyn Knight auction. The first ever national to publically appear on charter 4807 was offered to the collecting community. Thought to be unique, the note fetched over $20,000. The winning bid was well over my budget and the note became part of Gil Sem’s comprehensive Minnesota collection. It bore bank serial number 2 and was signed by Frank Hense and S. S. Petterson. Interestingly, a note from the short-lived First National Bank of Centralia, Washington, also signed by Hense, was offered in that same sale. Apparently a descendant of Frank Hense decided to sell these keepsakes. The dots were not all connected at that time, but this number 2 note would be the first of a small but powerful storm of notes to surface. Only a few months later, at the ANA convention in Denver, I was walking the show. That in itself was serendipity, as the convention happened to be coincident to an already-planned vacation in Colorado. Among the dealer showcases was a collection of Minnesota national bank notes which looked vaguely familiar. Dead in the center of one case was another $5 Brown Back on Princeton. This one was serial number 593, from the “A” plate position, and signed by George Newbert as assistant cashier and T. H. Caley as vice president. After frantic searching for the dealer in charge, it was none other than Richard Melamed, son of longtime collector and friend Mort Melamed. Not surprisingly, the notes were not for sale, rather for show, but the revelation of another Princeton note was beyond my comprehension. It was offered to Richard by private treaty about the same time the number 2 note was auctioned, also for a substantial ransom. An opportunity to purchase serial number 593 arose in August 2011, when Richard’s collection was to be sold by Lyn Knight. While the collection had several notes of interest, the $5 Brown Back was my highest priority. After expecting serious competition, the note opened and closed with a single bid. The note was coming home. But that was not the end of the story. A few months later, at the 2012 FUN auction by Heritage, another note from the same sheet (plate position “B”) was offered, along with a Series of 1902 Red Seal from Mora, Minnesota signed by George Newbert. What was transpiring became apparent. Descendants of George Newbert, assistant cashier of the Princeton bank and cashier of the Mora bank, were selling their family keepsakes. Sheet 593, signed and likely saved as an uncut sheet by Newbert, was cut to give mementoes to family members many years ago. With two high grade notes from the same sheet now being known, there was the distinct possibility that the rest of the notes existed as well. Year Outstanding 1893 11,250 1894 6,740 1895 4,290 1896 2,690 1897 1,120 1898 570 1899 325 1900 240 1901 195 1902 190 1903 170 1904 170 1905 170 1906 120 1907 120 1908 115 1909 115 1910 105 ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 90 Delightfully, this proved to be the case. Notes from plate positions “C” and “D” were offered by Heritage in their next two sales. The last note was brought home about a year after the first note was acquired. What was once considered an impossible dream became a reality. A cut sheet of national bank notes from charter 4807 actually existed, and it was reassembled after perhaps a century of separation. The final reward for patience was that the total cost of acquiring all four notes was under the sale price of the first single note that was sold in 2006. It remains the only reported sheet of Brown Backs, cut or uncut, from the state of Minnesota. The final chapter of this story was written in January 2017, when the number 2 note, long held by collector Gil Sem, came to auction at the FUN show as part of his statewide collection was sold through Heritage. I was able to acquire this note, a beautiful choice very fine specimen, and thereby obtain examples of all four signatories from this institution. Persistence and a lot of luck helped this collector beat the odds. Back of $5 Brown Back on charter 4807. Acknowledgements: Thanks to Lee Lofthus for annual circulation data gleaned from comptroller records. The International Paper Money Show is all new in 2017! June 9-11 (dealer set-up June 8) After 40 years in Memphis, the IPMS is moving to historic Kansas City. With a new start in a new city, the show is getting a makeover to appeal to a wider audience in the collecting community. The International Paper Money Show is an annual gathering of collectors and dealers that began in 1977. Over the last 40 years, the convention has been located in Memphis, TN. But for the 41st annual show, the IPMS is relocating to Kansas City and becoming even more interesting with several new additions to the show. Location: Sheraton Crown Center, 2345 McGee Street, Kansas City, MO 64108 IPMS Contact: Doug Davis, Bourse Show Chairman. Call: 817.723.7231 or email ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 91 Archives International Auctions, LLC 1580 Lemoine Avenue Suite 7 Fort Lee, New Jersey 07024 USA tel. 201-944-4800 Archives Intl ARCHIVESONLINE We Seek Consignments For Upcoming Auctions: U.S. & Worldwide Banknotes, Scripophily, Coins, Security Printing Ephemera & Philatelic Material We Purchase U.S. , Chinese & Worldwide Numismatic & Philatelic Properties From Single Rarities To Large Estates Hong Kong & Shanghai Banking Corporation 1904 Shanghai Branch $100 High Grade Rarity Government of Newfoundland $1·1920 High Grade Rarity Wall Street October 2016 Auction Hold to History American Banknote Company 1866 Stock Certificate SOLD for $12,000 Yonkers New York $10 DB Number 1 Note SOLD for $6000 The United States, Act of October 12,1837 Interest Bearing Proof Treasury Note SOLD $28,800 Russo-Asiatic Bank 1913-17 Banknote Rarity SOLD for $12,000 U n c o p u l e d : Paper Money’s Odd Couple SUEZ Joseph E. Boling Fred Schwan This month we travel to Egypt. Actually, we have already been there—recall the fake truncated serial number “error” note that we looked at two issues back, from 1924. This month we are post-WWII. In 1956 troops of both Great Britain and France were deployed to take custody of the Suez Canal as Gamal Abdel Nasser flexed his nationalistic muscles. The operation did not last long—the UN scolded both aggressors and things quieted down. But troops needed to be paid, and neither occupier wanted to enrich Nasser’s economy with an influx of hard currency. Expedient currencies were created. Because the operation was small and short, it was years before examples of these filtered into collector hands. Indeed, some of the British notes and tokens were not associated with the Suez operation until the late 1970s—years after they were discovered. The French pieces were somewhat easier to classify—their legends announced their purpose. The French diverted occupation notes from the Saar region of Germany, which they still controlled in 1956, to the Suez incident, with two legends blacked out and another added. The added one said “Forces Françaises en Méditerranée Orientale”—French Forces in the Eastern Mediterranean. As you might expect, the Suez-related notes are scarce. Because the underlying occupation notes are less scarce, the Cheshire faker has created templates to add overprints to turn $7 notes into $100 notes. Boling continued on page 95 Shortly after I became infatuated (a chronic condition) with military payment certificates (MPC) in 1972, I started collecting British armed forces special vouchers (BAFSV). Relative to MPC, with thirteen full series to collect, BAFSV had only a few series. Both issues owed their very existence to overdrafts by the respective forces in Germany, where many millions of dollars (and pounds) were lost to illegal activities. Overdraft is a polite word for black market. I do not know for sure whether the Americans or the British first came up with the idea of issuing a military money to their forces for pay, but it was the British who acted first. Indeed, in Congressional testimony about the use of MPC, the use of BAFSV by the Allies was described. The time difference was not much. The British issued canteen money, as they called it, in August 1946 and MPC was issued in September. However, the first US use of a controlled currency had been in July 1946— using Allied military currency yen notes in series A. Those notes had originally been intended as supplemental yen for areas outside homeland Japan, and had seen so little use that they were pulled back and stockpiled for future use if needed. So—call it a draw. Jump forward to the start of my MPC collecting in 1973. Thirteen series of MPC were confirmed in collections, although they were not well documented by today's standards. BAFSV, on the other hand, were hardly documented at all. The first two series were confirmed and more-or-less well known, although it took me a ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 93 very long time to find first series five and ten shilling notes for my collection. The really interesting part of the story is that small value notes—5, 10, and 50 new pence— were known from the sixth series! Somehow we were able to confirm that this sixth series was then still in use in Berlin (remember, we are talking about 1973). I know that I am wandering quite a bit, but I just cannot stop myself! At about this time, a five pound BAFSV from the second series was in a mail bid auction of the International Bank Note Society! I was stunned. I went all out to buy it and got it for $95. Obviously, I still remember this. It was not long until I learned that the five pound notes were then still being used in Berlin! Eventually, we figured out that the full issue being used by the British in Berlin consisted of the 5, 10, 50 new pence from the sixth series and the one and five pound notes of the second series! What happened to the third, fourth and fifth series and why the combination second/sixth series in Berlin? The answer to the second question was that the minors in the sixth series notes had been issued when Britain had decimalized the currency. That meant that we would never see the unissued series (assuming they were denominated in the now-obsolete old pence and shillings). Then the first real lightning bolt hit. A dealer in England offered for sale some third series six pence notes! That was a staggering find, it seemed to me. I am sorry that I cannot remember his name right now because I would like to give him credit, but I cannot. If I remember it in the future, I will give him a shout out in a future column. (That is a privilege of having a column.) He died quite a few years ago so I would really like to give him the credit. I am not sure what denomination was found next, but I do remember finding—and purchasing—the first one pound voucher of the third series. It was at a summer convention of the American Numismatic Association. Stanley Gibbons of stamp collecting fame was then a major dealer in paper money. They had the first- seen one pounder of the third series. It was in poor condition, but they were nonetheless very proud of it. I was young, I was eager, and I really wanted that note. You can guess what happened. Of course I went home with it. That big purchase really fired up my research. That is when I developed the theory that the third series had been used by the British in the Suez incident in 1956. The key to this conclusion was the French Tresor Français issues that were overprinted Forces Françaises en Méditerranée Orientale in 1956 for the Suez occupation. These notes were relatively well known and are ostensibly the subject of this column. Even without the Internet, it was not too difficult to read up on the Suez incident. The conclusion that if the French had a special issue, the British would too, was not difficult. If you take that as an assumption, what would the British have used? It sure seems easy today to assume that it was the third series. I wrote an article for the Bank Note Reporter proposing my theory. I am not sure when that was and it is not really important here. Not too much happened over the next decade except that a few more pieces were found and the prices therefore slumped. Still, I was very happy to have what I did. Jump ahead to the mid-1980s. I was in the Army and stationed in Germany. Specifically, I was stationed in northern Germany. My unit was not only the farthest north of any American unit, we were within five miles of the border with Denmark. One day a British officer came into my office. I was a bit surprised, but happy to make his acquaintance. He wanted a favor. He wanted to purchase some things from our small (tiny) post exchange. Ration cards were required for his intended purchase and he did not have one, but he was an Allied officer in Germany on official duty. Basically, he was authorized to shop in our PX, but I was not certain of all of the rules. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 94 My new friend was in Germany participating in an exercise. His actual station was with the Ministry of Defence (MOD) in England. As we drove to the PX, I introduced him to the idea of BAFSVs. He had never heard of them. I pressed. I told him of the mysteries associated with the third series. He seemed interested, but he also was polite and wanted a favor. I extracted a promise from him to walk down the hall at MOD to find the answers. He obtained his merchandise and promised to get the answers to my questions. I thought that it was a day well spent. Of course I misplaced his address so that I could not hound him, and after a few months of not hearing from him, I more or less gave up. The timing was perfect. After giving up, I was subject to being pleasantly surprised, which I was when a nice package of photocopies arrived. He had done great work. There is a book that has detailed information of the sort that I was seeking. I believe (but am not certain) that the book he copied is an internal document of the British military finance corps (by whatever name it is correctly called). He had sent me pages from the relevant portions. First and foremost, the document not only confirms that the third series was used during the Suez incident, it does it in absolutely great detail. It describes how many trucks (lorries) moved how many boxes of notes on what date for shipment to the Suez on what ship. I had never seen such detail. It was wonderful. There was additional great information that was included just by chance above the text re the third series. There it describes the historical legacy of Allied military currency at the end of World War II. Specifically, it goes on to describe the various Allied issues including Allied Danish kroner. That was the first time that we had heard that this kroner issue was part of the Allied military currency system, although we did know the notes. I wrote another article about these discoveries for the Bank Note Reporter, and here I am doing it again! The newest twist that I have for you probably will not surprise you. Over the decades, I have misplaced the photocopies. I want to find a copy of the original book. We need that book! Who out there has the contacts at MOD or the Internet savvy to identify and find a copy? Boling continued Figure 1 is such a concoction. The entire overprint is inkjet. The two black boxes obliterate text relating to the occupation zone where they were originally used. The three lines of text identifying the new users are at bottom center. No changes were made to the back. This fraud merchant is getting very good at matching fonts and making his “overprints” look legitimate. The black boxes are so good that you cannot tell which is inkjet and which is letterpress with the naked eye, and even at 20x magnification it is difficult. The next two photos show the replica (Figure 2) and the original (Figure 3). The letterpress original is slightly Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 1 ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 95 more crisp along its edges. It’s easier to identify the bad notes using the text overprint, where he did not quite manage an exact duplication of the original font (and where it is easier to distinguish the two printing technologies, but you still have to use high magnification for that). Figures 4 and 5 show the replica and original fonts in part of the first line of the overprint. Notice especially the cedilla below the letter C. Figures 6 and 7 show two letters R in the third line of text. The replica has great honking tails on the Rs—the original is a more delicate design. These tails are the easiest defect to distinguish in an online auction listing. If the seller declines to provide any magnification capability, assume that he is hiding something, and don’t bid. For the Suez incident, the British issued Series 3 of their version of military payment certificates, British armed forces special vouchers (BAFSVs). There are no fraudulent versions of the ones used in Egypt (no overprints were involved), but I am going to piggy-back on their use in Egypt to look at another theater of war where overprints were used. This gives our despicable printer another opportunity to harass collectors. Force T was an independent British element operating in the Far East during the occupation of Japan. They used BAFSVs. For reasons we don’t understand, they overprinted theirs to distinguish them from those being used by the British Commonwealth Occupation Force (BCOF) in Japan. The Force T notes are about as scarce as the French notes for Suez. Figure 8 shows a modern inkjet version of the overprint. Figures 9 and 10 show the inkjet and the typeset (letterpress) versions of two letters SS in the first word of the overprint. Notice the stair steps coming down the diagonal portions of each S in figure 9 and that the two letters touch at the bottom. In figure 10, the genuine overprint, there are no steps and the letters do not touch. Figures 11 and 12 show the letters NL in the last word of the overprint. Again, figure 11 (the inkjet version) has stair steps and the two letters touch. In Figure 12, the genuine example, there are no steps and the letters do not touch. Figure 13 shows both versions—inkjet above, typeset below. In the bottom (genuine) Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 8 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 96 example, look at the word ONLY and note the relative narrowness of the N and that the letter L does not extend under the upper left arm of the Y. Above, in the inkjet version, L and Y are snuggled up closely so that the L extends under the Y. One can do that in a digital file, but not with conventional type. In the genuine version, a line extended up from the right edge of the L would not intersect the arm of the Y. This is probably your best way to separate good from bad in online images. Let’s go back to Egypt. Yet another form of WWII British military currency is the series of notes known as BMA—British Military Authority. These were for civilian use in liberated areas controlled by the British. A subset of BMA are £1 notes overprinted BULGARIA, GREECE, and FRANCE. These are from a group of serial numbers all from block 39Z. Serials 000001-000025 were overprinted Bulgaria, and 26-50 Greece, 51-75 France. It was long speculated that these were essays for notes to be issued in those areas, but never used. We now have other information. Ruth Hill had a habit of keeping correspondence about notes in the holders with them. She owned 39Z 000075. When it was sold three years ago, it came with a most interesting fragment of a letter. The writer (now unknown) said that these were for a deception operation run by the British in Cairo. Selected officers received a note with instructions to let it be seen locally, but to not spend it. The hope was that local informants would pass on to the Germans that troops were carrying currency for [Bulgaria-Greece-France], in hopes that the Germans would move troops anticipating an attack in one of those locations, and stay away from Morocco/Algeria, the actual next invasion point. These overprinted notes are much sought after. Naturally, it’s simplicity itself for the Cheshire faker to imitate them. Naturally further, he’s too dumb to realize that anyone seeking one of these knows exactly what serial numbers should be on them, and he makes no attempt (yet) to replace the pre-existing number on a note that he uses for his swindle. Figure 14 is the inkjet overprint; figure 15 is Ruth Hill’s piece (with letterpress overprint). I don’t need to show you 20x for this piece—just read the serials. Once again, when buying a note with an overprint, if it comes from Warrington, Cheshire, UK, leave it alone. Figure 14 Figure 15 ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 97 Lyn Knight Currency Auct ions If you are buying notes... You’ll find a spectacular selection of rare and unusual currency offered for sale in each and every auction presented by Lyn Knight Currency Auctions. Our auctions are conducted throughout the year on a quarterly basis and each auction is supported by a beautiful “grand format” catalog, featuring lavish descriptions and high quality photography of the lots. Annual Catalog Subscription (4 catalogs) $50 Call today to order your subscription! 800-243-5211 If you are selling notes... Lyn Knight Currency Auctions has handled virtually every great United States currency rarity. We can sell all of your notes! Colonial Currency... Obsolete Currency... Fractional Currency... Encased Postage... Confederate Currency... United States Large and Small Size Currency... National Bank Notes... Error Notes... Military Payment Certificates (MPC)... as well as Canadian Bank Notes and scarce Foreign Bank Notes. We offer: Great Commission Rates Cash Advances Expert Cataloging Beautiful Catalogs Call or send your notes today! If your collection warrants, we will be happy to travel to your location and review your notes. 800-243-5211 Mail notes to: Lyn Knight Currency Auctions P.O. Box 7364, Overland Park, KS 66207-0364 We strongly recommend that you send your material via USPS Registered Mail insured for its full value. Prior to mailing material, please make a complete listing, including photocopies of the note(s), for your records. We will acknowledge receipt of your material upon its arrival. If you have a question about currency, call Lyn Knight. He looks forward to assisting you. 800-243-5211 - 913-338-3779 - Fax 913-338-4754 Email: - support@lynknight.c om Whether you’re buying or selling, visit our website: Fr. 379a $1,000 1890 T.N. Grand Watermelon Sold for $1,092,500 Fr. 183c $500 1863 L.T. Sold for $621,000 Fr. 328 $50 1880 S.C. Sold for $287,500 Lyn Knight Currency Auctions Deal with the Leading Auction Company in United States Currency BRAZIL’S NATIONAL TREASURY NOTES OF 1943‐67 ARE COLORFUL AND INTERESTING by Carlson R. Chambliss Brazil’s paper money issues have a long and varied history. Government paper money goes at least as far back as 1833, and notes were produced in a wide variety of formats and sizes and from a wide variety of printers. The basic unit of currency was the real, but this was so small a unit that the plural form reis was always used. One thousand of these was a milreis and a thousand of that unit was referred to as um conto de reis in Portuguese with that denomination or its equivalent being the highest value for banknotes until well after the milreis had been abandoned as a unit of currency. Generally the lowest denomination for banknotes was 1 milreis, but between 1893 and 1901 a few notes were issued for only 500 reis (quinhientos reis). These might have caused some confusion, however, since 500 milreis notes of about the same size and physical appearance would also have been in normal circulation. In the late 19th century the milreis was worth about fifty cents in American money, and silver coins for 500, 1000, and 2000 reis were in regular use. Brazil was somewhat unusual for most large nations in the pre-WWI days in that its currency was not readily convertible to gold on demand. Gold coins for 10,000 and 20,000 reis were minted, but they were sold at a premium over banknotes or silver coins. By the 1910s, in fact, the value of the milreis had declined to about 30 U. S. cents. During the 1920s and 1930s Brazil experienced a modest degree of inflation, and the last silver coin issued for general circulation was a 5000 reis piece depicting the aviation pioneer Santos Dumant and dated 1936-38 that was worth about 30 US cents at the time. Since then coinage has played an increasingly minor role in Brazil’s currency. At times there have been no circulating coins at all. In 1942 it was decided to rename the basic Brazilian currency unit the cruzeiro (the Southern Cross), and this was equivalent to one milreis. Older notes for from 5 to 500 milreis were surcharged with values in the new currency, but these showed the diverse design and size characteristics of most Brazilian notes of earlier years. There was also an issue at about the same time of small-format one milreis notes, but in this case they were not surcharged. In the following year a completely new series of notes that were of uniform size and similar designs was introduced, and thus 1943 is an excellent year to begin a description of Brazil’s new paper money. The period I shall consider in this article is 1943-67, but two important changes occurred in the last couple of years of this date range. In 1965 the Banco Central do Brasil was formed, and some of the 5000 and all of the 10,000 cruzeiros notes of this vintage acknowledge this. All earlier notes acknowledge that they are emissions of the National Treasury (Tesouro Nacional). In 1966 Brazil decided to convert its currency from cruzeiros to cruzeiros novos at a rate of 1000 to 1. In 1966 new notes were issued that were surcharged in the new currency, but their designs are also identical to the (old) cruzeiro currency. Banknotes of entirely new designs were introduced in 1970. It so happens that I was in Brazil in 1969. At that time the exchange rate was about 4000 (old) cruzeiros to the dollar, but the circulating paper money was a complete mess. Apparently no paper money had been printed after 1967, and nearly all of the lower denomination notes were in tatters. Values ran as low as one centavo (or 10 old crs), but these absurd rags had face values of only one quarter US cent. Only some of the 5000 and 10,000 crs notes (or 5 and 10 crsN in the new currency) were in reasonably decent condition. Bear in mind, however, that the highest value note had an exchange value of only about $2.50 in US currency. (From here on I am going to use the abbreviation crs for the full word cruzeiros.) As has been noted, the Brazilian paper money of 1943-67 displays a high degree of uniformity, but there are some peculiarities. For the most part there were two printers, the American Bank Note Co. (ABNC) of New York and Thomas de la Rue (TDLR) in London. The word Estampa (printer in Portuguese) usually appears of these notes as an ordinal number (either blank or 1a for the ABNC and 2a for TDLR), and these firms also placed their imprints at the bottom of each note. It seems that there were no special designators for replacement notes. With one exception only all Brazilian notes of this vintage are 156 x 66 mm in size, which makes them identical in format to current U. S. currency. The 10,000 crs notes are somewhat larger measuring 164 x 72 mm. In 1961 and 1962 the Casa da Moeda do Brasil printed a limited number of 5 crs notes, and they are designated Estampa 3a. Apparently this “experiment” in local printing was not very well received, and the ___________________________________________________________Paper Money *March/April 2017* Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 99 Brazilian Treasury soon returned to the two foreign firms. Since 1970, however, almost all Brazilian notes have been printed in Brazil. All Brazilian paper money of the 1943-67 period (and for some decades prior to this as well) bears a series number. This is an ordinal number, and usually both the ABNC and TDLR used the same sequence for notes of a given design. These numbers can run well into four digits, and it would be foolish to attempt to collect these notes by series number as there are far too many of them. The serial numbers have six digits, but the first digit is always a zero, and so the series (i. e., serial number blocks) are only 100,000 notes each. On most of these notes there are two printed signatures, that of the Director of the Office of Amortization on the left and that of the Minister of Finance on the right. On the last of these issues the former signature on the left has been replaced by that of the President of the Central Bank. The earliest notes of these types did not bear printed facsimile signatures but rather were autographed by hand. This practice had also been used on many earlier Brazilian notes. All Brazilian notes of 1943-67 bear portraits on their faces. For the 1 cr value this portrait was of the Marques de Tamandare (1807-1897), who is considered the patron of the Brazilian Navy. The 2 crs portrays the Duke of Caxias (1803 – 1880), an important army leader of the Imperial period. The 5 crs shows the Baron do Rio Branco (1845 – 1912), a diplomat who was chiefly responsible for the treaties specifying the borders of Brazil  with  its  numerous  South  American  neighbors.   The 10  crs note depicts Getulio Vargas  (1882 – 1954),  who was president of Brazil  from 1930‐45 and  from 1951‐54 and  thus during much of  the  time  that  these  notes were in use.   The 20 crs portrays Deodoro da Fonseca (1827 – 1892), who was the first president of the  Brazilian Republic after the overthrow of the Empire in 1889.   The 50 crs depicts Princess Isabel (1846 – 1921),  who was a strong advocate for the abolition of slavery  in Brazil.     The 100 crs portrays Dom Pedro  II (1825 –  1891), who was Emperor of Brazil from 1831 to 1889.     The 200 crs depicts Dom Pedro I (1798 – 1834), who  chose to remain in Brazil rather than return to Portugal and was the first Brazilian Emperor from 1822‐ 1831.    A one cruzeiro note printed by the ABNC and issued in 1944. It has a bold autograph on its face and bears no printed facsimile signatures. A 50 cruzeiros note printed by the ABNC and issued in 1956. It bears the printed signatures of Lemos and Lopes. Depicted is Princess Isabel, the daughter of Dom Pedro II who was an anti-slavery crusader in Brazil for many years. A 200 cruzeiros note printed by TDLR and issued in 1960. It bears the signatures of Carrilho and Almeida. Depicted is Dom Pedro I, the father of the beloved Dom Pedro II. His decision to remain in Brazil and not to return to his throne in Portugal is regarded as the act that resulted in Brazilian independence in 1822. A five cruzeiros note printed by TDLR and issued in 1950. The ordinal number 2a refers to the second printer, i. e., TDLR. Depicted is the Baron de Rio Branco, a diplomat who was most responsible for negotiating and charting Brazil’s frontiers with all of the countries with which Brazil has common borders. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money *March/April 2017* Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 100 The 500 crs shows Dom Joao VI (1767 – 1826), who was King of Portugal from 1816 to 1826.     The 1000 crs  portrays Pedro Alvares Cabral (1467 – 1520), who discovered Brazil and claimed  it for Portugal  in 1500.   The  two high value notes appeared only much  later among  these  issues.   The 5000 crs depicts  Joaquim  Jose da  Silva Xavier  (1746 – 1792), better  known  as  Tiradentes  (=  Tooth‐Puller),  an  early  leader  in  the  struggle  for  Brazilian  independence.   The 10,000 crs portrays Alberto Santos Dumont (1873 – 1932), the famous Brazilian  aviation pioneer.      These notes  are quite  colorful,  as numerous  approaches  to  enhance  their designs were used.    The  faces of all  the notes printed by  the ABNC were bright blue with multicolored underprints.   The serials and  series numbers are always  in red.   For the 5000 and 10,000 crs notes a strong red underpint appears on the  former, and  for the  latter the  face design was  largely gray rather than bright blue.   On the notes printed by  TDLR each denomination has a different  face color.   The  face of  the 5000 crs  is now entirely carmine  rose,  while for the 10,000 crs the dominant color is red brown.  This variety, however, exists only with a surcharge  for 10 crsN.      As might  be  expected,  the  backs  of  the  1  and  2  crs  notes  depict  the  naval  and  army  academies,  respectively.    The  backs  of  the  other  values  depict  either  historical  scenes  or  allegories.    Historical  views  include  the Conquest of  the Amazon  (5 crs),  the  first mass  in Brazil  (1000 crs),  the Cry  for  Independence at  Ipiranda  (1822, on  the 200  crs), and  the  trial of Tiradentes  (1792, on  the 5000  crs).     The 10,000  crs notes  depict one of  Santos Dumont’s  flying machines.    The other  values depict  various  allegories on  their backs.   Usually  the  ABNC  and  the  TDLR  notes  have  backs with  the  same  colors  for  a  given  value,  but  there  are  exceptions.   For  instance on  the 20 and 100 crs notes printed by  the ABNC  the backs are dark  red and  red  brown, respectively, while on the TDLR printings for these values the colors are reversed with brown and red  for these respective denominations.     A distinction  is made for some of the earlier printings by TDLR of the 2  crs notes where the backs are in ochre rather than the normal yellow orange.    Up to 1960 all of these notes are inscribed Valor Recebido (value receivable) at the lower borders, but  after this date all notes are  inscribed Valor Legal  (legal value).    I am not clear as to why this distinction was  deemed necessary.    Up until 1950  the notes of  these  types do  not  bear  printed  facsimile  signatures  but  rather  feature  large  ink  autographs  that were  applied  by  employees  of  the  National  Treasury.    These were  intended  as  some  sort  of  control measure  before  the  notes  were  placed  into  circulation,  but  they  hardly seem effective as anti‐counterfeiting devices.   Far  too many persons  signed  these notes  to make  any  of  the  signatures  recognizable.    Also  these  signatures  are  subject  to  fading,  and  they  can  be  chemically  removed.    Notes  without  autographed  signatures should not  in my opinion be  regarded as  either errors or as distinct varieties worthy of being  collected as  such.     Far  too many  signature  types exist, of course,  for persons  to collect  these notes  in  this  fashion.  Between 1944 and 1948 all of the notes in circulation were the ABNC printings with these signatures,  and then they were supplemented by notes of 5 crs through 1000 crs printed by TDLR during 1948‐50.   The  higher  values  of  these  notes  are  decidedly  scarce,  and  the  200  and  1000  crs  of  the  TDLR  printings with  autographed signatures are without doubt the rarest varieties of this entire series of notes.  Fake autographed  notes  are  not  a  problem,  however,  since  the  underlying  engraved  notes  lack  any  spaces  for  engraved  signatures,  and  thus  producing  alterations  from  the  more  available  notes  with  printed  signatures  is  not  possible.    Between 1953 and 1960 both the ABNC and TDLR produced a large number of notes, all of which are  inscribed Valor Recebido and feature engraved signatures.  On these notes a total of seven different signature  combos were used.  The position of the Director of the Bureau of Amortization (Caixa de Amorticao) seems to  A two cruzeiros note printed by TDLR in 1956. The signatures are those of C. S. Lemos and J. M. Alkimin. Portrayed is the 19th century military leader the Duke of Caxias. The production of 1 and 2 cruzeiros notes was terminated in 1958 due to inflationary pressures. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money *March/April 2017* Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 101 have had a much longer tenure than did the Minister of Finance, since nearly all of these notes were signed by  a  single person, Claudionor de  Souza  Lemos.   Between 1961  and 1965  there were  five  combos with  these  officials on notes marked Valor Legal.  Most notes issued in 1966‐67 feature the signatures of the President of  the Central Bank paired with the Minister of Finance, and there were three such combos.  These include nearly  all of the surcharged notes, but a few of 1 crN and 5 crsN notes use older combos.   The  last of the notes of  these types bear the signature of Antonio Delfim Netto as Minister of Finance.   He  is a well‐known Brazilian  economist  who  developed  price  indexing  as  a  technique  for  curbing  the  adverse  effects  of  inflation  on  individuals.   This  technique was also widely used by  Israel  to  lessen  the adverse effects of  inflation  in  that  country during the late 1970s and 1980s.     A curious error appeared on three of the low value surcharged notes of 1966.  The signer at the right  was  identified as Minstro  rather  than  the  correct Ministro da Fazenda.   This error was  soon  corrected, but  these notes, however, are quite common and command little or no premiums.    As has been noted, during 1960‐61 a number of 5 crs notes were printed locally by the Brazilian mint.  On their faces an Indian of the Amazon region is shown, while the back side portrays giant Victoria Regia water  lilies.   There are  two different signature combos and a  total of 111 series with 75 having  the  first signature  combo and 36 the second.  These notes were soon dropped either due to difficulties of production or to lack of  appeal for these designs.  Since these notes are inexpensive and since there are not too many different series,  this note  is often  collected by  series numbers by Brazilian  specialists.    In  theory all of  the  series  should be  equally abundant, but the specialty catalogs that pay attention to such details list some series as being worth  as much as ten times the value of the most abundant of these series.   .  .    The notes of 1961‐67 are all inscribed Valor Legal, and these were printed by both the ABNC and TDLR.   Not  all  denominations  were  printed  by  both  firms.    Inflation  had  removed  the  1  and  2  crs  notes  from  circulation, and in 1963 5000 crs notes were introduced while 10,000 crs notes made their debut in 1966.  The  surcharged notes in the new currency soon appeared, and both firms were involved in making them.    A five cruzeiros note printed and issued by the Brazilian mint in 1960. Only 11,100,000 notes of this type were printed, and it is the only note of the 1943-67 types that portrays a non- European Brazilian. The Victoria Regia water lilies are found in the Amazon region and are noted for their huge leaves that can be several feet across. Despite their interesting designs, these notes were phased out of circulation after only about a year in use. A note of this series for 100 cruzeiros that was printed by TDLR and issued in 1963. It portrays Dom Pedro II, who was Emperor of Brazil for most of his life. A Valor Legal note for 1000 cruzeiros that was printed by the ABNC and issued in 1962. Portrayed is Pedro A. Cabral, the Portuguese explorer who discovered and claimed Brazil for Portugal in 1500. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money *March/April 2017* Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 102 Banknotes that were surcharged utilized series numbers that were not used on notes valued solely in the old  currency.   Brazilian specialists make a distinction between notes with series numbers that are “sandwiched”  between notes  in the old currency only and those that are surcharged.   For  instance the 10,000 crs notes of  the ABNC were printed  in series 1‐493 and  in series 561‐590, while  these notes surcharged were printed  in  series 494‐560 and in series 591‐2700.  Notes of the former type with serials 561‐590 sell at a huge premium in  the  specialist market,  and  notes  of  the  latter  type with  494‐560  also  sell  at  a  substantial  premium  in  this  market.   Aside from these varieties, there are no Brazilian notes printed in 1961‐67 that should be regarded as  scarce.  The 5 crs notes printed by TDLR also feature a number of these “sandwiched” varieties for the two last  signature combos, but all of these items are quite common.    Since  the  series  numbers  are  given  for  all  of  these  notes  in  standard  sources, most  notably  the  Catalogo de Cedulas do Brasil by Amato, Neves, and  Schutz,  it becomes an easy matter  to determine how  many notes of a given type were printed.  Remember that there are 100,000 notes per series number for each  note of a given type.  For the notes issued with autographed signatures the numbers of note series issued per  type were as follows:  ABNC        1 cr      1000 series   20 crs      460 series             500 crs        160 series          2 crs      500    50      320             1000        230           5            500              100      235         10  330              200      320  TDLR         5 crs      500              100 crs      115               10          435                      200              30         20          370              500      120         50  115            1000            90   The 200 crs note printed by TDLR and with hand signatures is regarded as bring the rarest of all of the issues of  the 1943‐67 period.  The 1000 crs note by TDLR is also very scarce in higher grades.  The total face value of the  notes printed for this series is 61.8 billion cruzeiros with an average face value of about 106 crs per note.      For  the Valor Recebido notes with printed  signatures  that were  issued  in 1953‐61,  the data  are  as  follows:  ABNC          1 cr       2690 series     200 crs      350 series           2 crs       635       500           100          50   400                  1000            700         100    525      CdM         5           111  TDLR         2 crs      1045    TDLR        20 crs       1205         200 crs            80 series           5            1800         50               420         500              1180         10    1920       100            100       1000     700  Despite identical printings the 1000 crs note of this type printed by the ABNC is much scarcer than the variety  printed  by  TDLR.      The  500  crs  printed  by  TDLR  comes with  four  signature  varieties.    Three  are  relatively  common, but the Lemos‐Lopes variety is one of the scarcest notes of the entire series.  Clearly the 5 crs note  printed by the Brazilian mint was put aside in some quantity, since it is much more available than its relatively  low printing would imply.   The total face value of the notes printed in this period is 228.8 billion cruzeiros with  an average face value of about 164 crs per note.    For the Valor Legal  issues of 1961‐66 the printings were generally  larger  than before and  the higher  denominations of 5000 and 10,000 crs were introduced.  The series data are as follows:  ABNC        10 crs      600 series          100 crs       800 series          1000 crs     2500 series          20          800    200           900           5000     1650          50          500    500       2770        10,000       524  TDLR         5 crs            2400      50 crs       200                   1000 crs       800          10            690     100          200          5000     2200         20          700  ___________________________________________________________Paper Money *March/April 2017* Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 103 The relatively large printings of this series coupled with notes for 5000 and 10,000 crs results in a much larger  total for these issues.  The total face value is 2.954 trillion cruzeiros with an average face value of about 1620  crs per note.    For the surcharged notes that were issued in 1966‐67 the data are as follows:  1 c / 10 crs      2000 series    1 crN / 1000 crs      1000 series  5 c / 50 crs      1100       5 cr N / 5000 crs   1250  10 c / 100 crs         1100      10 crN  gray blue   2176  50 c / 500 crs           900      10 crN  brown     2100  The  issue of  these notes  is  totally dominated by  the high values, and  the  total  face value  issued was 5.065  billion (new) crs or 5.065 trillion (old) crs.  The average face value for a note in this series was 4.36 (new) crs or  4360 (old) crs.    Over the years 1943 to 1969 Brazil had experienced a fairly modest degree of inflation at the beginning  of  this epoch  to  fairly  series  inflation by  the 1960s.   When  it was  created  in 1942,  the official value of  the  cruzeiro was pegged at 5.41 U. S. cents or 18.38 to the dollar.  The high denomination notes for 200, 500, and  1000 crs thus had quite respectable values of about $10, $25, and $50  in American money.   Over the period  that we  are discussing  the  value of  the  cruzeiro declined  initially  rather  slowly during  the 1940s  and  early  1950s but  then at a more  rapid pace during  the 1960s.   Between 1945 and 1969  the  free market exchange  rates (cruzeiros per dollar) were as follows:    1945    19.5            1957     80          1962         380        1966         2200    1950    26.5            1958   125          1963         620        1967       (2720)    1955    67.5            1960   183          1964       1230        1969       (4100)  All of these data refer to October 1st of the year in question.  The data for 1967 and 1969 are in parentheses,  since these data were quoted at that time in new cruzeiros at 2.72 and 4.10 per dollar, respectively.    Another  measure  to  look  at  is  the  cost  of  living  index  which  doubled  between  1947  and  1953  (equivalent  to 13% per year  inflation).    It doubled again between 1953 and 1957  (equivalent  to 20% annual  inflation).    The  next  doubling  took  only  three  years  (or  25%  per  year), while  between  1960  and  1963  the  inflation  rate was about 50% per year, and between 1963 and 1966  it  reached 65% per year.   A degree of  stability  set  in  when  the  new  cruzeiro  was  introduced,  and  Antonio  Delfim  Netto  was  able  to  apply  his  economic schemes.  Thus between 1968 and 1974 inflation averaged only about 20% per year.  Quite possibly  the radically new banknote designs of the early 1970s inspired a degree of confidence in the new currency that  had been lost to some extent with the heavy use of the ABNC and TDLR products.          The really serious hyperinflation in Brazil, however, did not occur until the decade of the 1980s when  things got totally out of hand..  In 1989 and 1990 the annual inflation rates in Brazil were 1390% and 2940%,  respectively, which are equivalent to monthly rates of 25% and 33%.  In 1994 the reasonably stable real (plural  reais) was introduced, and this monetary madness finally came to an end.       As  I  have  noted,  I  was  in  Brazil  in  1969  at  a  time  when  the  old  notes  (the  Valor  Legal  and  the  surcharged notes, at least) were still in circulation.  The 1, 2, and 5 (old) cruzeiros notes were no longer in use,  but notes  for 10, 20, 50, 100, 200  (old) crs and  for 1c, 5c, and 10c  (surcharged) were used as small change  items  of minimal  value.    There were  a  few  of  the  new  coins  in  circulation,  but  there were  nowhere  near  enough of these.  A conversion of $50 or $100 in US money would result in one obtaining a huge pile of very  dirty, stained, and torn  low value Brazilian notes.   Bear  in mind that the highest note was only for 10,000 crs  (or 10 crsN), and this note was only worth about $2.50.  Purchasing items such as meals in quality restaurants  or paying hotel bills required stacks of banknotes.  Notes for denominations such as 50,000 or 100,000 (old) crs  were  desperately  needed,  but  the Brazilian  Congress was  reluctant  to  authorize  them  because  that would  acknowledge that the  inflation was getting out of hand.   Venezuela has the same problems these days.   The  cost of production of new notes for 200 (old) crs or less or 10 c (new) or less would have exceeded their face  values, and clearly the Banco Central was not doing this.  I never saw a small‐change note that was better than  VG‐F condition, and most were much worse.  (The same thing apparently has been taking place in Venezuela  up  to at  least  the beginning of  this year.)   Fortunately enough notes  in nice condition had already been put  aside for collectors, so that the trash that was  in circulation  in the  late 1960s was very  largely destroyed.   By  ___________________________________________________________Paper Money *March/April 2017* Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 104 the  early  1970s  the  new  series  of  Brazilian  notes  was  in  general  use,  and  these  were  supplemented  by  adequate numbers of coins.  I expect that the Banco Central simply destroyed all of its stock of 1943‐67 notes  that were still on hand.  Many were in such bad shape that they might even have refused to redeem many of  them when these items were turned in by individuals.      The notes of Brazil issued in 1943‐67 are an interesting series to collect.  I expect that most collectors of these  would go for at least the signature varieties since there are no more than three or four of these for a note of a  given type.   A few notes – most especially the 200 and 1000 crs notes printed by TDLR with autographed  ink  signatures – are very  scarce and are  certainly worth a  few hundred dollars each when  in  choice  condition.   Most notes of these types, however, are very much less expensive than are these two.   By my count there are  a total of 120 varieties (including signatures) for the 1943‐67 issues.  The “sandwich” varieties that I previously  mentioned would add six varieties to these.   The four  involving 5 crs Valor Legal note are quite common and  also very cheap, but the two 10,000 crs (or 10 crsN) items would be very much scarcer.  One might be tempted  to expand his/her collection  to  include  the  series varieties, but as  I have  shown  in  this article,  there are  so  many of  these  that collecting even  the most common  types  in  this  fashion would be an arduous  task.   The  Valor Legal 5 crs note printed by TDLR  is so common that  it often shows up  in the cheapest “junk boxes” at  prices of no more than 50 cents or so per note in CU grade.  But be warned!  As I have noted, there are 2400  series varieties of this type and doubtless many of these are far scarcer than are others of this type.  The only  major type note that Brazilian specialists seem to go for in this fashion is the locally printed 5 crs note of 1960‐ 61 where obtaining all 111 series of this note does pose a real but feasible challenge.     You will find the Brazilian notes of 1943‐67 to be a fascinating series of notes to collect regardless of  how you approach the task.  The notes in this group range from extremely common to decidedly scarce.  There  are no extreme rarities, but several types can only be described as very scarce to rare when in high grade.  References: Amato, Claudio Patrick., das Neves, Irlei Soares, and Schutz, Julio Ernesto, eds., Cedulas do Brasil, 1833 a 2011, 5th Edition, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2011 Chambliss, Carlson R., “Brazil’s Hyperinflation Reflected in its Currency,” Bank Note Reporter, Krause Publications, April, 1996 Cuhaj, George S., ed. Standard Catalog of World Paper Money, General Issues, 1368 – 1960, 12th Edition, Krause Publications, Iola, Wisconsin, 2008 Cuhaj, George S., ed. Standard Catalog of World Paper Money, Modern Issues, 1961 – Present, 20th Edition, Krause Publications, Iola, Wisconsin, 2014 Data on annual inflation rates and on cost of living indices can be gleaned from the annual reports published by Europa Publications Limited in London and from the annual supplements of the Encyclopedia Britannica that are published yearly. Economic data for many nations referring to the years prior to 1914 are generally available in the Encyclopedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition that was published in 1910-11. My article on Brazilian currency that was published in 1996 gives a fairly thorough survey of these data for Brazil for the late 1930s to the early 1990s. A note for 5000 cruzeiros that has been surcharged five new cruzeiros. This note was printed by the ABNC and it bears the signature of the President of the Central Bank. Portrayed is the freedom fighter Tiradentes who was executed in 1792. A note for 10,000 cruzeiros that has been surcharged 10 new cruzeiros as were all examples of this variety. It was printed by TDLR. Although the previous note makes reference to the National Treasury, this note refers only to the Central Bank. Depicted is the famous Brazilian aviation pioneer, Alberto Santos Dumont. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money *March/April 2017* Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 105 Venable’s Hotel, Huntsville, Alabama, 1862    ONLY TWO “ISSUED” EXAMPLES OF VENABLE’S HOTEL SCRIP ARE KNOWN.  Each of the two known issued and verified Huntsville, Alabama, Venable’s Hotel 50 cent notes, Rosene  136‐11,  is  in  terrible  condition.  (See  Figures 1 and 5.) The  first  is  from  the Walter B.  Jones  sale2;  the  second found in a mixed lot in September 2003. They are owned by a Huntsville collector.   Both  notes  are  dated  July  22,  1862, with  the  “July  22”  being  hand‐written  and  the  “1862”  printed.  Rosene indicates that the date on the issue is “18__, part ink.”3 It is possible that he had seen neither of  the issued pieces and only had a printer’s proof to study.  The signature on both notes is that of “J. M. Venable.”      Figure 1: The front of the  Walter B. Jones Venable’s  Hotel note is fairly  complete.      The note’s vignette  (Figure 2)  is unusual:  it depicts a settee and chairs, but two of the chairs and one  foot‐stool are  turned over and  the entire vignette  is printed upside‐down! Probably  the upside‐down  picture was merely an error on the part of the printer. When the note  is rotated by 180 degrees,  the  scene becomes clear, but still there still appears to be a perspective problem with one of the chairs. The  vignette  is not unique  to  the Venable’s Hotel  scrip. Rather, at  least  several other Alabama notes  (by  what appears to be the same printer, who remains unknown4) have this unusual scene. These  include  the Huntsville  Johnson House 5 cent, Rosene 130‐25, and Princeton, Alabama6, Rosene 282‐4  through  282‐77. It  is plausible that the printer  inadvertently produced a  large amount of paper having only this  error  and,  rather  than  destroy  the  paper  that  was  quite  valuable  because  of  wartime  shortages,  continued to use it until his stocks were exhausted.  by David Hollander Figure 3: The left vignette shows a settee and accessories when rotated by 180  degrees. (For clarity, the vignette on the right is from a Princeton, Alabama note.)  ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 106   The back of the note (Figure 3) is quite interesting: of course the printed “50” value is very obvious and  clear. But, less discernable is the fact that the scrip was printed on paper used for Bank of Alabama $100  bonds. (See Figure 4 for an enlargement of the area.) The bond paper has a printed serration guide for  separation.    Figure 2: The back of the Venable's Hotel scrip is revealing.  The 20 Princeton, Alabama, and the 5 Huntsville Johnson House notes that were examined had no value,  no Alabama bond printing, nor any printed serrations on the back. As a cost saving measure, it is entirely  possible that Mr. Venable had agreed to use the printer’s cheapest stock, which was the paper printed  on the State Bank of Alabama blank $100 bonds.  Figure 3: The Venable's Hotel scrip are printed on unissued  Bank of Alabama $100 bonds.    ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 107       Figure 4: The other Venable's Hotel note has a date identical to the first notes, July 22, 1862.  The  second  known Venable’s Hotel  note  (Figure  5)  has  been  backed with  paper  to  preclude  further  deterioration. When  held  to  light,  it  has  the  same  reverse  as  the  first  note’s,  including  the  Bank  of  Alabama bond printing. (See Figure 6.)    Figure 5: Held to light, both notes show the same back, including the Alabama bond indications.          ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 108 Facts about Mr. Venable and the hotel.  Mr. James Monroe Venable was born in Farmville, Prince Edward County, Virginia, on April 10, 1810. His  father was Abraham (August 26, 1780‐?); his mother, Elizabeth Taylor (1782‐July 25, 1855).  On December 20, 1831, Mr. Venable married Matilda W. Hoffman in Rockbridge County, Virginia.8  During the years 1834‐1837 the James Monroe Venable family probably lived in Tennessee since his two  oldest  girls were  born  there.  Sometime  before  1840  the  Venable’s moved  south  since  the  younger  James was born  in Alabama, and the  family  is recorded  in the 1840 United States Census  for Madison  County9 It  lists the Venable home as 11 persons,  including 5 Free White Males, 3 Free White Females,     1 Male Slave, and 2 Female Slaves.  The  1850  United  States  Census,  enumerated  on  December  14,  1850,10 indicates  that  the  Venable  household,  probably  a  boarding  house,  consisted  of  James  and Matilda,  their  four  children  (Sarah  Elizabeth, May 9, 1834‐July 23, 1922; Esterline H., August 10, 1837‐February 24, 1915;  James  Joseph,  June 21, 1841‐August 1897; and Victor A., 1842‐June 19, 186111), Matilda’s mother (Elizabeth Hoffman)  and two sisters (Esterline and Chartten), and ten others. He owned one slave in Virginia.12 Mr. Venable’s  occupation was noted to be a “Tinner.” Two of the other occupants were also Tinners.    Figure 6: Mr. Venable was the proprietor of Venable’s Hotel that was also a boarding house.13  In 1856 the Railroad Hotel was built for $2,376 by the Memphis & Charleston Railroad Company. It was  located on  the north end of Church Street across  from  the  railroad passenger depot. Additions were  made  to enlarge  the  facility  in 185714. Most  likely  the railroad  leased  the building  to Mr. Venable. He  was the proprietor and his business became known as Venable’s Hotel. (See Figure 7.) Not only was the  establishment a hotel, but also it served as a boarding house with a number of local citizens living there  on a semi‐permanent basis.15  The 1860 Census16 shows a much smaller household: James and Matilda, three of the children (Esterline  H, who later married a minister, Joseph Pitts; Victor A., who died of typhoid fever when he was 21 while  training with the Madison Rifles in Pensacola17 on June 19, 186118; and James Joseph, who worked with  his  father), and Henry and Mattie Thornburg.  (His elder daughter, Sarah Elizabeth19, had married John  Hunn Swift  in Huntsville on  June 13, 1855.) Mr. Venable’s occupation was recorded as “Landlord.” He  still owned a slave, this one in Huntsville.20   ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 109 On  April  11,  1862,  the  Union  Forces  occupied  Huntsville.  Sometime  during  the  occupation,  after  September 1864, Venable’s Hotel closed.   Prior to 1866 Mr. Venable went into the grocery business. (See Figure 8.) The hotel was renovated and  reopened in 1866 as the Donegan21 Hotel.  In  July  of  the  same  year  the  Internal  Revenue  Service  assessed Mr.  Venable  a  tax  of  $20.92  on  his  income of $418.54 and $1.00 on his gold watch valued at $100.00.22   The 1870 United States Census lists both Mr. Venable and his son, James, as “Hotel Keeper.” The family  seems to have been living in the hotel (presumably the Donegan Hotel) because, along with the family,  at  least  40  names  are  included  in  the  census  listing.  The  names  include  a  Corn Merchant,  Lawyer,  Druggist, Coal Dealer, and other professionals boarding at the hotel.23    In 1873 the Memphis & Charleston Railroad Company sold all of  its property along the railroad tracks,  including “…that valuable property in Huntsville known as the Donegan Hotel...”24  Mr. James Monroe Venable died June 22, 1873; his wife, Matilda, had died of “Consumption”25 March 1,  1872. Both are buried in Huntsville’s Maple Hill Cemetery. (See Figure 9.)  The hotel was razed in the late 1890’s and made way for the Dilworth Lumber Company, a lumber  yard.26  Figure  7:  After  Venable's Hotel  closed, Mr.  Venable became a grocer.  Figure 8: James and Matilda Venable  are buried in Maple Hill Cemetery in  Huntsville, Alabama.1  ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 110                                                                  1 Rosene, Walter, Jr., ALABAMA OBSOLETE NOTES AND SCRIP, Society of Paper Money Collectors, Inc., c. 1984,  Page 56.  2 Heritage Auctions, Walter B. Jones Collection, September 21, 2001, Auction Number 269, Lot 5683. Price realized,  including Buyer’s Premium, was $165.00.  3 Ibid, Page 56.  4 There are other Alabama obsolete notes that are clearly the work of the same printer. These include The Easley  Hotel 50 cent note of 1862 (Huntsville, Alabama, unlisted in Rosene), the Huntsville James Hickman issue of 1862  (Rosene 127‐1 and others), and the Huntsville J. M & T. I Humphrey issue of 1862 (Rosene 128‐1 and others).  However, the furniture vignette is not known on any of the surviving specimen.  5 Op. Cit., Rosene, Page 52.  6 Princeton, Alabama, is circa 25 miles east‐north‐east of Huntsville in Jackson County, Alabama.  7 Op. Cit., Rosene, Page 109.  8 Virginia, Marriages, 1740‐1850 [database on‐line]. Provo, UT, USA: Operations Inc,  1999. Original Data: Dodd, Jordan R., et. al., Early American Marriages: Virginia to 1850. Bountiful, UT, USA:  Precision Indexing Publishers.  9 “United States Census, 1840, Madison County, Microfilm: #M704‐13, AL,‐ (File 5 of 5), Copyright 2006 by Linda Doty,   10 "United States Census, 1850," database with images, FamilySearch  (‐YXZ : accessed 26 March 2016), James M Venable, Huntsville,  Madison, Alabama, United States; citing family 546, NARA microfilm publication M432 (Washington, D.C.: National  Archives and Records Administration, n.d.).  11 Rice, Charles, Hard Times, The Civil War in Huntsville and North Alabama, 1861‐1865, Boaz, Alabama: Boaz  Printing Company, Copyright 1994, Page 28.  12 1850 Slave Schedule, Prince Edward County, Virginia.  13 From the James C. Pryor Estate of Huntsville, Alabama.  14 The Historic Huntsville Quarterly of Local Architecture & Preservation, Spring 1981, Page 16.  15 The Huntsville City Directory, 1859‐1860.  16 "United States Census, 1860", database with images, FamilySearch  (‐778 : accessed 26 March 2016), James M Venable, 1860.  17 Chadick, Mary Jane Cook and Nancy M. Rohr, Incidents of the War: The Civil War Journal of Mary Jane Chadick,  SilverThreads Publishing, Copyright November 1, 2005, Page 196.  18 Record, James, A Dream Come True, The Story of Madison County and Incidentally of Alabama and the United  States, Huntsville, Alabama, 1970, Page 128.  19, Sarah Elizabeth Venable Swift, May 9, 1834‐July 23, 1922. Her tombstone indicates she is  buried in Madura, South India. Her husband, John is buried in Maple Hill Cemetery. He died on June 30, 1873,  sometime after which, apparently, Sarah Elizabeth became a missionary in India.  20 1860 Slave Schedule, Huntsville, Alabama.  21 This was James J. Donegan, the president of the Northern Bank of Alabama until it was closed during the Federal  occupation in 1862. He was also president of D. Patton & Company and one of the owners of Bell Factory, a textile  mill. The 1860 United States Census indicated that his real estate was valued at $138,000 and his personal  property at $275,000.  22 1866 IRS Schedule for Division Number Two, Collection District Number Three of the State of Alabama, Page 22.  23 United States Census, 1870", database with images, FamilySearch  24 The Historic Huntsville Quarterly of Local Architecture & Preservation, Winter 1998, Page 31.   25 U.S. Federal Census Mortality Schedules, 1850‐1885.  26 Op. Cit., The Historic Huntsville Quarterly, Spring 1981, Page 16.  ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 111 | 877-PMG-5570 United States | Switzerland | Germany | Hong Kong | China | South Korea | Singapore | Taiwan | Japan THE CHOICE IS CLEAR Introducing the New PMG Holder PMG’s new holder provides museum-quality display, crystal-clear optics and long-term preservation. Enhance the eye appeal of your notes with the superior clarity of the PMG holder, and enjoy peace of mind knowing that your priceless rarities have the best protection. Learn more at 16-CCGPA-2889_PMG_Ad_NewHolder_PaperMoney_JulyAug2016.indd 1 5/27/16 8:12 AM Central States Numismatic Society 78th Anniversary Convention April 26-29, 2017 (Bourse Hours – April 26 – 12 noon-6pm Early Birds: $125 Registration Fee) Schaumburg, IL Schaumburg Renaissance Hotel & Convention Center Visit our website: Bourse Information: Patricia Foley (414) 698-6498 • Hotel Reservations: Schaumburg Renaissance Hotel - 1551 North Thoreau Drive • Call (847) 303-4100 Ask for the “Central States Numismatic Society” Convention Rate. Problems booking? - Call Convention Chairman Kevin Foley at (414) 807-0116 Free Hotel Guest and Visitor Parking. • Numismatic Educational Forum • Educational Exhibits • 300 Booth Bourse Area • Heritage Coin Signature Sale • Heritage Currency Signature Sale • Educational Programs • Club and Society Meetings • Free Hotel Guest and Visitor Parking • Complimentary Public Admission: Thursday-Friday-Saturday No Pesky Sales Tax in Illinois The Mystery of Face Plate 307 Solved By Jamie Yakes New research of how the Bureau of Engraving and Printing produced Series of 1934A intaglio faces1 has elucidated the heretofore mysterious life of late-finished $5 silver certificate face plate 307. From 1936 to 1942, Bureau personnel used it as a Series of 1934 master plate, then altered it into Series of 1934A master plate, and finally finished it as a 1934A production plate. It joins four 1934A Federal Reserve note faces that followed the same fate.2 The BEP’s transition in 1938 to the Series of 1934A was the critical event that altered the course of face 307. The 1934As heralded the use of macro plate serials on intaglio currency printing plates after the BEP fulfilled the request of Secret Service officials in late 1937, whose field officers found it difficult to read the small, or micro, plate serials then being used. The BEP made the plate serials more legible by increasing the size of the numerals so macros appeared almost twice the size of micros. The BEP utilized the single difference between 1934 and 1934A intaglio faces—the A in 1934A—to simplify production of 1934A faces. They simply etched As into 1934 plates by the same process used to add plate serials to finished plates, thereby making them 1934As. This way they bypassed the need to produce 1934A master intaglio dies and could proceed directly to electrolytic platemaking of 1934A plates. This process deviated from traditional platemaking, which required a master intaglio die that contained a complete image of the subject note and a roll lifted from that die. Sidereoagraphers prepared a master intaglio plate by transferring the image from the roll 12 times into a blank steel plate. Electrolytic platemakers used the master plate to prepare a small group of mirror-image electrolytic altos, and those altos to prepare dozens of electrolytic bassos that were copies of the master plate, and would eventually became production plates. They always reserved one or two bassos as masters, which was the case with 307. A platemaker started electrolytic plate 134023, a 1934 $5 silver certificate face assigned plate serial 307, on April 6, 1936, and when finished made it the master basso for making 1934 altos. In January 1938, they altered it into a 1934A master basso, along with electrolytic faces 562 to 587, all of which were made as 1934s in November 1937, but altered into 1934As. The first 1934A plate directly sourced to basso 134023 was face 588, started on January 7 and certified on the 25th. Plate 134023 lasted as a master until 1942, when platemakers certified it as a production plate on July 3 with macro 307s, alongside contemporary macro plates with serials in the 1660s. It was sent to the plate vault and logged to the pressroom for seven pressruns from July 9, 1942 to June 3, 1943. All 307 Proof of $5 silver certificate face plate 307 made in July 1942, four years after it was altered into a Series of 1934A face from a 1934. (Courtesy National Numismatic Collection.) ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 114 sheets have macro backs and K-A block serials. During 1942-43, the BEP was overprinting silver certificates with yellow seals for use by U.S. armed forces in North Africa and Europe, but continued to print batches of blue seals. Face 307 sheets received both overprints, but are more common with yellow seals. Star notes with face 307 are rare; the blue-seal star is unique. The BEP canceled face 307 on June 19, 1943, after six fruitful years of service. During its time as a master basso, it produced altos that yielded over 200 1934 and 1,100 1934A faces. Today, collectors prize $5 face 307 notes as one of the few plate varieties found on war-overprinted notes. Now they can appreciate the full scope of 307’s history. Sources Cited 1. Yakes, J. (2016). [How the BEP made 1934A FRN face plates]. Unpublished raw data. 2. _____. “Altered 1934A $5 and $10 Federal Reserve Note Master Plates.” Paper Money 56, no. 1 (2017, Jan/Feb): 54-56. W_l]om_ to Our N_w M_m\_rs! \y Fr[nk Cl[rk—SPMC M_m\_rship Dir_]tor NEW MEMBERS 01/05/2017 14583 Bill Reass, Pierre Fricke 14584 Anne Ahlert, Charles Derby 14585 Corey Reynolds, Gregg Bercovitz 14586 Brad Fravel, Frank Clark 14587 Kevin Winger, Website 14588 Alan Schlieper, Website 14589 Alexander Lucas, Website 14590 Ira Zuckerman, Scott Lindquist 14591 Jordon Kalilich, Website 14592 John Busowski, Website REINSTATEMENTS None Life Memberships None NEW MEMBERS 02/05/2017 14593 David Ressler, 8ebsite 14594 David Kurtz, Website 14595 Elmer Powell, Frank Clark 14596 Ben Karnefsky, Website 14597 Steven Roach, Website 14598 Robert Bowes, Jason Bradford 14599 Dick Punchard, Website 14600 Victor Adan, Website 14601 Dennis Hogan, Frank Clark 14602 Larry Thomas, Gregg Bercovitz 14603 Vacant 14604 Chenghao Lin, Website 14605 Vacant 14606 Michael Phillips, Website 14607 Alan Luedeking, Website 14608 Mike W. Thompson, Website REINSTATEMENTS 03580 Harry M. Corrigan, Frank Clark 04901 Frank R. Trask, Frank Clark 05112 Samuel L. Smith, Frank Clark Life Memberships LM433 Ibrahim Salem, Mark Anderson ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 115 INTERESTING MINING NOTES by David E. Schenkman Is It or Isn’t It?  Long ago  I  learned that not all mining notes  include mention of a mine  in their  inscriptions.  In  numerous  instances a “supply company” was associated with, or owned by, a mining company. Some  mercantile companies were also owned by mines. This was prevalent in some parts of the country more  than  in others. For example,  in Colorado  the vast majority of all known coal mine‐related notes were  issued by supply companies.  In most  instances  I have been able to determine, without a great deal of  research, whether a supply or mercantile company note should be included in the catalog of coal mining  notes I have been compiling for many years.  A far greater challenge is a note which only includes the name of a merchant. Naturally, name‐ only notes from many parts of the country are not considered because they are from areas where there  was no mining. But what about an area where mining  is  the major  industry? Listed  from  the  town of  Wellston in Wendell Wolka’s tome, A History of Nineteenth Century Ohio Obsolete Bank Notes and Scrip,  are  notes  from  three  merchants,  and  all  are  mining  companies.  If  any  other  note  from Wellston  surfaced, I’d immediately suspect that it was mining related, unless something in its legend indicated a  completely different type of business.  My  library  includes all the state paper money catalogs that I know of, and I’ve poured through  them  in  search  of  listings  of mining  notes.  Recently, while  looking  up  a  note  in  Richard  T. Hoober’s  Pennsylvania Obsolete Notes and Scrip, I happened to see his listings for the town of Orefield. The one  issuer that he cataloged was James F. Kline, and Hoober listed ten and twenty‐five cents denominations.  There was no illustration, but they were described as having a soldier left, Ceres in the center, and dated  Nov. 1, 1862.  I was immediately interested. After all, it stands to reason that a town by that name would have  something  to do with mining.  I wasn’t able  to  find much  information about Kline, but a  listing  in  the  1874‐1890 Geological Survey of Pennsylvania was for Jas. Kline’s iron ore mine, at Orefield, located one  mile south of Siegersville. The town’s name was “derived from the extensive deposits of  limonite (iron  ore) once mined here.” according to an online source.  That was  enough  for me.  I  searched  through  various  dealers’ web  sites,  and  thanks  to Vern  Potter was able  to purchase  the  illustrated note.  Issued on  the Bank of Catasauqua,  it pictures Major  General George B. McClellan within an oval at the left side, and bears the imprint “Fried Enseote” Print.”  I  assume  that  is  the mark  of Das  Friedensboten,  a German  newspaper which was  located  in  nearby  Allentown, Pennsylvania.  ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 116 I also learned that Kline was born on October 20, 1837 at Klinesgrove, Northumberland County,  Pennsylvania.  On  December  15,  1862  he  enlisted  in  the  army  and  was  commissioned  as  a  second  lieutenant  in  Company  D,  3rd  Pennsylvania  Heavy  Artillery.  He  was  eventually  promoted  to  first  lieutenant,  and was  discharged  on December  12,  1865.  Kline  died  on  June  4,  1888  in Newark, New  Jersey and was buried at Danville, Pennsylvania.   Nothing seemed out of the ordinary so far, and probably I should have  left well enough alone,  but I continued to search for more information on Kline and his mining activities. Surprisingly, there is no  listing for him  in the 1882 Pennsylvania State Gazetteer and Business Directory.  I found the  illustrated  portrait of Kline on an Internet site, and thought it interesting that although  obviously taken at a later time, it somewhat resembles the portrait on the  note.  Possibly  because  Kline  was  an  admirer  of  General  McClellan  he  adopted his distinctive style of mustache.  So,  there  are  unanswered  questions.  It  is  certainly  possible  that  Kline operated a mine prior to his enlistment  in the army. But why would  he  have  issued  notes  six weeks  before  doing  so? And, why would  these  notes  depict  Ceres,  the  goddess  of  agriculture?  A  mining  scene  would  certainly seem more appropriate. Obviously more research  is needed, and  for the time being this note will remain in my “possibly mining related” file.    Comments, questions, suggestions (even criticisms) concerning this  column may be emailed to or mailed to P.O. Box  2866, La Plata, MD 20646.  Watch the website for a way to vote for your favorite author(s), articles, books, and columns. Reward them with your vote! ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 117 The Obsolete Corner The Philadelphia Bank by Robert Gill In this issue of Paper Money I'm going to share with you a very rare Obsolete sheet that came in to my possession several years ago. And that is on The Philadelphia Bank. And first, the history on this incredible old piece of paper money. The Philadelphia Bank originated at a meeting held in the counting house of John Welsh, No. 31 South Wharves, in the city of Philadelphia, on August 3, 1803. Although not chartered, it began business on September 19, 1803, in a rented building on the south side of Chestnut Street between Third Street and Whalebone Alley. It received its charter on March 5, 1804. When this bank was projected in the summer of 1803, there were only three banks in Philadelphia, and only about forty banks in the entire country. Philadelphia was then the chief city of the United States in size and splendor, its chief seaport, and had been the national capitol, which was only recently removed to the newly founded city of Washington. Its leading trades were shipbuilding and the export of flour, sending away 400,000 barrels annually. The need for more banking capital was felt, and this necessity, together with some dissatisfaction caused by existing banking methods, led a large body of merchants to suggest the formation of another bank. The crystallization of this motive into the actual organization of The Philadelphia Bank, and the procuring of the charter from the General Assembly of Pennsylvania, are generally attributed to the guiding genius of John Welsh. He was a leading merchant in the prime of his life. For over a half century he was a director of the institution, until his death at the age of eight-four. Mr. Welch was always called “the Father of the Bank”, and held a very prominent part in its management. His portrait appeared as a vignette on some of the bank’s notes. The bank started operation in a house leased for two years, which was across the street from The Bank of North America. It also had the option to purchase the house and property any time during the two year period, but it never exercised that option, as it did move elsewhere. With the exception of an early pro tempore president, prominent Philadelphian George Clymer was this bank’s first president. The bank very soon began correspondence with banks in other cities relative to opening accounts and exchange of notes. In May of 1806, a committee was appointed to prepare a plan for a permanent location. From this came the first building that this institution owned. By 1808, The Philadelphia Bank was in business on the corner of Fourth and Chestnut Streets. This new Philadelphia building acquired great fame, and was regarded as a conspicuous monument to the city. During its life this bank survived strenuous times caused by the War with England. The suspension of specie payments caused great inconvenience, but was necessary for the bank to continue business. During more than two decades following the War, the finances of Philadelphia and of the country were dominated by the second Bank of the United States. But The Philadelphia Bank, during this period, continued along with its regular business, growing in esteem and strengthening its position by conservative management. It also suffered its share of bank robberies, the Panics of 1837 and 1857, but was able to survive. The bank’s charter expired on March 5, 1824, but was extended for the length of its life. After a long and successful duration of business, it became The Philadelphia National Bank on October 4, 1864. The pictured scan of five dollar notes was printed by Fairman, Draper, Underwood & Co. This printing company was formed from the Murray, Draper, Fairman & Co. in 1823. In 1828 it became the Draper, Underwood & Co. From this, it is understood that this sheet was printed sometime between 1823 and 1828. This particular $5.00 note is listed as SENC in Haxby (with the wrong printer’s imprint), and unlisted in Richard Hoober’s “Pennsylvania Obsolete Notes and Scrip”. Notice that I've also had the enjoyment of finding a sheet of remainder checks on this old institution. As I always do, I invite any comments to my cell phone (580) 221-0898 or my personal email address UNTIL NEXT TIME... HAPPY COLLECTING! ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 118 ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 119 ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 120 Chump Change by Loren Gatch   James Stephen George Boggs, 1955‐2017  Some deaths get to me, not because I have any particular acquaintance with the people in question, but because their passing takes me back to where my head was at the time I first learned of their existence. J.S.G. Boggs, the notorious money artist, was one of those sorts of people. Back in the 1980s, when as an adult I first tumbled down the rabbit hole of money as an object of fascination, Boggs was just embarking on his celebrated career of drawing and spending his own currency—those “Boggs bills” that provoked sharp questions about the nature and basis of value, and which raised the ire of various national authorities besides. His untimely death late this January at the age of 62 saddened me, but it also turned some old lightbulbs on in my head. I pulled off my shelf and re-read Lawrence Weschler’s superb monograph* on Boggs, both as a small tribute to the artist’s legacy and to experience again how he arrived at that distinctive intersection of money and art. The origin story has it that, while sitting in a Chicago diner some time in 1984, Boggs’ doodles of currency on a napkin attracted the attention of a waitress, who accepted it in payment for a cup of coffee, giving him ten cents in change. This first transaction established the template for his subsequent artistic career, which entailed Boggs’ repeated attempts to spend his renditions of official currency at various locales. Far from trying to palm them off as if they were counterfeits—as unauthorized and illicit imitations of the real deal— Boggs openly proffered them as artistic creations, as aesthetic originals in their own right. His notes represented the genuine article, whereas official currency merely consisted of so many— reproductions. Boggs dispersed his creations as if they were ‘only’ money, even to the point of pocketing change from the transactions and insisting on receipts to document them. Indeed, Boggs’ escapades are better understood as a form of performance art: rather than simply create alternative banknotes for satirical or political effect, Boggs sought to turn economic exchange itself into an aesthetic experience, thereby revealing the self- validating dynamics of faith and trust that lie at the heart of otherwise-impersonal economic exchanges. Boggs could have directly sold his notes for official money, as if they were merely pieces of art, but for the most part he did not as that would have contradicted the larger significance of his project. Instead, what Boggs sold were the traces of his transactions—the change, the receipts, and other evidences—to collectors of his work, inviting them to contact the original recipients of his currency creations to negotiate sales that would reunite the currency, the change, and sundry documentation into a single artistic installation. As Boggs’ modus operandi became better known, collector demand for his notes bestowed windfall profits on those recipients intrepid enough to have accepted them in payment for the original transactions. Like Bernard von NotHaus of Liberty Dollar fame, Boggs’ enterprises also ran afoul of the law, and in three separate countries at that. While von NotHaus openly challenged the Federal Reserve, Boggs had a slyer and perhaps more subversive agenda. Rather than questioning the government’s monopoly of money, Boggs wanted to show how value, aesthetic as well as economic, is created by human judgments and choices, and not decreed by government fiat. At the time I first learned about Boggs, I had become interested in the history of depression scrip during the 1930s, and in the unfolding of modern local currency experiments like Ithaca Hours. Thus, the idea of people and communities creating their own money outside of the realm of the law seemed to me entirely plausible, even intuitive. Boggs endured his own encounters with the law, and while I rooted for him throughout his legal travails, I also understood why public authorities were discomfited by his antics. Boggs’ own sense of justice was nuanced. As Weschler tells it, while Boggs disapproved of the 19th century trompe l’oeil painter John Haberle for having caved in to Secret Service pressure to refrain from painting banknotes, he also condemned Emanuel Ninger (“Jim the Penman”) for drawing banknotes only to cheat the unwary. Ninger stole from the innocent, whereas Boggs never meant to rip anyone off, even if that sense of honor meant nothing to the authorities who sought to shut his operation down. And even then, in a more extended sense the legal ordeals these various authorities put Boggs through themselves represented, like the change and receipts of his transactions, part of the documentary record that validated his original intuitions about money and value. If art requires any suffering, then Boggs endured his fair share. *Boggs: A Comedy of Values (University of Chicago Press, 1999). ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 122 President’s Column Mar/Apr 2017 It seems like every time I write this column, at least for three of the six issues per year, it is snowing outside! This time we have a blizzard. Great time to read about paper money and study my collection. Editor Benny Bolin never writes that it is snowing outside in his column (well, he is in Texas and I in Massachusetts). Well, I one upped him this time. I am finishing this column at the Beverly Hilton in Beverly Hills, CA after attending the landmark Ira and Larry Goldberg early American Copper sale Sunday February 12. It’s 75 outside, dry, and sunny! Foolishly, we will get on a plane this Saturday after the Long Beach show and go back to New England… maybe I should stay till April? We did get away for a few weeks in December and January. Beyond family and holidays, we attended the FUN show in Fort Lauderdale, FL. This venue is not a very familiar one to me having only attended one other FUN show here. The beach was most of a mile away and we chose that hotel to enjoy some downtime on the beach away from the everlasting New England winter! The show started off very strong for me and there was a robust attendance on Thursday and Friday. Unfortunately, there was an airport terrorist incident and tragedy which killed several people, disrupted travel for many more and through panic into the airport. Luckily, we were not at the airport and our prayers and thoughts go out to those killed or injured and their families. The SPMC meeting went on as planned Saturday morning. We had something like a dozen or so members and one non-member in attendance. I gave a talk introducing collecting Confederate paper money. These meetings are fun, with introductions, what’s happening on the floor, the discussion and presentations. I encourage more of you to attend. We ended up driving to Tampa and getting back north Sunday. We have another member under consideration for the Board of SPMC, Fred Maples. Mr. Maples is a computer systems analyst, and active hobbyist, antique paper money researcher and collector. He has focused on collecting and researching Maryland’s paper money, particularly that state’s National Bank Notes, and spent a decade researching the material for his recently published book: Maryland Paper Money: An Illustrated History 1864-1935. Mr. Maples’ writings have also appeared in Paper Money and Bank Note Reporter. With approval of the Board and no objections, Fred will be appointed to fill one of the vacant slots before the Kansas City show. We still have another Board slot open and need volunteers willing to lead and make difference in the paper money hobby! Please contact me, Pierre Fricke, The Kansas City International Paper Money Show on June 9-11 grows closer as we move into the new year! It will be held at the Sheraton Kansas City Hotel at Crown Center 2345 McGee St, Kansas City, MO 64108. We are working to set up our honored, time-tested breakfast tradition on Friday morning, however, have run into high prices at the hotel (more than $40 per person). We are working to make alternative arrangements for both the breakfast and the board meeting. Don’t forget to get your exhibit applications in or speaking proposals! See their web site . We are also planning the annual Thomas Bain Raffle held at the SPMC Breakfast. I’ve always had a great time at the Breakfast and the Raffle – a lot of great comradery and joking around occurs – we do have a great time! The Board discussed the annual solicitation for raffle items; Gary Dobbins’ previous solicitation letter process and approach will be again led by Gary, aimed at both dealers and non-dealers. Please consider donating to this Raffle. It makes the breakfast even more fun and helps the Society fund the events at the Kansas City Show. Thank you in advance for your support! The SPMC has been approached by the Eric Newman Portal project to add back issues of our Paper Money magazine. The Newman Portal is a project hosted by Washington University in St Louis at this link Per the Portal, “The all-seeing eye is emblematic of the Newman Numismatic Portal, the goal of which is to freely share a vast online store of both printed and virtual numismatic resources. Books, periodicals, ephemera, as well as online forums and auction offerings will be captured in one location, freely available, and searchable from anywhere in the world. With unprecedented knowledge at their disposal, collectors and researchers will gain greater appreciation for numismatic science and more clearly discern fact from fiction.” The SPMC Paper Money magazine is one of the benefits of membership, so we will carefully consider all the plusses and minuses of digitizing Paper Money and making it more broadly available. One compromise is to contribute all back issues up to five years ago, and refresh the Newman Portal each year. Please feel free to contact me with your ideas and input. Have a great numismatic spring! Pierre Fricke ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 123 Editor Sez Well, spring has sprung although it has been springing from spring to winter almost daily here in the great country of Texas. It has been a weird weather season. One day it is cold and the next day it is warm enough to turn on the A/C (air conditioner for those of you in the great frozen north). No wonder so many people are sick—myself included. I have had a case of bronchitis that I just cannot shake for almost a month. Finally went to the doctor (nurses think, know, we know it all) and got meds but they did not do too much. Oh well. This is the second issue of the new year and it is a big one. Thanks in no small part to a massive article by Peter Huntoon that caps an almost 5 (yes five) year research project on Treasury signatures on National Bank Notes. He has them all listed in tables so I put the article at the back so that if you wanted to take those pages out you could without sacrificing the entire issue. The next issue is well on its way and it has a little bit of everything, obsoletes, confederates, etc. What I really need are some large size and more national articles. Any size will do but 3-6 pages would be great. Write about your geographic national collection, your favorite town or about all the buffs and chiefs you have. How about an article on all the $500 and $1000 notes you have. Got a few postcards?, Large size? Let’s see ‘em! How about those Canucks—an article on Canadian banknotes? Make plans now to attend the new IPMS in KC in June. The board is working hard to continue on the tradition of the SPMC breakfast and Tom Bain Raffle but we are running into a few issues related to some who think $40 for breakfast if a bargain—NOT. Those details will be on our website as soon as we finalize them and in the next edition. If you want to donate to the Tom Bain Raffle, contact me or any governor and we will gladly take your donation that is a charitable write-off! Check the website around the end of March as we will be posting the 2016 article and books for you to vote on. Our authors do not get paid for their submissions so reward them with your vote. Also, if you have a deserving individual for one of our service awards, please let President Fricke know. Our service awards include;  Nathan Gold award for meritorious service  Founders Award for exemplary service in the last year  Forest Daniel Literary Award Also, every year we have an election for board members. Unfortunately most years there is not a full slate so there is no contested election. This year, we confirm our two new members, Joshua Herbstman and J. Fred Maples along with current incumbents Loren Gatch and Mark Anderson. Not only will these four seats be up for election for a three year term, but we also have a vacant position if anyone is interested in applying to fill it. It is integral for us to have a full slate of governors to do the business of the society so join us! Until early May—May your end of rainbow gold pots be filled with gold certificates and your pockets change be silver chiefs and paper buffs. Benny Texting and Driving—It can wait! ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 124 $500 Counterfeit Program by Bob Ayers In 2015 I became interested in the old Soviet program to counterfeit US 1914 $100 Federal Reserve Notes. After some flailing around, I contacted Doug Murray, who very graciously provided me with all the research he had done on the program. Doug also said that he had stopped actively compiling a list of serial numbers of these counterfeits. He steered me to several original sources about the program - and I was hooked! I read all I could find and then turned to the Freedom of Information Act to see what was held in official files about this old Soviet operation. I submitted several requests in a manner that I thought would ensure no relevant information would be overlooked. I was quite surprised to discover that one of the releases of FOIA information contained no information at all about the Soviet operation to counterfeit 1914 $100 FRNs. Instead, it covered another program, namely one that counterfeited United States 1882 and 1922 $500 Gold Certificates. The released files were incomplete and contained letters from the US Embassy in Berlin Germany, the Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of State, and an amazingly large number of translations of investigative reports from the Commissioner of Police, German Central Office for the Suppression of Counterfeiting. While the Germans were simultaneously investigating a related program to counterfeit British £100 notes, I tried to use only the material relating to the counterfeiting of US Gold Certificates in this article. It was very hard to arrange all the material in chronological order, given the time it had taken to translate the German reports and the delayed reporting of these translations in US channels. As I tried to piece the time-line together, I sometimes found myself chuckling at the behaviour of the bureaucrats involved. The US Embassy in Berlin met with the German police, who seemed to want to investigate the counterfeits immediately. The Embassy was reluctant to give the OK to the German police and instead passed the question of what to do back to the State Department, who in turn consulted the Treasury. The latter then told State to instruct the Embassy to tell the Germans to do whatever they thought needed to be done. Things never change. What follows is my best effort to tell the story of the counterfeit $500 Gold Certificates. On October 8, 1930, George A. Gordon, then Charge d’affaires in the US Embassy Berlin reported that a person signed into the Embassy visitors’ book as “G”, “S”, or “L” Frank. Frank asked to see the Ambassador but was sent to Mr Gordon instead. Frank said he owned a house at Bulow Strasse 99 that he rented out. One of his tenants, whom Frank refused to name and was subsequently referred to as “X”, had told Frank that there was a “gigantic plot afoot in Russia to counterfeit American bills or bank notes to the extent of billions of dollars”. Frank went on to tell Gordon that a Soviet courier, on his last trip to Berlin, had given “X” two $500 US bank notes. “X” had suggested that Frank might wish to pass this currency and make some money but he, Frank, had declined and said he was going to report the approach to the American Embassy. Frank told Gordon he had no wish to be involved in this counterfeiting program and wanted simply to report it to the Embassy and then leave the Americans to get on with it. Frank suggested that “X” might want to sell information or counterfeit bank notes to the Embassy. Frank then pulled two $500 notes out of his wallet and showed them to Gordon, who said he was not qualified to determine whether the notes were bogus. He asked Frank to leave the notes behind, but Frank adamantly refused to do so and left. The Embassy contacted the Berlin official, Kriminal Kommissar von Lieberman, who specialised in counterfeit investigations. Several courses of action as to what to do about the counterfeit $500s were discussed with the German Police. After this discussion, Gordon did what all good State Department officials do – on October 13, he wrote to the State Department seeking guidance on whether to buy the counterfeits. State promptly forwarded Gordon’s letter to the Treasury asking if they wanted to buy the counterfeits. Subsequently, on November 5, State Department sent the Treasury a copy of a “strictly confidential” dispatch no. 547, dated October 13, from the US Embassy in Berlin in which the walk-in of Frank and the initial reporting of the counterfeit $500 notes was made. On November 11, the Assistant Secretary of the Treasury replied, saying that the US Secret Service (which reports to the Treasury dept) had reported that counterfeit $500 Gold Certificates were known to be in circulation overseas but had never been seen in the United States. The letter also said the few specimens that had been detected in foreign bank shipments had been traced to Greece, but their place of origin was unknown. The note was described as being a “gold certificate of the Series of 1922 (old size currency). Check letter “C”, face plate 2, h. V. Speelman, Register of the Treasury, Frank White, Treasurer of the United States, portrait of Lincoln”. The letter further stated, “This is an extremely dangerous counterfeit printed from photo-etched plates of excellent workmanship on bleached genuine paper. The most outstanding characteristic indicating its spurious ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 125 quality is the Lincoln portrait, which is shaded too heavily and reflects a sooty appearance, the top part of the portrait oval reveals a rough curve where the cross-hatch lines converge. The ornate medallions upon which the serial numbers are impressed are executed in a pale shade of orange instead of the bright tint which features on the genuine notes, and the large word GOLD which blends with the legend above the Treasury seal is likewise printed in a light orange tone. The paper seems to have been softened as a result of the blending process”. This letter closed with the statement that “The Department will appreciate it if Mr. Gordon is instructed to ask Mr Von Lieberman to make such investigations as might be deemed appropriate and inform our Embassy of the results thereof for the benefit of this Department. In the event counterfeit United States currency differing from that described above is involved, the Department would appreciate a specimen thereof or if that is not practicable, as detailed a description as may be obtainable, indicating particularly whether the note is of the new or older size currency”. On January 5, 1931, the American Embassy in Berlin telegraphed the State Department saying “An investigation by the police today, after a conference with the Reichsbank, indicates that the matter may be very serious. If this American note is counterfeit, it is pronounced an extremely clever one. This note is valuable for protection and further investigation. Strongly urge its purchase at the prices indicated”. On January 6, a Treasury Department draft of a proposed reply to the Embassy in Berlin was prepared. The draft reply stated, “The Treasury Department sees no advantage in purchasing the counterfeit five hundred dollar note from Mr Arnoldt (not further identified) but is anxious to receive an accurate description of the bill. Representatives of the Treasury Department are due to attend a conference on the suppression of counterfeiting at Geneva March fourth and will visit Berlin shortly before that date”. Fortunately, saner heads eventually prevailed at Treasury. An Under-Secretary of the Treasury Memorandum dated January 7 states, “After conference with Chief Moran and the Secretary, I requested Assistant Secretary Castle to cable Mr Sackett (U. S. Ambassador in Berlin) to acquire the American counterfeit note and state that after we had the opportunity to study it, we would determine whether it was advisable to send someone over. I also suggested it would be advisable for Sackett to inform British as to the counterfeit £100 note”. On January 12 the US Embassy in Berlin, after being directed to purchase the bank note, transmitted the $500 Gold Certificate serial number D46420 to the Treasury. While some of the original material is missing, the next part of the story of the purchase of the bogus note is seen in a Department of State “Strictly Confidential” letter to the Secretary of the Treasury. This letter refers to the November 5 letter to the Treasury forwarding the report from the US Embassy in Berlin and conversations between State and Treasury officials. It then refers to Embassy dispatch 703 of January 12 1931, which forwarded the $500 Gold Certificate to the Treasury. The letter ends with the rather abrupt sentence, “This note was purchased by the Embassy upon authorization of the Treasury Dept communicated January 7, 1931 by Mr. Mills and Mr. Castle”. I can only assume there was a bureaucratic squabble as to which Department’s budget had to absorb the cost of purchasing the $500 note: the State Department, whose Embassy made the purchase, or the Treasury Department, who instructed State to do so. The question of who actually absorbed the cost of purchasing the counterfeit $500 note is lost to history. Meanwhile, it appears that Von Lieberman had received the US guidance to investigate the counterfeits (or had elected to do so on his own initiative), and the investigation rapidly picked up momentum. On January 17, in “Report #1”, Von Lieberman, Chief of Police, German Center for Combatting Counterfeiting, Berlin wrote a summary report that attributed the counterfeits of British £100 notes, under simultaneous investigation by the Germans, to the Russians in Moscow. He said, however, that the German Center for Combatting Counterfeiting and experts of the Reichsbank were unable to determine whether the $500 Gold Certificates that had been purchased by the US Embassy and provided to the German police for analysis were counterfeit owing to their high quality. On January 24, the Secretary of the Treasury sent a letter to the US Secretary of State reporting that the $500 note purchased by the US Embassy was indeed counterfeit. This is an interesting letter in that it shows that the State department (and its Embassy in Berlin) were now working with the German police and simply informing the Treasury department as they thought appropriate. On February 23, in “Report #3” Von Lieberman reported that counterfeit $500 notes had continued to appear in small quantities in Europe. The focus of the investigation turned to a chocolate factory owned by one Arkady Urelsky-Udinseff. When confronted with the accusation that he was passing counterfeit $500 notes, Udinseff declared himself to be guilty. Pressed by the German Police to reveal where the plates were for making the counterfeit banknotes, Udinseff initially refused to do so. According to the German Police, they then “convinced” Udinseff that it would be in everyone’s interest if the plates could be discovered before they could do more harm. Under Udinseff’s guidance, the concrete floor of his chocolate factory was broken and dug up and a round metal box containing 90 $500 notes of both types (i.e. 1882 and 1922 $500 Gold Certificates and 66 British £100 notes). ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 126 The Police also located 30 genuine US banknotes that had been bleached and eight half-sheets of such paper. Two plates for the British £100 notes, seven plates for the two types of counterfeit $500 Gold Certificates, and a rather large number of smaller parts were discovered hidden inside a chocolate cake. On February 25, the German Police issued “Report #5” in which the results of the raid on Udinseff’s chocolate factory were itemized. (See attachment entitled “Confiscated Currency Characteristics and Serial Numbers.) On March 10, the Embassy in Berlin transmitted “Strictly Confidential” Dispatch 796 to State, forwarding two 500 Gold Certificates that the Embassy had received from the German Police. The Embassy explained, “The 500 dollar American notes consisted of two series, one of 1882 and one of 1922. Upon my request, Von Liebermann delivered to me one sample of each – No. D77165 of the 1992 series; and no. E 56995 of the 1922 Series”. Almost three weeks later, on April 1, the State Department finally forwarded the Embassy Dispatch with the two Gold Certificates, to the Treasury Department. The story of the counterfeit $500 Gold certificates appeared to end with the raid on the chocolate factory and confiscation of notes and plates. It seemed that the only issues that continued to concern authorities, both German and American, was whether the Soviet Government was behind the counterfeiting. The tale does not, however, end there. For on May 11, 1932 - over a year after the raid on the chocolate factory - the Secret Service forwarded two counterfeit $500 Gold Certificates to the Secret Service Headquarters. The letter stated, “Enclosed herewith are two counterfeit $500 Gold Certificates surrendered to this office yesterday by the CHASE NATIONAL BANK, New York, as having come from the BANCA COMMERCIAL ITALIANA, Trieste, Italy. The CHASE NATIONAL BANK is desirous of complying with a request from the Italian bank that these notes be returned for reclamation purposes. Will you kindly inform me whether or not this request can be complied with? Signed Alan G. Straight” On May 12 the two notes were returned to Alan Straight with the instruction to return them to the Italian bank as they had requested. On January 19, 1933 - two years after the raid on the chocolate factory - the German Police sent a letter to the US Secret Service. This letter, from the German Commissioner of Police, was addressed directly to the Secret Service Division of the Treasury. It states, “I have the honor to enclose two counterfeit $500 Gold Certificates, Nos. D-46452E and D-77139E, with request that you furnish us with an expert opinion as to their exact character. The notes have been stopped as counterfeit by the Reichsbank to which they were delivered by the International Commercial Bank of Kattowitz, Poland”. The significance of these last two referenced reports of Gold Certificates appearing in Italy one year, and in Poland two years, after the January 1931 German Police raid on the Berlin chocolate factory clearly indicates that more $500 Gold Certificates were produced and passed than were confiscated in the raid. While the serial numbers of the two notes discovered by the Chase Bank were not reported, the other two reported by the German Police in 1933 were identified by series and serial number. The 1882 series note with the serial number of D-46452 falls into the gap between notes numbered D-46451 and D-56453 confiscated in the chocolate factory raid. The 1882 Series note numbered D-77139E (sic) reflects the lowest serial number of the $500 gold certificates with the corrected red Treasury Seal. The closest numbered known counterfeits from the chocolate factory raid are numbered: D-77135, D-77143, D-77145 and D-77152. Another point to reinforce this author’s belief that more notes were passed can be substantiated by the note that was purchased by the Berlin Embassy and sent to State Department in January 1931. This note bears the serial number D46420. An examination of the serial numbers of notes confiscated in the chocolate factory raid shows the serial numbers of the 1882 notes with the corrected seal begins with note number 46437. This suggests that the 17 counterfeit notes between D46420 and D46437 are missing. While one may draw their own conclusions of how many $500 Gold Certificates were produced that were not confiscated in the raid, we can be fairly confident that there were at least five (one purchased by the Berlin Embassy, two found by the Chase Bank and two found in Poland and sent to the German Police). It is unfortunate that the serial numbers of the two notes confiscated by the CHASE Bank were not recorded. It is also very clear from the serial numbering of the two notes discovered by the German Police in January 1933 that these two notes were produced during the original counterfeiting program of 1930/1931. While unlikely, it is possible that some of these counterfeit $500 Gold Certificates have ended up in someone’s currency collection. I would caution any prospective purchaser of an 1882 or 1922 Gold Certificate to examine it carefully against the detailed information contained in the attachment. Lastly, there seem to be many interconnections between this counterfeiting program and the counterfeiting of 1914 $100 Federal Reserve Notes. The timing of these two programs (around 1930), their location (Berlin) and even some of the same players involved suggest to me, at least, that there is a connection between the two counterfeiting efforts. Perhaps that will be my next to question to explore. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 127 Treasury Signatures on National Bank Notes RARE AND SCARCE SIGNATURES Table 1, which is appended to this article, is a comprehensive listing by series and bank of the rare and scarce signature combinations found on national bank notes. Tables 2 and 3 list the banks that issued Series of 1902 notes bearing the semi-scarce Napier-Thompson and Napier-Burke combinations. SELECTION OF TREASURY SIGNATURES The original language in the National Bank Act stated “Such notes shall express upon their face that they are secured by United States bonds, deposited with the Treasurer of the United States, by the written or engraved signatures of the Treasurer and Register, and by the imprint of the seal of the Treasury; and shall express upon their face the promise of the association receiving the same to pay on demand, attested by the signatures of the president or vice president and cashier.” The presence of the treasury signatures and treasury seal certified that the bonds had been deposited as the first step in monetizing the notes although technically the notes were not considered monetized until signed by the bank officers. The treasury signatures served to sanction the notes as legitimate money issued under the purview of the U. S. Treasury as authorized by Congress. When a treasury signer left office, his signature continued to be used until his successor took office. The periods during which the various signature combinations were current are listed on Table 4. The protocol adopted by the Comptroller’s office was that the treasury signatures on large size national bank notes were those current on the plate date written in script within the bank title block. There were exceptions. The Paper Column by Peter Huntoon Figure 1. The 5-5-5-5 Original Series plate for The Farmers & Mechanics National Bank of Mercer, Pennsylvania (2256), was altered into a Series of 1875 during the critical period between May 1 and June 17, 1885, when the Bruce-Jordan combination was current. It was the only Series of 1875 plate that bore Bruce- Jordan signatures. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 128 The selection of plate dates was somewhat convoluted and changed over time, a topic treated in Huntoon (2002). Suffice it to say that batch dates were used that reflected when banks were chartered until August 1870 and from then until 1882 when plates were ordered. Thereafter most plates carried one of the following: date of organization, date of charter, date of extension or date of title change. Batch dates continued to be used for new plate combinations ordered mid-series from 1882 through March 1898. Plate dates often did not correspond to when plates were manufactured or altered. For example, the plate dates were left unchanged during 1908-9 when Series of 1882 and 1902 face plates were altered for printing date backs by inclusion of the words “or other securities.” The oldest dates on the Series of 1882 plates that were altered in 1908-9 were from the late 1880s coupled with Rosecrans-Huston signatures. Great care was taken prior to 1911 to mate signature combinations with plate dates. This is illustrated by what happened with the Series of 1882 10-10-10-20 plate for The Central National Bank of Washington, District of Columbia (2382) and 5-5-5-5 for The Annville National Bank, Pennsylvania (2384). Both were made in anticipation of extensions of the corporate lives of the banks and respectively bore extension dates of April 12 and April 18, 1898. They were certified for use on March 15 and March 2, respectively, so they carried Bruce-Roberts signatures. However, Blanche Bruce left office on March 17th and was replaced by Judson Lyons April 7th. Bruce’s signature was replaced by Roberts on both, and the plates were recertified for use on April 23 and April 22, respectively, before being sent to press. Table 4. Dates during which treasury signature combinations  were current on national bank notes.  Register  Treasurer  Period when Current  Lucius E. Chittenden  Francis E. Spinner  Apr 17, 1861 ‐ Aug 10, 1864  S. B. Colby  Francis E. Spinner  Aug 11, 1864 ‐ Oct 4, 1867  Noah L. Jeffries  Francis E. Spinner  Oct 5, 1867 ‐ Apr 2, 1869  John Allison  Francis E. Spinner  Apr 3, 1869 ‐ Jun 30, 1875  John Allison  John C. New  Jun 30, 1875 ‐ Jul 1, 1876  John Allison  A. U. Wyman  Jul 1, 1876 ‐ Jun 30, 1877  John Allison  James Gilfillan  Jul 1, 1877 ‐ Mar 31, 1878  Glenni W. Scofield  James Gilfillan  Apr 1, 1878 ‐ May 20, 1881  Blanche K. Bruce  James Gilfillan  May 21, 1881 ‐ Mar 31, 1883  Blanche K. Bruce  A. U. Wyman  Apr 1, 1883 ‐ Apr 30, 1885  Blanche K. Bruce  Conrad N. Jordan  May 1, 1885 ‐ Jun 7, 1885  William S. Rosecrans  Conrad N. Jordan  Jun 8, 1885 ‐ May 23, 1887  William S. Rosecrans  James W. Hyatt  May 24, 1887 ‐ May 10, 1889  William S. Rosecrans  J. N. Huston  May 11, 1889 ‐ Apr 24, 1891  William S. Rosecrans  Enos H. Nebeker  Apr 25, 1891 ‐ May 31, 1893  William S. Rosecrans  Daniel N. Morgan  Jun 1, 1893 ‐ Jun 30, 1893  James F. Tillman  Daniel N. Morgan  Jul 1, 1893 ‐ Jun 30, 1897  James F. Tillman  Ellis H. Roberts  Jul 1, 1897 ‐ Dec 2, 1897  Blanche K. Bruce  Ellis H. Roberts  Dec 3, 1897 ‐ Apr 6, 1898  Judson W. Lyons  Ellis H. Roberts  Apr 7, 1898 ‐ Jun 30, 1905  Judson W. Lyons  Charles H. Treat  Jul 1, 1905 ‐ Jun 11, 1906  William T. Vernon  Charles H. Treat  Jun 12, 1906 ‐ Oct 31, 1909  William T. Vernon  Lee McClung  Nov 1, 1909 ‐ May 17, 1911  James C. Napier  Lee McClung  May 18, 1911 ‐ Nov 21, 1912  James C. Napier  Carmi A. Thompson  Nov 22, 1912 ‐ Mar 31, 1913  James C. Napier  John Burke  Apr 1, 1913 ‐ Oct 1, 1913  Gabe E. Parker  John Burke  Oct 1, 1913 ‐ Mar 23, 1915  Houston B. Teehee  John Burke  Mar 24, 1915 ‐ Nov 20, 1919  William S. Elliott  John Burke  Nov 21, 1919 ‐ May 1, 1921  William S. Elliott  Frank White May 2, 1921 ‐ Jan 24, 1922 ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 129 MISMATED SIGNATURES AND DATES Mating of treasury signatures with plate dates was so ingrained; it is worthwhile to dispense with the exceptions at the outset in order to clear the table of them. Original Series Exceptions Three banks chartered at the beginning of the Jeffries-Spinner era, which lasted from October 5, 1867 to April 2, 1869, used plates bearing a December 24, 1867 plate date, but those plates carried obsolete Colby-Spinner signatures. Those issuers were Davenport, Iowa (1671), Atchison, Kansas (1672) and Warner, New Hampshire (1674). The Colby-Spinner notes issued from them represent the earliest known examples where the signature combination was not mated to the plate date. Series of 1875 Exceptions There were three systematic groups of exceptions to the mating of signatures and plate dates within the Series of 1875. (1) Current treasury signatures were added, but the date left unchanged, when Original Series plates were altered into Series of 1875 plates. The alteration of an Original Series plate into a Series of 1875 form could be greatly delayed if the stock of Original Series sheets for a given combination was large or orders from the bank for the combination were not forthcoming for a number of years. The result was the appearance of some very young treasury signatures coupled with early plate dates. A good example involved the last Original Series 5-5-5-5 plate that was altered into a Series of 1875. That plate was for The Nokomis National Bank of Nokomis, Illinois (1934). The Series of 1875 version was certified for use November 29, 1890. The 1872 vintage Allison-Spinner signatures on it were replaced by the 1890 Rosecrans-Huston combination; however, the 1872 plate date was retained. Figure 2. The 5-5-5-5 Series of 1882 plate for The Annville National Bank, Pennsylvania (2384), carrying an April 18, 1898 date of extension and Lyons- Bruce signatures was certified on March 2, 1898. Roberts replaced Bruce on April 7 necessitating that the plate be altered to show Roberts’ signature in order to conform to the plate date. The plate was recertified with the change on April 22. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 130 The very last Original Series plate to be converted into a Series of 1875 was the 10-10-10-20 for The Marine National Bank of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (2237), bearing an April 15, 1875 plate date and Allison-Spinner signatures. The Series of 1875 version ended up with Rosecrans-Nebeker signatures of 1891-3 vintage. (2) Current treasury signatures were used, but the plate date was left unchanged, when replacement plates were made during the early part of the Series of 1875 era. This practice appears to have ceased by the end of 1878. Thereafter the signatures and date on replacement plates were the same as found on the plate that was being replaced. (3) Current treasury signatures were added to some, but not all, Series of 1875 plates that were reentered during 1878. The plate date was left unchanged. Afterward, the signatures and date were left as was on reentered plates. Reentry refers to the process of refurbishing worn design elements, usually the portraits. The odyssey of the Original Series 5-5-5-5 plate for The Union National Bank of Weymouth, Massachusetts (510), is worth recounting. It started life with a plate date of September 8, 1864 and Colby- Spinner signatures. These were changed to Allison-New when the plate was altered into the Series of 1875 form. Next the plate was reentered in June 1878 resulting in yet a third pair of signatures, this time Scofield-Gilfillan! Figure 3. This progress proof exhibits the tooling marks left as Colby-Spinner signatures were being removed during the alteration of an Original Series into a Series of 1875 plate. Bruce-Wyman signatures were used on the Series of 1875 version. Notice that the Printed at the Bureau of Engraving and Printing medallion hadn’t been placed above the title yet either. Figure 4. The Original/1875 plate for this Weymouth, Massachusetts, bank eventually carried three different sets of treasury signatures, although the plate date remained September 8, 1864. The Original Series version carried Colby-Spinner signatures who were in office on the plate date. The Allison-New combination came along when the plate was altered into the Series of 1875 form. The Scofield-Gilfillan combination was used when the plate was reentered in 1878. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 131 Series of 1902 Exceptions Careful mating of signatures with plate dates was ignored on Series of 1902 plates for a dozen new banks between 1915 and 1921, and for a couple of hundred extending banks between 1911 and 1922, after which extensions ceased. In all such cases, the previous signature combination continued to be used instead of the current. The net effect was that use of a given signature combination started late and finished late. See Tables 5 and 6 at the end of this article for a listing of all of these oddities. These delays occurred because personnel in the Comptroller’s office began to assign arbitrary startup dates for the use of new signature combinations. Furthermore, the startup dates could be different depending on whether the bank was new or extending. Examples of formal orders authorizing such startup dates appear in the Napier-Thompson section. SCARCE, RARE AND UNUSED SIGNATURES Table 1 at the end of this article is a listing of the banks and their sheet combinations that bear the scarcest signature combinations found on national bank notes. The following sections explain the factors that converged to create them. Figure 5. This Series of 1902 plain back from Clifton, Arizona (5821), carries an extension date of May 14, 1921, and Elliott-Burke signatures. The Elliott-White combination became current on May 2, so the Elliott-Burke signatures are mismated with the plate date. This type of date-signature mismatch occurred occasionally between 1911 and 1922, whereas it was scrupulously avoided at other times. Figure 6. The First National Bank of McGehee, Arkansas (13280), was the first of only four banks to receive notes with the very scarce Jones-Wood signature combination on large size nationals. Notice the 1929 plate date. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 132 Short Joint Tenures The most obvious reason for scarce combinations were those that were current for brief periods. The two shortest were Bruce-Jordan (38 days) and Rosecrans-Morgan (30 days); respectively, May 1- June 7, 1885 and June 1-30, 1893. The Farmers & Mechanics National Bank of Mercer, Pennsylvania (2256), was the only bank in the country to receive Series of 1875 notes with Bruce-Jordan signatures. By chance, the 5-5-5-5 Original Series plate for the bank was altered into a Series of 1875 during the critical May 1-June 7, 1885 window so the Bruce-Jordan combination landed on its $5 notes. The Rosecrans-Morgan combination appeared on the Series of 1882 brown back issues from only eleven banks. Seven were chartered and the other four extended during their June 1-30, 1893 tenure. Nine survived beyond 1908 to issue Rosecrans-Morgan Series of 1882 date backs as well. The relatively short lived Woods-White, Woods-Tade and Jones-Woods combinations at the end of the Series of 1902 are very scarce. They are found only on plates for new banks because extensions no longer were occurring and title changes at that time no longer resulted in new plate dates and signatures. Adding to their scarcity is the fact that at that time many new banks eligible to receive notes elected not to issue under the terms of an act passed June 21, 1917 that absolved bankers of the obligation to purchase bonds to secure circulations. Consequently, the number of issuers using notes bearing these treasury signature combinations was small. Cap on Issues One of the rarest treasury signature combinations on national bank notes is Jeffries-Spinner. Theirs was not a case of rarity attributed to brief service together; rather it was caused by a paucity of bank organizations during their joint tenure. Figure 7. This is the only reported Jeffries-Spinner note bearing bank sheet serial number 1. The Jeffries-Spinner combination is not rare owing to a short joint tenure in office, but rather for a lack of charterings caused by a limit on national bank circulation in effect during their service. Only 14 banks received notes with this signature combination. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 133 The Noal L. Jeffries-Francis E. Spinner signature combination was used only on Original Series notes. Only 14 banks in the country received notes with the combination but not all of the plates made for them used it. Jeffries and Spinner served together between October 5, 1867 and March 15, 1869; however, their signatures remained current through April 2, 1869, because John Allison didn’t assumed office after Jeffries’ departure until April 3rd. Under normal circumstances such a year and a half period was long enough that many hundreds of banks should have been chartered and received notes with their signatures. However, fate in the form of a very technical constraint caused their signature combination to become among the rarest on nationals. The National Bank Acts of February 25, 1863 and June 3, 1864 placed a $300 million cap on total national bank circulation, a number that was reached in 1866. The officers of new banks organized thereafter had to agree to waive their right to receive circulation. The profit to be made on circulation was a major incentive for organizing a national bank so without it few bankers bothered. The result was that new organizations practically ceased beginning in 1866; a situation that prevailed through July 1870. The Civil War was over, confidence in national currency was rising, and profits from circulation were excellent. The brake on the system was the limit on total circulation. The numbers of new banks chartered during this period were a paltry 39 in 1866, 10 in 1867, 13 in 1868 and 8 in 1869. National bank organizations had cratered from 944 in 1865. Consequently, the demand for new plates - plates that would bear Jeffries-Spinner signatures - dropped to a trickle. Most of the banks chartered during the Jeffries-Spinner era that received circulation did so under provisions of an 1865 amendment to the National Bank Act that called for apportionment by state of half the total $300 million circulation based on population. Consequently, the Comptroller moved circulation to under-represented states so new banks chartered in them were able to get notes. Four banks chartered during the Jeffries-Spinner era sidestepped the cap on circulation through an arcane technicality. They moved. There were no provisions in national banking law that permitted bankers to move prior to May 1, 1886. The only way they could relocate to greener pastures was to win passage of a special act or resolution of Congress allowing for the move. If they chose to avoid the hassle of gaining Congressional approval, their only other option was to liquidate their existing bank and organize a new one in the new locale. Four banks did just that in 1868 during the Jeffries-Spinner era. They were The First National Bank of Downington, Pennsylvania (338) to The First National Bank of Honeybrook (1676); The First National Bank of New Brunswick, New Jersey (208) to The Princeton National Bank (1681); The Second National Bank of Des Moines, Iowa (485) to The Pacific National Bank of Council Bluffs (1684), and The First National Bank of Plumer, Pennsylvania (854) to The First National Bank of Sharon (1685). Comptroller of the Currency Hiland R. Hulburd treated the new banks as reincarnations of the predecessors. He thereby allowed each to take out circulation as fast as the circulation of the predecessor came in for redemption, thus circumventing consideration of the $300 million cap. If, however, the bankers bought bonds for their new bank in excess of those held by the predecessor, circulation could not be taken out against the overage. When the smoke cleared, twenty-one banks with charter numbers between 1671 and 1691 were eligible to receive notes with Jeffries-Spinner signatures. Most got them for at least some of their plate combinations. However, two things caused other signatures to appear on their plates. Three of the banks chartered at the beginning of the Jeffries-Spinner era used plates bearing a December 24, 1867 plate date, but those plates mistakenly carried obsolete Colby-Spinner signatures. Those banks were Davenport, Iowa (1671), Atchison, Kansas (1672) and Warner, New Hampshire (1674). Four of the eligible banks had to defer issuing until Congress raised the cap on circulation by another $54 million in the Act of July 12, 1870. When plates finally were ordered for them, they bore younger batch dates coupled with Allison-Spinner signatures owing to the delay. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 134 From 21 eligibles, the list of anointed got winnowed down to 14. Some of the remaining fourteen banks that did receive Jeffries-Spinner notes ordered other Original Series plate combinations after the Jeffries-Spinner era. They carried younger batch dates so had Allison-Spinner signatures. This explains why some of the Original Series plate combinations used by those banks are missing from the Jeffries-Spinner list on Table 1. The Jeffries-Spinner signatures did not survive beyond the Original Series because the Original Series plates were made by the bank note companies. The Bureau of Engraving and Printing put the current treasury signatures on those plates when they were altered into Series of 1875 forms. Prior to his stint as Register of the Treasury, Noel F. Jeffries (1828-1896) served in the Civil War, first as a lst Lieutenant in the Adjunct 59th New York Infantry. He left the service on March 13, 1865, at the rank of Brevet Brigadier General, noted for faithful and meritorious services in the recruitment of the Armies of the United States. Discontinued Series. A series was considered to be discontinued when it no longer was assigned to new banks. The Series of 1875 was discontinued in 1882 and the Series of 1882 in 1902. However, the last banks to receive notes from those series continued issuing them until 1902 and 1922, respectively. Discontinued series led to the creation of most of the rarest signature combinations found on nationals. Series of 1875 There were only three ways new signatures could get on Series of 1875 plates after the series was discontinued in 1882. They resulted from (1) alterations of Original Series plates into Series of 1875 plates, (2) title changes and (3) orders for new plate combinations. These circumstances yielded all the Series of 1875 entries on Table 1. The protocols in these situations were as follows. Current signatures were placed on the altered Original Series plates although the old plate dates were left as was. New plates were made following title changes that carried title change dates and corresponding current signatures. New plate combinations made through March 1898 carried batch dates and signatures that reflected when the plates were made. The bank note companies were required by Congress to turn over the printing of national bank notes to the Bureau of Engraving and Printing beginning in 1875. Bureau personnel altered the existing Original Series plates into Series of 1875 plates in order to distinguish the notes printed by the Bureau. Those that were altered from late 1882 forward gave rise to most of the entries for the Bruce-Wyman and Rosecrans-Jordan Series of 1875 entries on Table 1. The rarest of Series of 1875 signature combination is Rosecrans-Hyatt, which was current between May 24, 1887 and May 10, 1889. Five banks received them, four because of title changes and one through alteration of an Original Series plate. Figure 8. Only five banks received Rosecrans-Hyatt signatures on their Series of 1875 notes. This $100 resulted from a title and town name change from The South Pueblo National Bank of South Pueblo, Colorado. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 135 Notice that a significant percentage of the scarce Series of 1875 Rosecrans-Huston, Rosecrans- Nebeker and Tillman-Morgan occurrences on Table 1 owe their existence to state admissions. The state version of those plates carried admission day as the plate date, a special type of title change date. Series of 1882 The use of post-1902 signature combinations on Series of 1882 notes was limited solely to production from title changes plates. That story was made considerably richer thanks to the advent of the different backs. The date backs came online in 1908 and the value backs in 1915. Successively fewer banks were still issuing the series at each of these junctures, which lofted the rarity of the post-1902 signature combinations on the date and value backs through the roof. An example involves the unique Lyons-Treat occurrences in the date and value back issues from The First National Bank of Hereford, Texas (5604). These two rarities came about because the title of the bank was changed from The Hereford National Bank on February 17, 1906. Only two banks used Parker-Burke Series of 1882 date back plates, The First National Banks of Gaffney, South Carolina (5064) and Woonsocket, South Dakota (5946). Both resulted from title changes in 1914. The Woonsocket bank went on to issue value backs, yielding for it the distinction of being the only bank to issue Parker-Burke value backs. Figure 9. A title change to The First National Bank in 1906 resulted in a new 10-10- 10-20 plate, yielding for this bank in Hereford, Texas, the distinction of being the only one to issue Series of 1882 date and value backs with Lyons-Treat signatures. Figure 10. A title change to The First National Bank in 1914 caused this bank in Gaffney, North Carolina, to be one of two banks in the country to issue Series of 1882 date backs with Parker-Burke signatures, but the only one to issue $5s. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 136 All Vernon-Treat Series of 1882 notes, regardless of back, resulted from title changes. Most came about when Oklahoma and Indian Territory plates were altered into state plates. The state versions of the plates used November 17, 1907, admission day, as the plate date. The Oklahoma plates moved Series of 1882 notes with Vernon-Treat signatures off the rare list. Series of 1882 Vernon-Treat notes are rarities outside Oklahoma because only six other banks utilized the combination. They were Sheridan, Indiana (5296), Hattisburg, Mississippi (5176), Hornell, New York (2522), Grove City, Pennsylvania (5501), Spokane, Washington (4044) and Waupaca, Wisconsin (4424), all because of title changes during the critical Vernon-Treat window. The Vernon-Treat story was repeated for the Vernon-McClung Series of 1882 date and value backs thanks to the admissions of New Mexico and Arizona in 1912. The totals for the rest of the nation’s Vernon-McClung issuers were only seven date back and five value back banks. NAPIER-THOMPSON SIGNATURES ON 1902 NOTES An examination of the popular Napier-Thompson signature combination will illustrate how treasury signatures were handled during the latter part of the Series of 1902 era. Carmi Thompson served as U. S. Treasurer from November 22, 1912 through March 31, 1913, a period of a little over four months. His signature appeared with that of longer serving James Napier who was Register of the Treasury from May 1911 to October 1913. Thompson was appointed by Republican President William Howard Taft to fill the vacancy left when Lee McClung resigned November 12, 1912. His short tenure resulted from Democrat Woodrow Wilson’s election in 1912 and appointment upon assuming office of John Burke to the Treasurer post in March 1913. Figure 11. A change in town name from Fort Howard to Green Bay in January, 1910, resulted in a new 10-10-10-20 plate for this bank, yielding in the process the only Series of 1882 date back notes with the Vernon-McClung signature combination. Heritage Auction Archives photo. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 137 The Napier-Thompson signature combination always has commanded a significant premium on large size type notes. The reason is that the number of plates bearing his signature was small so printings were correspondingly modest. The combination didn’t even make it to several type note denominations. In contrast Thompson’s signature on Series of 1902 blue seal date and plain back national bank notes is fairly easy to acquire. How Napier-Thompson Signatures Got On Notes A grand total of 132 banks received notes from Napier-Thompson plates during the Series of 1902 date back issues. 112 of those banks went on to issue Napier-Thompson Series of 1902 blue seal plain backs. A list of them appears on Table 2. No Series of 1882-issuing banks received Napier-Thompson notes. To be eligible, such a bank needed to undergo a title change during the Napier-Thompson era, but none did. The Napier-Thompson combination technically was current from November 22, 1912 to March 31, 1913. It was placed on plates for the three traditional reasons: (1) new banks based on the date of organization, (2) extending banks based on the date of extension, and (3) banks undergoing title changes during the Napier-Thompson era. In addition, banks that already were receiving notes with the combination that underwent titles changes after April 1919 received Napier-Thompson notes with the new title because the Napier- Thompson-era plate dates were copied onto those plates. Two of them involved town name changes; specifically, Grand Rapids to Wisconsin Rapids for The Citizens National Bank (10330) in 1920, and Austin to Chicago for The Austin National Bank (10337) in 1921. Banks with dates of organization inclusive of November 22, 1912 and March 31, 1913 received Napier-Thompson plates. There were 76 such banks in the 10290 to 10446 charter number range. The combination was used on the plates for 49 extending banks. However, there was a wrinkle associated with these because use of the signature combination began late and finished late. Consequently, the dates of extension on the notes with their signatures are inclusive of January 3 and April 13, 1913, instead of November 22, 1912 and March 31, 1913. The result is that the extending banks with their signatures fall in the ranges 2070-2112 and 4838-4916. On the front end, 14 banks extending between November 26 and December 30, 1912 that should have gotten Napier-Thompson notes actually got notes with the obsolete Napier-McClung combination. These were South Dakota (2068), Minnesota (2073), New Jersey (2076), Pennsylvania (2078), Minnesota (4821), West Virginia (4828), Oklahoma (4830), Pennsylvania (4832), Massachusetts (4833), Pennsylvania (4836), Ohio (4839), Ohio (4842), Maine (4844) and Ohio (4853). On the back end, six banks with April 1913 extensions received Napier-Thompson instead of Napier-Burke notes. These are Montana (2106), Massachusetts (2108), Texas (4900), Indiana (4901), Figure 12. The Series of 1902 blue seal plain backs from First National Bank and Trust Company of Santa Barbara, California, are the only trust company notes in the country with Napier-Thompson signatures. The plate was made in 1927 following a title change. The 1913 plate date was copied from the previous plates. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 138 Iowa (4902) and Pennsylvania (4910). Assignment of Signatures Authority for whose signatures appeared on national bank notes rested with the Comptroller of the Currency. Here is the letter from that office authorizing the startup of the Napier-Thompson era on national bank notes (Bureau of Engraving and Printing, 1862-1912). Treasury Department Washington November 23, 1912 Hon. J. E. Ralph Director, Bureau of Engraving and Printing Sir: In compliance with your request in letter of November 22, you are hereby authorized to place the signature of Carmi Thompson, Treasurer of the United States, on all plates for newly organized banks, bearing date of November 22, 1912, and subsequent thereto, so long as he fills the position of Treasurer, and that all plates where there is an extension of charter from and after January 1, 1913, contain the name of Mr. Thompson. Respectfully, T. P. Kane Deputy and Acting Comptroller The practice of using an arbitrary starting date for a new signature had precedence with the startup of the earlier Napier-McClung combination. Documentation I found to this effect was a memo dated May 16, 1911, from BEP Assistant Director F. E. Ferguson to the Superintendent of Orders stating “The same substitution of names will be made on National currency plates beginning with organization date of May 28, 1911” (Bureau of Engraving and Printing, 1862-1912). Napier assumed office May 18th. NAPIER-BURKE SIGNATURES ON 1902 NOTES Two common signatures on large size notes are those of Register of the Treasury James C. Napier and Treasurer John Burke. Napier served from May 18, 1911 to October 1, 1913; Burke from April 1, 1913 to January 5, 1921. Both terms of office were sufficiently long that their signatures got on plenty of printing plates in both type and national bank note series. The big deal, though, was that Napier was leaving as Burke was arriving so the two overlapped for only six months between April 1 and October 1, 1913. Only six other signature combinations were current for shorter periods during the large note era. Although their signatures are common when mated with other officials, they are decidedly scarce when paired. Type note collectors have long recognized that the Napier-Burke combination is a rarity. The fact is that the combination didn’t make it to most type note plates. It appeared only on gold notes; specifically, $100 and $10,000 Series of 1882 and $1000 Series of 1907 gold certificates, and Series of 1900 $10,000 certificates of deposit. Figure 13. One of the most sought notes from California is from wide-spot-in-the- road Seeley, charter 10462. Seeley notes sport the elusive Napier-Burke combination owing to the date of organization for the bank. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 139 The Napier-Burke combination is available on national bank notes, but only on Series of 1902 date and plain backs from 85 banks. This compares to 132 banks that received Napier-Thompson notes. The Series of 1882 was still in use during the Napier-Burke era, but the only way an 1882-issuing bank could receive notes with the combination was if the bank received approval for a title change while the combination was current. It didn’t happen. Table 3 is a list of the banks that received Napier-Burke Series of 1902 notes along with the cause. Six banks didn’t make it to the list that belonged. They were the first banks extended during the Napier-Burke era that were given Napier-Thompson signatures as documented in the Napier-Thompson section. They had plate dates inclusive of April 7-13, 1913. WRONG SIGNATURES Examples of plates bearing the wrong treasury signatures have been found. Doug Walcutt (1998) found two examples involving Series of 1882 brown backs. The 5-5-5-5 and 10-10-10-20 plates for The First National Bank of Huntington, Pennsylvania (31) bear the date July 21, 1882, but carry Bruce- Wyman signatures. Wyman didn’t assume office until April 1, 1883, so the signatures should have been Bruce-Gilfillan. Similarly, the 5-5-5-5 plate for The American Exchange National Bank of New York City, New York (1394), with a plate date of July 1, 1885, has Rosecrans-Huston instead of Rosecrans- Jordan signatures. The preparation of the Huntington plates was delayed almost three years after the bank was extended. The 5-5-5-5 plate for New York was ordered long after other combinations were in use for the bank. The young signatures on the plates indicates that someone wasn’t paying attention to detail when they were ordered. Walcutt (1996) found a particularly odd twist on the $5 Series of 1875 E-F-G-H replacement plate for The Commercial National Bank of Providence, Rhode Island (1319), which was certified January 7, 1881. It was customary at the time to update the treasury signatures but leave the plate date as was. However, when the treasury signatures were updated from Allison-New to Scofield-Gilfillan in this case, the date also was changed from August 1, 1865 to January 5, 1881. Of course other mistakes were made with signatures and some were caught. A great situation revolves around the Series of 1882 50-100 plate for The First National Bank of Rome, Georgia (2368). BEP Director Claude Johnson sent a letter to Comptroller James Eckels on June 17, 1897 explaining that the recent first shipment of 112 sheets for the bank carried a plate date of August 16, 1897 but obsolete signature of Treasurer Daniel Morgan (BEP, 1862-1912). Morgan left office June 30th and had been succeeded by Ellis Roberts. Johnson pointed out that the order from the Comptroller’s office called for the wrong signature and BEP personnel didn’t notice the error at the time. He requested that the Comptroller send an order to reprint the notes with the correct signature. The corrected 50-100 plate was Figure 14. This New York plate, which was used, has the wrong signatures mated with the plate date of July 1, 1885. They should be Rosecrans-Jordan instead of Rosecrans-Huston. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 140 certified August 14th and replacements sent. What sets the Rome case apart and makes it particularly interesting is that in 1903 the bankers ordered 5-5-5-5 and 10-10-10-20 plates. The Comptroller’s clerks, probably using the original record card for the 50-100 plate, mistakenly ordered the new plates with Morgan’s signature. This time no one noticed so as shown on Figure 18 the low denominations have Morgan’s signature whereas the high have Roberts’ despite the fact that all carry the same plate date! SYNTHESIS The treasury signatures found on national bank notes generally were those in office concurrent with the plate date. There were exceptions in the Original Series, Series of 1875 and Series of 1902. The Original Series exceptions involved three banks that were assigned a plate date of December 24, 1867 that carried obsolete Colby-Spinner signatures instead of Jeffries-Spinner. The Series of 1875 exceptions involved updating the signatures when: (1) plates were altered from the Original Series, (2) replacement plates were made prior to the end of 1878, and (3) plates were reentered during 1878. The Series of 1902 exceptions involved plates made between 1911 and 1922 where an obsolete combination appeared on notes with dates that followed the change, a situation that was especially prevalent on plates for extended banks. The rarest signature combinations on national bank notes were caused by: (1) pairs of office holders who served together for brief periods, (2) a cap on issues during the Jeffries-Spinner era, and (3) discontinuances of the Series of 1875 and 1882. When you study Table 1, you will discover that there were only three ways a new signature combination could come about within the Series of 1875 after the series was discontinued for new banks in 1882; specifically, (1) when an Original Series plate was altered into the Series of 1875 form, (2) a bank underwent a title change, which included statehood admissions, and (3) a bank ordered a new plate combination. The list was reduced to title change plates and late-ordered combinations within the Series of 1882 after it was discontinued for new banks in 1902. The Bruce-Wyman combination nicely illustrates the interplay between causes within the Series of 1875. Bruce and Wyman served together for twenty-five months between April 1, 1883 and April 30, 1885. Their signature combination was the first new one to come along after the Series of 1875 was discontinued in 1882. All the Series of 1875 denominations issued with the combination are listed as rarities in currency catalogs. Forty-three banks issued notes with the combination, the majority the result of Original Series alterations. The breakdown was 30 resulting from Original Series alterations; nine from title changes and four from late-ordered plate combinations. Figure 15. When the Original Series $5 plate for this Providence bank was altered into a Series of 1875, Bureau of Engraving and Printing personnel not only updated the signatures to Scofield-Gilfillan but also updated the plate date to January 5, 1881, which was out-of-character. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 141 It is surprising that the combination is a rarity with 43 issuing banks because that population sounds like plenty of banks. Careful examination of Table 1, though, reveals that the list is dominated by small to tiny issues, which, when coupled with their antiquity, combined to produce rarity. Distinguishing between the different backs in the Series of 1882 is extremely important. For example, sufficient numbers of Tillman-Morgan plates were made for Series of 1882 brown and date back issuers to classify them as readily obtainable. However only 34 of those banks issued value backs, thus making value back Tillman-Morgan notes scarce. Similarly, it is imperative to distinguish between the denominations that were involved. For example, only eleven banks received Series of 1875 notes with the Rosecrans-Nebeker combination and eight got Tillman-Morgan. However, only one of each received $5; respectively, The United States National Bank of the City of New York, New York (2507) and The Westminster National Bank of Gardner, Massachusetts (2284). Both came about as the result of title changes late within the series. Of the five banks that received Lyons-Treat Series of 1882 brown backs, only The National Bank of Toledo, Ohio (4585), got $50s and $100s. Those rarities also were the result of a title change. Figure 16. Eight banks received Series of 1875 notes with Tillman-Morgan signatures, the last combination used on the series. This Gardner, Massachusetts, bank was the only one to utilize $5s. Figure 17. Only five banks received Lyons-Treat Series of 1882 brown backs, all because of title changes. Only this Toledo bank got $50s and $100s. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 142 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Central States Numismatic Society, Society of Paper Money Collectors, and National Currency Foundation sponsored this project. SOURCES OF DATA Bureau of Engraving and Printing, 1862-1912, Correspondence to and from the Bureau of Engraving and Printing: Record Group 318, U. S. National Archives, College Park, MD. Bureau of Engraving and Printing, 1875-1929, certified proofs of national bank note face and back plates: National Numismatic Collections, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Comptroller of the Currency, 1863-1912, Receipts of national bank currency from the engravers: Record Group 101, U. S. National Archives, College Park, MD. Huntoon, Peter, Mar-Apr 2002, The mystery of plate dates and treasury signatures on national bank notes: Paper Money, v. 41, p. 51-69. Walcutt, Doug, 1996, Varieties of national bank notes, part nine: The Rag Picker, v. 31, no. 3, p. 16-25. Walcutt, Doug, 1998, Varieties of national bank notes, part seventeen: The Rag Picker, v. 33, no. 2, p. 6-26. Figure 18. All three Series of 1882 plates for The First National Bank of Rome, Georgia (2368), carried a plate date of July 4, 1897, but the lower denominations mistakenly bear the obsolete signature of Treasurer Daniel N. Morgan who left office on June 30. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 143 Table 1. Rare, scarce and unused signature combinations by  series on national bank notes.  Causes:  A = Original Series plate that was altered into a Series of 1875 plate  C = new plate combination for the bank  E = extended bank  N = plate for a new bank  S = statehood ‐ handled on plates as a type of title change  T = title change  The plate dates enclosed  in  (  ) were  those engraved on  the Original Series plates that  were  left  unchanged  when  the  plates  were  altered  into  Series  of  1875  plates.   Consequently,  they do not correlate with  the  treasury signatures  that were placed on  the plates at the time the plates were altered.      Sheet    Sheet  Serials    Combination  Issued    Plate Date  Cause  Original Series  Jeffries‐Spinner  October 5, 1867 ‐ April 2, 1869  14 banks  denominations issued: 1, 2, 5, 10, 20  1673  Royalton    VT  National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐4165    Feb 25, 1868  N  1675  Boston    MA  National Security Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐5000    Feb 25, 1868  N  1676  Honeybrook    PA  First National Bank    10‐10‐10‐10  1‐1375    Jun 15, 1868  N  1677  Springfield    MO  Greene County National Bank    1‐1‐1‐2  1‐4000    Dec 3, 1868  C    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐5750    May 28, 1868  N  1680  Columbia    SC  Carolina National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐4900    Sep 10, 1868  N  1681  Princeton    NJ  Princeton National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐5000    Aug 25, 1868  N  1682  Raleigh    NC  State National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐2500    Aug 25, 1868  N    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐2300    Sep 10, 1868  N  1683  Mankato    MN  First National Bank    1‐1‐1‐2  1‐4300    Aug 25, 1868  N    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐4575    Aug 25, 1868  N  1684  Council Bluffs    IA  Pacific National Bank    1‐1‐1‐2  1‐4000    Dec 3, 1868  C    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐7250    Sep 10, 1868  N  1685  Sharon    PA  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐5000    Sep 10, 1868  N  1686  Faribault    MN  First National Bank    1‐1‐1‐2  1‐1700    Dec 3, 1868  N    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐4075    Dec 3, 1868  N  1688  Hillsborough    NH  First National Bank    1‐1‐1‐2  1‐2300    Mar 15, 1869  N    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐2775    Mar 15, 1869  N  1690  Austin    MN  First National Bank    1‐1‐1‐2  1‐1300    Jan 20, 1869  N    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐4775    Jan 20, 1869  N  ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 144   1691  New York    NY  Union Square National Bank of the City    1‐1‐1‐2  1‐2520    Mar 15, 1869  N    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐990    Mar 15, 1869  N    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐472    Mar 15, 1869  N  Series of 1875  Bruce‐Wyman  April 1, 1883 ‐ April 30, 1885  43 banks  denominations issued: 5, 10, 20, 50, 100  507  Lock Haven    PA  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐900     (Sep 1, 1864)  A  541  Philadelphia    PA  National Bank of the Northern Liberties    50‐100  1‐79      (Oct 28, 1864)  A  570  Philadelphia    PA  Tradesmens National Bank    50‐100  1‐266     (Nov 18, 1864)  A  590  Fall River    MA  Fall River National Bank    50‐100  1‐300     (Dec 2, 1864)  A  634  Salem    MA  Asiatic National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐575     (Dec 22, 1864)  A  702  Fitchburg    MA  Rollstone National Bank    50‐100  1‐450     (Jan 1, 1865)  A  738  Franklin    OH  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐440     (Jan 26, 1865)  A  863  Urbana    OH  Citizens National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐585     (Apr 1, 1865)  A  893  Saratoga Springs    NY  First National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐278     (Apr 20, 1865)  A    (no proof, signatures not confirmed)  898  Dayton    OH  Dayton National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐100     (Apr 20, 1865)  A  922  Mt. Pleasant    IA  National State Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐483     (Apr 20, 1965)  A  957  Taunton    MA  Taunton National Bank    50‐100  1‐334     (May 10, 1865)  A  999  Maquoketa    IA  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐370     (May 10, 1865)  A  1083  Groton    NY  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐285     (Jun 20, 1865)  A    (no proof, signatures not confirmed)  1019  Owego    NY  First National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐374     (Jun 1, 1865)  A  1111  Richmond    VA  First National Bank    50‐50‐50‐100  1‐40      (Jul 1, 1865)  A  1205  Battle Creek    MI  First National Bank of the City    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐250     (Jul 1, 1865)  A    (incomplete proof, signatures not confirmed)  1307  Amsterdam    NY  First National Bank    50‐100  1‐31      (Aug 1, 1865)  A  1380  Poughkeepsie    NY  Merchants National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐1095    (Aug 1, 1865)  A    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐418     (Aug 1, 1865)  A    50‐100  1‐130     (Aug 1, 1865)  A  1403  Winterset    IA  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐865     Apr 18, 1883  T  1493  Lancaster    KY  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐341     (Sep 1, 1865)  A  1577  Muscatine    IA  Merchants Exchange National Bank  ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 145   5‐5‐5‐5  1‐100     (Nov 1, 1865)  A  1603  Clarksville    TN  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐395     (Aug 15, 1871)  A  1604  Attleborough    MA  Attleborough National Bank    50‐100  1‐16      (Jan 1, 1866)  A  1613  Augusta    GA  National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐2250    (Jan 1, 1866)  A  1741  San Francisco    CA  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐250   Feb 20, 1884  T    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐4599    Feb 20, 1884  T    50‐100  1‐4339    Feb 20, 1884  T  1744  Burlington    IA  Merchants National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐1040    (Jan 16, 1871)  A  1774  New Orleans    LA  State National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐2500    (Feb 15, 1871)  A  1865  Rolla    MO  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐1285    (Sep 1, 1871)  A  2014  Sacramento    CA  National Bank of D. O. Mills & Co.    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐3223    Sep 15, 1883  T  2089  Bangor    ME  Veazie National Bank    50‐100  1‐67      (Mar 15, 1873)  A  2143  Hancock    MI  National Bank    20‐20‐20‐20  1‐1154    (May 15, 1874)  A  2164  Louisville    KY  Citizens National Bank    50‐100  1‐1719    (Aug 15, 1874)  A  2193  Petaluma    CA  First National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐2866    Apr 17, 1884  T  2209  Morganfield    KY  National Bank of Union County    50‐100  1‐586     Dec 13, 1884  C  2231  Oakland    ME  Messalonskee National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐1729    Apr 15, 1884  T  2232  Attleboro    MA  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐1478    (Mar 25, 1875)  A    10‐10‐10‐10  1‐548     (Mar 25, 1975)  A  2249  Jenkintown    PA  Jenkintown National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐5767    (May 15, 1875)  A  2315  Cincinnati    OH  National La Fayette Bank    50‐100  1‐3045    Jul 1, 1884  T  2349  Fort Worth    TX  First National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐1687    Mar 3, 1884  C  2443  Franklin    NH  Franklin National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐6518    Apr 22, 1884  C  2494  Waterbury    CT  Manufacturers National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐2718    Nov 18, 1884  C  2536  Nebraska City    NE  Merchants National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐925     Apr 12, 1884  T  Bruce‐Jordan  May 1, 1885 ‐ June 7, 1885  1 bank  denomination issued: 5  2256  Mercer    PA  Farmers and Mechanics National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐2991    (Jun 15, 1875)  A  Rosecrans‐Jordan  June 8, 1885 ‐ May 23, 1887  21 banks  denominations issued: 5, 10, 20, 50  1682  Raleigh    NC  State National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐110     (Aug 25, 1868)  A  1736  Selma    AL  City National Bank  ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 146   5‐5‐5‐5  1‐185     (Jan 16, 1871)  A  1738  Leesburg    VA  Loudoun National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐260     (Dec 1, 1870)  A  1762  Washington    IA  Washington National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐248     (Jan 16, 1871)  A  1778  New Orleans    LA  New Orleans National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐250     (Feb 15, 1871)  A  1780  Flint    MI  Citizens National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐241     (Feb 15, 1871)  A  1785  Kewanee    IL  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐249     (Feb 15, 1871)  A  1800  Cheyenne    WYT  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐665     (Mar 15, 1871)  A  1868  Charlestown    WV  First National Bank of Jefferson County    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐250     (Sep 15, 1871)  A  1912  Wooster    OH  National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐250     (Jan 15, 1872)  A  1928  Georgetown    DC  Farmers and Mechanics National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐4250    (Feb 15, 1872)  A  1980  Pomeroy    OH  Pomeroy National Bank    10‐10‐20‐50  1‐192     (May 15, 1872)  A  1990  Pulaski    TN  Giles National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐301     (Jun 15, 1872)  A  2024  Santa Fe    NMT  Second National Bank of New Mexico    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐441     (Aug 15, 1872)  A  2059  Salt Lake City     UTT  Deseret National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐275     (Nov 15, 1872)  A  2142  Schwenksville     PA  National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐1300    (May 15, 1874)  A  2152  Brockton    MA  Home National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐650     (Jun 15, 1874)  A  2154  Belleville    IL  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐1820    (Jun 25, 1874)  A  2188  Evansville    IN  Citizens National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐250     (Oct 15, 1874)  A  2189  Waco    TX  Waco National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐238     (Oct 15, 1874)  A  2244  Sharon    PA  Sharon National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐50      (Apr 15, 1875)  A    (no proof, signatures not confirmed)  Rosecrans‐Hyatt  May 24, 1887 ‐ May 10, 1889  5 banks  denominations issued: 10, 20, 50, 100  1865  Rolla    MO  National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐85      (Sep 15, 1871)  A  1950  Fort Smith    AR  First National Bank    100‐100  1‐101     Dec 24, 1887  T  2106  Missoula    MTT  First National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐440     Feb 26, 1889  T  2189  Waco    TX  First National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐1562    Jan 15, 1889  T  2541  Pueblo    CO  Central National Bank    50‐100  1‐191     Feb 6, 1889  T  Rosecrans‐Huston  May 11, 1889 ‐ April 24, 1891  33 banks, 34 titles  denominations issued: 5, 10, 20, 50, 100  1814  Montgomery    AL  First National Bank  ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 147   5‐5‐5‐5  1‐112     (May 15, 1871)  A  1833  Pueblo    CO  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  12751‐12899    Feb 1, 1890  S  1882  Joliet    IL  Will County National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐714     (Oct 10, 1871)  A  1890  Greensburg    IN  Citizens National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐876     (Nov 15, 1871)  A  1934  Nokomis    IL  Nokomis National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐141     (Feb 15, 1872)  A  2025  Middletown    ON  Merchants National Bank    50‐100  1‐530     Mar 3, 1890  C  2100  Paris    IL  Edgar County National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐534     (Apr 15, 1873)  A  2106  Missoula    MT  First National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  441‐681    Nov 8, 1889  S  2110  Laramie City    WY  Wyoming National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  4351‐4841    Jul 10, 1890  S  2126  Lincoln    IL  First National Bank    50‐100  1‐650     Feb 26, 1890  C  2129  Central City    CO  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  9051‐9105    Feb 1, 1890  S  2155  Rock Island    IL  Peoples National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐984     (Aug 15, 1874)  A  2179  Colorado Springs    CO  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  4976‐6428    Feb 1, 1890  S  2300  Trinidad    CO  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1351‐8761    Feb 1, 1890  S  2304  Boston    MA  Winthrop National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐5024    Jan 23, 1890  T  2310  Pueblo    CO  Stockgrowers National Bank    10‐10‐10‐10  1751‐2866    Feb 1, 1890  S  2377  Fargo    ND  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  2926‐4407    Nov 2, 1889  S    10‐10‐10‐20  1201‐2128    Nov 2, 1889  S  2380  Walla Walla    WA  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  18751‐21229    Nov 11, 1889  S  2391  Deadwood    ND  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  6777‐9578    Nov 2, 1889  S  2434  Bismark    ND  First National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  2021‐3064    Nov 2, 1889  S  2461  Deadwood    ND  Merchants National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  2851‐3110    Nov 2, 1889  S    10‐10‐10‐20  681‐1170    Nov 2, 1889  S  2476  Fort Benton    MT  First National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  2131‐2195    Nov 8, 1889  S  2476  Great Falls    MT  Northwestern National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐1500    Apr 15, 1891  T  2514  Fargo    ND  Red River Valley National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  2601‐3892    Nov 2, 1889  S  2518  Laramie City    WY  Laramie National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1631‐1684    Jul 10, 1890  S  2548  Valley City    ND  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  2651‐4388    Nov 2, 1889  S    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐121     Nov 2, 1889  C  2566  Butte City    MT  First National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1181‐5797    Nov 8, 1889  S  2570  Grand Forks    ND  First National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐1303    Jun 25, 1890  T  ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 148   2580  Jamestown    ND  James River National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  801‐1619    Nov 2, 1889  S  2585  Mandan    ND  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  2801‐5322    Nov 2, 1889  S    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐139     Nov 2, 1889  C  2645  Mitchell    SD  First National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1031‐1897    Nov 2, 1889  S  2652  Cheyenne    WY  Stock Growers National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  4651‐9685    Jul 10, 1890  S    10‐10‐10‐20  901‐2296    Jul 10, 1890  S  2732  Helena    MT  Merchants National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  2701‐4549    Nov 8, 1889  S  2752  Miles City    MT  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  2251‐4214    Nov 8, 1889  S    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐199     Nov 8, 1889  C  Rosecrans‐Nebeker  April 25, 1891 ‐ May 31, 1893  11 banks  denominations issued: 5, 10, 20, 50, 100  2110  Laramie    WY  Wyoming National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐209     Jan 28, 1892  T  2151  Oneonta    NY  Wilber National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐1774    Jun 15, 1891  C  2237  Pittsburgh    PA  Marine National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐688     (Apr 15, 1875)  A  2261  Allegheny    PA  German National Bank    50‐100  1‐1458    Mar 8, 1892  C  2518  Laramie    WY  Laramie National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐431     Feb 8, 1892  T  2507  New York    NY  United States National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐6704    Jun 17, 1891  C  2546  Pueblo    CO  Western National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐4351    Feb 4, 1893  T    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐1296    Feb 4, 1893  T  2558  Greensburg    PA  First National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐3060    Nov 10, 1891  C  2641  Albuquerque    NMT  First National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐7468    Aug 8, 1891  C  2750  Lincoln    NE  Lincoln National Bank    50‐100  1‐31 & 51‐55    Jul 20, 1891  C  2761  East Saginaw    MI  Home National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐4162    Oct 3, 1892  C    50‐100  1‐1333    Oct 3, 1892  C  Rosecrans‐Morgan  June 1, 1893 ‐ June 30, 1893  none  Tillman‐Morgan  July 1, 1893 ‐ June 30, 1897  8 banks  denominations issued: 5, 10, 20, 50, 100  2284  Gardner    MA  Westminster National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐361     Jun 12, 1894  T  2362  Manchester    NH  Second National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐1300    Jan 4, 1895  C  2423  Columbus    OH  Fourth National Bank    50‐100  1‐38      Nov 21, 1896  C  2430  Holyoke    MA  City National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐2542    Mar 3, 1896  C  2529  Zanesville    OH  Citizens National Bank  ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 149   50‐100  1‐1034    Jan 23, 1896  C  2584  Danville    IL  Second National Bank    50‐100  1‐1329    Jul 28, 1893  C  2597  Ogden    UT  First National Bank    50‐100  1281‐2167    Jan 6, 1896  S  2641  Provo City    UT  First National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1341‐1475    Jan 6, 1896  S  Series of 1882 Brown Backs  Rosecrans‐Morgan  June 1, 1893 ‐ June 30, 1893  16 banks  denominations issued: 5, 10, 20, 50, 100  563  Philadelphia    PA  Union National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐8250    Jun 30, 1893  C  1156  New Castle    PA  National Bank of Lawrence County    50‐100  1‐3282      C  1365  Elgin    IL  First National Bank  C    50‐100  1‐2196    Jun 21, 1893  1827  Boston    MA  National Bank of the Commonwealth  C    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐14829    Jun 20, 1893  2114  Fayetteville    TN  First National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐2410    Jun 10, 1893  E  2116  Griggsville    IL  Griggsville National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐1220    Jun 3, 1893  E  2118  Austin    TX  First National Bank    50‐100  1‐1028    Jun 26, 1893  E    50‐100  1121‐1671    Jun 26, 1893  E  2119  Plymouth     IN  First National Bank of Marshall County    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐5600    Jun 20, 1893  E    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐2980    Jun 20, 1893  E  4753  Lowell    MA  Traders National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐20240    Jun 10, 1892  C  4832  Philipsburg    PA  First National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐7490    Jun 22, 1893  T  4923  Ephrata    PA  Farmers National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐9590    Jun 2, 1893  N    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐3124    Jun 2, 1893  N  4924  Itasca    TX  Citizens National Bank      10‐10‐10‐20  1‐525     Jun 5, 1893  N  4925  Liberty    NY  Sullivan County National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐2875    Jun 5, 1893  N    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐720     Jun 5, 1893  N  4926  Frostburg    MD  Citizens National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐6550    Jun 7, 1893  N    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐2460    Jun 7, 1893  N  4927  North East    PA  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐3100    Jun 8, 1893  N    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐1130    Jun 8, 1893  N  4928  Owatonna    MN  National Farmers Bank    50‐100  1‐2043    Jun 21, 1893  N  Lyons‐Treat  July 1, 1905 ‐ June 11, 1906  5 banks  denominations issued: 5, 10, 20, 50, 100  3623  Dallas    TX  American Exchange National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐2265    Jul 29, 1905  T    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐12585    Jul 29, 1905  T  4414  Waupaca    WI  First National Bank  ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 150   10‐10‐10‐20  1‐301     May 3, 1906  T  4585  Toledo    OH  National Bank    50‐100  1‐1065    Aug 1, 1905  T  5052  McAlester    IT  First National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐1200    May 24, 1906  T  5604  Hereford    TX  First National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐1700    Feb 17, 1906  T  Vernon‐Treat  June 12, 1906 ‐ October 30, 1909  56 banks  denominations issued: 5, 10, 20, 50, 100  2522  Hornell    NY  Citizens National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐2500    Mar 21, 1907  T  4044  Spokan    WA  Exchange National Bank    50‐100  1‐4500    Jan 16, 1907  T  4424  Waupaca    WI  Old National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐200     Jan 17, 1907  T    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐158     Jan 17, 1907  T  plus 53 Oklahoma banks with charters from 4348 to 6061 that received state notes from  Vernon‐Treat plates with November 16, 1907 statehood admission plate dates.  Series of 1882 Date Backs  Rosecrans‐Morgan  June 1, 1893 ‐ June 30, 1893  9 banks  denominations issued: 5, 10, 20, 50, 100  2114  Fayetteville    TN  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐1480    Jun 10, 1893  E    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐1363    Jun 10, 1893  E  2116  Griggsville    IL  Griggsville National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐344     Jun 3, 1893  E  2119  Plymouth     IN  First National Bank of Marshall County    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐2039    Jun 20, 1893  E    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐1448    Jun 20, 1893  E  4753  Lowell    MA  Traders National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐9102    Jun 10, 1892  C    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐5761    Jun 10, 1892  C    50‐100  1‐124     Jun 10, 1892  C  4923  Ephrata    PA  Farmer=s National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐4015    Jun 2, 1893  N    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐3024    Jun 2, 1893  N  4925  Liberty    NY  Sullivan County National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐1668    Jun 5, 1893  N    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐1165    Jun 5, 1893  N  4926  Frostburg    MD  Citizens National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐3042    Jun 7, 1893  N    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐2431    Jun 7, 1893  N  4927  North East    PA  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐1117    Jun 8, 1893  N    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐901     Jun 8, 1893  N  4928  Owatonna    MN  National Farmers Bank    50‐100  1‐341     Jun 21, 1893  N  Lyons‐Treat  July 1, 1905 ‐ June 11, 1906  1 bank  denominations issued: 10, 20  5604  Hereford    TX  First National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐3700    Feb 17, 1906  T      ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 151   Vernon‐Treat  June 12, 1906 ‐ October 30, 1909  94 banks  denominations issued: 5, 10, 20, 50, 100  2522  Hornell    NY  Citizens National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐7600    Mar 21, 1907  T  4044  Spokan    WA  Exchange National Bank    50‐100  1‐1005    Jun 16, 1907  T  4424  Waupaca    WI  Old National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐205     Jan 17, 1907  T  5176  Hattisburg    MS  First‐National Bank of Commerce    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐35500    Aug 8, 1908  T    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐23200    Aug 8, 1908  T  5296  Sheridan    IN  First National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐4500    Jan 20, 1909  T  5501  Grove City    PA  Grove City National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐9400    Aug 1, 1908  T  plus 88 Oklahoma banks with charters from 4348 to 6058 that received state notes from  Vernon‐Treat plates with November 16, 1907 statehood admission plate dates.  Vernon‐McClung  November 1, 1909 ‐ May 17, 1911  1 bank  denominations issued: 10, 20  4783  Green Bay    WI  McCartney National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐4533    Jan 29, 1910  T  Napier‐McClung  May 18, 1911 ‐ November 21, 1912  16 banks  denominations issued: 5, 10, 20, 50, 100  2127  Memphis    TN  Central‐State National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐3216    May 1, 1912  T  2436  Las Vegas    NM  First National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐3800    Jan 6, 1912  S  2454  Las Vegas    NM  San Miguel National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐2600    Jan 6, 1912  S  2614  Albuquerque    NM  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐12500    Jan 6, 1912  S    50‐50‐50‐100  1‐2586    Jan 6, 1912  S  4851  Prescott    AZ  Prescott National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐150     Feb 14, 1912  S    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐120     Feb 14, 1912  S  5220  Roswell    NM  First National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐2300    Jan 6, 1912  S  5244  Alamogordo    NM  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐105     Jan 6, 1912  S    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐46      Jan 6, 1912  S  5487  Carlsbad    NM  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐700     Jan 6, 1912  S    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐520     Jan 6, 1912  S  5698  Lexington    NC  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐1900    Nov 4, 1911  T    1401‐1900 type uncertain    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐1420    Nov 4, 1911  T    1021‐1420 type uncertain  5713  Clayton    NM  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐1700    Jan 6, 1912  S    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐1180    Jan 6, 1912  S  5720  Tempe    AZ  Tempe National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐380     Feb 14, 1912  S  ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 152   5767  Roanoke Rapids    NC  First National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐2060    Jul 1, 1912  T    50‐50‐50‐100  1‐196     Jul 1, 1912  T  5777  Beaver Springs     PA  First National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐1160    Jun 13, 1912  T    1061‐1160 type uncertain  5821  Clifton    AZ  First National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐1250    Feb 14, 1912  S  6028  Elizabethtown    KY  First Hardin National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐5400    Aug 5, 1911  T  6081  Santa Rosa    NM  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐1000    Jan 6, 1912  S    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐1300    Jan 6, 1912  S  Napier‐Thompson  November 22, 1912 ‐ March 31, 1913  none  Napier‐Burke  April 1, 1913 ‐ October 1, 1913  none  Parker‐Burke  October 1, 1913 ‐ December 31, 1914  2 banks  denominations issued: 5, 10, 20  5064  Gaffney    SC  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐1820    Jul 6, 1914  T    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐1465    Jul 6, 1914  T  5946  Woonsocket     SD  First National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐700     Apr 27, 1914  T  Series of 1882 Value Backs  Tillman‐Morgan  July 1, 1893 ‐ June 30, 1897  34 banks  denominations issued: 5, 10, 20  2313  Kirkwood    IL  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  3401‐3429    Dec 7, 1895  E  2324  Palmer     MA  Palmer National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  7851‐8277    Feb 13, 1896  E    10‐10‐10‐20  5881‐6252    Feb 13, 1896  E  2329  Connellsville    PA  First National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20   9001‐9193    Mar 26, 1896  E  2331  Flemington    NJ  Flemington National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  8001‐8146    Apr 22, 1896  E  2332  Geneseo    IL  Farmers National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  3001‐3097    Apr 1, 1896  E    10‐10‐10‐20  2181‐2225    Apr 1, 1896  E  2333  Souderton    PA  Union National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  8501‐8675    Apr 27, 1896  E  2337  Towanda    PA  Citizens National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  11751‐12374    Jun 2, 1896  E    10‐10‐10‐20  9001‐9468    Jun 2, 1896  E  2340  Milford    DE  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  5251‐5500    Jul 27, 1896  E    10‐10‐10‐20  2941‐3220    Jul 27, 1896  E  2342  Norwalk    CT  Central National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  9061‐9360    Aug 22, 1896  E    8661‐9060 type uncertain  2343  Mount Holly    NJ  Union National Bank at    10‐10‐10‐20  8801‐9600    Sep 10, 1896  E  ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 153   2350  Youngstown    OH  Mahoning National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  26501‐27205    Mar 16, 1897  E    10‐10‐10‐20  11401‐11947    Mar 16, 1897  E  2357  Beatrice    NE  First National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  5801‐6131    May 12, 1897  E  2366  Quakertown     PA  Quakertown National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  8001‐9157    Jun 26, 1897  E     7501‐8000 type uncertain  5028  Sistersville    WV  Farmers and Producers National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  6351‐6424    Dec 21, 1895  N    10‐10‐10‐20  3961‐4053    Dec 21, 1895  N  5037  Mechanicville    NY  Manufacturers NB    5‐5‐5‐5  5651‐5845    Apr 16, 1896  N    10‐10‐10‐20  3721‐3832    Apr 16, 1896  N  5038  Tionesta    PA  Forest County National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  3151‐3319    Apr 25, 1896  N  5039  Steubenville    OH  Commercial National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  9751‐10000    May 4, 1896  N    10‐10‐10‐20  6001‐6185    May 4, 1896  N  5040  Tionesta    PA  Citizens National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  4201‐4415    May 11, 1896  N    10‐10‐10‐20  2301‐3330    May 11, 1896  N  5043  Elkland    PA  Pattison National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  3751‐4115    Jun 2, 1896  N    10‐10‐10‐20  2651‐2863    Jun 2, 1896  N  5044  Grove City    PA  First National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  9501‐9720    Jun 16, 1896  N  5046  Washington    DC  Riggs National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  85831‐98827    Jun 27, 1896  N  5053  Walden    NY  National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  5826‐6250    Dec 14, 1896  N    5576‐5825 type uncertain    10‐10‐10‐20  4141‐4351    Dec 14, 1896  N    3941‐4140 type uncertain  5055  Charlotte    NC  Charlotte National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  23001‐23790    Jan 2, 1897  N  5057  Mount Vernon    IL  Ham National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  7001‐8011    Feb 11, 1897  N    10‐10‐10‐20  5301‐5890    Feb 11, 1897  N  5062  Edwardsville    IL  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  6901‐8104    Mar 3, 1897  N    10‐10‐10‐20  4961‐5596    Mar 3, 1897  N  5063  Windom    MN  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  2901‐3295    Apr 26, 1897  N    10‐10‐10‐20  2141‐2353    Apr 26, 1897  N  5066  Philipsburg    PA  Moshannon National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  9401‐10043    May 8, 1897  N  5068  Port Jefferson    NY  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  3901‐4996    May 15, 1897  N    10‐10‐10‐20  3021‐3725    May 15, 1897  N  5069  Coraopolis    PA  Coraopolis National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  4441‐5032    May 18, 1897  N  5070  East St Louis    IL  Southern Illinois National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  11001‐12090    May 25, 1897  N  5073  Kittanning    PA  Merchants National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  8001‐9251    Jun 5, 1897  N  5076  Logansport    IN  City National Bank  ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 154   10‐10‐10‐20  14501‐16646    Jun 23, 1897  N  5077  Nazareth    PA  Nazareth National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  9401‐10708    Jun 25, 1897  N    9001‐9400 type uncertain  5081  Decorah    IA  National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  2801‐2993    Jul 16, 1897  N  Tillman‐Roberts  July 1, 1897 ‐ December 2, 1897  12 banks  denominations issued: 5, 10, 20  2371  Rockland    ME  North National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  6901‐8108    Sep 7, 1897  E  2375  Kokomo    IN  Howard National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  10583‐15055    Nov 29, 1897  E    10‐10‐10‐20  9601‐10640  5084  Ebensburg    PA  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  4501‐5386    Aug 9, 1897  N    4301‐4500 type uncertain    10‐10‐10‐20  3181‐3628    Aug 9, 1897  N    3021‐3180 type uncertain  5085  Waynesburg    PA  Peoples National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  6101‐6914    Sep 4, 1897  N  5087  Fargo    ND  Fargo National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  3076‐3855    Sep 7, 1897  N    10‐10‐10‐20  2161‐2605    Sep 7, 1897  N  5088  Vinton    IA  Farmers National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  2451‐2735    Sep 21, 1897  N    10‐10‐10‐20  1861‐1996    Sep 21, 1897  N  5089  Decatur    IL  Millikin National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  15251‐18657    Sep 28, 1897  N    10‐10‐10‐20  10001‐12041    Sep 28, 1897  N  5092  Woodsville    NH  Woodsville National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  4151‐5310    Oct 9, 1897  N    10‐10‐10‐20  3041‐3675    Oct 9, 1897  N  5093  Catonsville    MD  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  4551‐5778    Oct 20, 1897  N    10‐10‐10‐20  3341‐4161    Oct 20, 1897  N  5094  Union City    IN  Commercial National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1421‐1479    Oct 25, 1897  N  5098  East Liverpool    OH  Citizens National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  9751‐11860    Nov 15, 1897  N    10‐10‐10‐20  5601‐6842    Nov 15, 1897  N  5102  Kutztown    PA  Kutztown National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  2821‐3512    Nov 26, 1897  N    2701‐2820 type uncertain  Bruce‐Roberts  December 3, 1897 ‐ April 6, 1898  13 banks  denominations issued: 5, 10, 20  2376  Olean    NY  Exchange National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  34501‐37844    Dec 7, 1897  E  2378  Nyack    NY  Nyack National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  10001‐13304    Mar 1, 1898  E    10‐10‐10‐20  6961‐8616    Mar 1, 1898  E  2380  Walla Walla    WA  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  7501‐9147    Mar 19, 1898  E    10‐10‐10‐20  5801‐6743    Mar 19, 1898  E  5099  Crestline    OH  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  2801‐3250    Dec 4, 1897  N  ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 155   5100  Franklin    OH  Franklin National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  4341‐4512    Dec 8, 1897  N  5102  Kutztown    PA  Kutztown National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  4201‐5375    Dec 17, 1897  N    4051‐4200 type uncertain  5103  Coshocton    OH  Coshocton National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  3501‐4118    Dec 21, 1897  N  5104  Alma    KS  Alma National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  2401‐2614    Dec 23, 1897  N  5107  Kirksville    MO  National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  2941‐3629    Dec 30, 1897  N  5108  Clayton    NY  National Exchange Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  4251‐5164    Dec 30, 1897  N    4001‐4250 type uncertain    10‐10‐10‐20  3241‐3818    Dec 30, 1897  N    3041‐3240 type uncertain  5109  Leonard    TX  First National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  4641‐5143    Jan 18, 1898  N  5118  Easton    PA  Northampton National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  8901‐11149    Mar 8, 1898  N  5123  Lake Mills    IA  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  3201‐3923    Feb 21, 1898  N    10‐10‐10‐20  2181‐2609    Feb 21, 1898  N  Lyons‐Treat  July 1, 1905 ‐ June 11, 1906  1 bank  denominations issued: 10, 20  5604  Hereford    TX  First National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  3701‐5819    Feb 17, 1906  T  Vernon‐Treat  June 12, 1906 ‐ October 30, 1909  63 banks  denominations issued: 5, 10, 20  2522  Hornell    NY  Citizens National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  7601‐12156    Mar 21, 1907  T  5296  Sheridan    IN  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐2375    Jan 20, 1909  T    10‐10‐10‐20  4501‐5864    Jan 20, 1909  T  5501  Grove City    PA  Grove City National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  9401‐13552    Aug 1, 1908  T  plus 60 Oklahoma banks with charters from 4348 to 5985 that received state notes from  Vernon‐Treat plates with November 16, 1907 statehood admission plate dates.  Napier‐McClung  May 18, 1911 ‐ November 21, 1913  13 banks  denominations issued: 5, 10, 10  2436  Las Vegas    NM  First National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  2601‐4894    Jan 6, 1912  S  2454  Las Vegas    NM  San Miguel NB    10‐10‐10‐20  2601‐5345    Jan 6, 1912  S  2614  Albuquerque    NM  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  12501‐40530    Jan 6, 1912  S  5220  Roswell    NM  First National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  2301‐5500    Jan 6, 1912  S  5487  Carlsbad    NM  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  701‐1450    Jan 6, 1912  S    10‐10‐10‐20  521‐880    Jan 6, 1912  S  5698  Lexington    NC  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1901‐2210    Nov 4, 1911  T  ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 156   1401‐1900 type uncertain    10‐10‐10‐20  1421‐1534    Nov 4, 1911  T    1021‐1420 type uncertain  5713  Clayton    NM  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1701‐3715    Jan 6, 1912  S    10‐10‐10‐20  1181‐2323    Jan 6, 1912  S  5720  Tempe    AZ  Tempe National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  381‐639    Feb 14, 1912  S  5767  Roanoke Rapids    NC  First National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  2061‐5960    Jun 13, 1912  T  5777  Beaver Springs    PA  First National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1161‐2457    Jun 13, 1912  T    1061‐1160 type uncertain  5821  Clifton    AZ  First National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1251‐2895    Feb 14, 1912  S  6028  Elizabethtown    KY  First Hardin National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  5401‐12782    Aug 5, 1912  T  6081  Santa Rosa    NM  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1001‐3950    Jan 6, 1912  S    10‐10‐10‐20  1301‐3360    Jan 6, 1912  S  Napier‐Thompson  November 22, 1912 ‐ March 31, 1913  none  Napier‐Burke  April 1, 1913 ‐ October 1, 1913  none  Parker‐Burke  October 1, 1913 ‐ March 23, 1915  1 bank  denominations issued: 10, 20  5946  Woonsocket    SD  First National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  701‐1615    Apr 27, 1914  T  Teehee‐Burke  March 24, 1915 ‐ November 20, 1919  4 banks  denominations issued: 5, 10, 20  2524  Cincinnati    OH  Lincoln National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐14390    Jan 11, 1918  T    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐7600    Jan 11, 1918  T  5176  Hattiesburg    MS  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐300     Jan 18, 1918  T    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐120     Jan 18, 1918  T  5212  Marietta    OH  Central National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐1190    Feb 21, 1918  T  5545  Gallatin    TN  First and Peoples National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐2835    Jan 22, 1916  T    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐2146    Jan 22, 1916  T  Elliott‐Burke  November 21‐1919 ‐ May 1, 1921  none  Elliott‐White  May 2, 1921 ‐ January 24, 1922  none  Speelman‐White  January 25, 1922 ‐ September 30, 1927  none      ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 157   Series of 1902 Blue Seal Plain Backs    Woods‐White  October 1, 1927 ‐ May 30, 1928  17 banks  denominations issued: 5, 10, 20, 50, 100  13142  Jefferson City    MO  Exchange National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐4715    Nov 8, 1927  N    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐2058    Nov 8, 1927  N  13144  Witt    IL  National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐1029    Nov 17, 1927  N  13145  Webster    NY  Webster National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐3927    Nov 1, 1927  N  13146  Chicago    IL  National Builders Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐9525    Nov 14, 1927  N    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐4907    Nov 14, 1927  N  13154  Caldwell    OH  Noble County National Bank in    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐1226    Dec 12, 1927  N  13155  Paragould    AR  New First National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐1069    Dec 17, 1927  N  13160  Glen Lyon    PA  Glen Lyon National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐3145    Dec 12, 1927  N    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐2199    Dec 12, 1927  N  13162  Joplin    MO  Conqueror First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐4135    Jan 3, 1928  N    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐2158    Jan 3, 1928  N  13171  Smithfield    OH  First National Bank at    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐602     Jan 17, 1928  N  13193  New York    NY  Bank of America National Association    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐75451    Mar 26, 1928  N    10‐10‐10‐10  1‐50572    Mar 26, 1928  N    50‐50‐50‐100  1‐2445    Mar 26, 1928  N  13195  Mobile    AL  Mobile National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐22469    Mar 24, 1928  N  13198  West Union    OH  National Bank of Adams County    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐638     Apr 5, 1928  N  13200  Santa Ana    CA  Commercial National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐3030    Apr 7, 1928  N  13202  Bangor    WI  First National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐415     Mar 17, 1928  N  13205  Beach Creek    PA  Beach Creek National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐260     Apr 25, 1928  N    10‐10‐10‐10  1‐115     Apr 25, 1928  N    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐126     Apr 25, 1928  N  13209  Lafayette    LA  Commercial National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐4175    Apr 21, 1928  N  13210  Guron    AR  First National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐480     May 19, 1928  N  Woods‐Tate  May 31, 1928 ‐ January 21, 1929  9 banks  denominations issued: 5, 10, 20  13220  Buffalo    NY  East Side National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐8352    Jun 6, 1928  N  13223  Albany    GA  City National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐2508    Jul 2, 1928  N    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐1508    Jul 2, 1928  N  ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 158 13230  Seattle    WA  Pacific National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐10849    Aug 9, 1928  N  13237  New York    NY  Dunbar National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐3960    Aug 17, 1928  N    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐754     Aug 17, 1928  N  13252  Newton    MA  Newton National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐5127    Jul 31, 1928  N  13261  Poultney    VT  First National Bank in    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐469     Nov 12, 1928  N  13264  Saint Louis    MO  South Side National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐11917    Dec 5, 1928  N  13268  Unionville    MO  National Bank    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐63      Dec 12, 1928  N  13274  Siloam Springs    AR  First National Bank in    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐840     Jan 14, 1929  N  Jones‐Woods  January 22, 1929 ‐ May 31, 1933  4 banks  denominations issued: 5, 10, 20  13280  McGehee    AR  First National Bank in    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐6018    Feb 6, 1929  N  13292  New York    NY  Brooklyn National Bank    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐13040    Feb 11, 1929  N    10‐10‐10‐20  1‐5026    Feb 11, 1929  N  13304  New York    NY  Kingsboro National Bank of Brooklyn    5‐5‐5‐5  1‐1250    Feb 25, 1929  N  13307  Niles     MI  City National Bank and Trust Company    10‐10‐10‐10  1‐625     Mar 21, 1929  N Table 2. Series of 1902 blue seal date and plain back national bank note titles that carry the  Napier‐Thompson signature combination. The combination was used only on the titles listed for the  bank.  Causes:            E = extended bank          N = new bank at the time the plate was made        T = title change            T* = title change during the post Napier‐Thompson era where the plate date was copied        W = plate date lies outside the Napier‐Thompson November 22, 1912‐March 31, 1913 range.        Ch No  Location  Bank Name  Plate Date  Cause  1413  MD  Baltimore  The Merchants‐Mechanics National Bank of  Dec 28, 1912  T  2075  GA  Griffin  The City National Bank of  Jan 3, 1913  E  2075  GA  Griffin  The First National Bank of  Jan 3, 1913  T*  2088  MN  Rochester  The Union National Bank of  Feb 12, 1913  E  2093  KY  Paducah  The City National Bank of  Jan 15, 1913  E  2098  OH  Springfield  The Lagonda National Bank of  Mar 15, 1913  E  2098  OH  Springfield  Lagonda‐Citizens National Bank of  Mar 15, 1913  T*  2100  IL  Paris  The Edgar County National Bank of  Mar 24, 1913  E  2102  OH  Caldwell  The Noble County National Bank of  Mar 18, 1913  E  2104  CA  Santa Barbara  The First National Bank of  Mar 13, 1913  E  2104  CA  Santa Barbara  First National Trust and Savings Bank of  Mar 13, 1913  T*  2106  MT  Missoula  The First National Bank of  Apr 11, 1913  EW  2108  MA  Watertown  The Union Market National Bank of  Apr 11, 1913  EW  2112  MA  Boston  The First Ward National Bank of  Mar 24, 1913  E  3276  MI  Sturgis  The Sturgis National Bank  Jan 22, 1913  T  4348  OK  Guthrie  The First National Bank of  Dec 9, 1912  T  4838  AL  Talladega  The Isbell National Bank of  Jan 3, 1913  E  4845  CO  Cripple Creek  The First National Bank of  Jan 22, 1913  E  ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 159 4846  NY  Glens Falls  The Merchants National Bank of  Jan 31, 1913  E  4848  TX  Fort Worth  The American National Bank of  Jan 15, 1913  E  4849  TN  Columbia  The Maury National Bank of  Jan 26, 1913  E  4850  PA  Belle Vernon  The First National Bank of  Jan 17, 1913  E  4851  AZ  Prescott  The Prescott National Bank  Jan 26, 1913  E  4852  IN  Muncie  The Merchants National Bank of  Feb 4, 1913  E  4856  MD  Hagerstown  The Peoples National Bank of  Jan 23, 1913  E  4858  NY  Port Henry  The Citizens National Bank of  Feb 7, 1913  E  4859  MN  Saint James  The First National Bank of  Jan 31, 1913  E  4860  KS  Newton  The Midland National Bank of  Feb 4, 1913  E  4862  OK  Oklahoma City  The State National Bank of  Feb 3, 1913  E  4863  TX  Pittsburg  The First National Bank of  Feb 8, 1913  E  4865  TX  Dublin  The Dublin National Bank  Feb 10, 1913  E  4866  TX  Beeville  The Commercial National Bank of  Jan 17, 1913  E  4867  OH  Hicksville  The First National Bank of  Feb 13, 1913  E  4869  NY  Tonawanda  The First National Bank of  Feb 15, 1913  E  4870  NY  Morris  The First National Bank of  Feb 15, 1913  E  4872  NJ  Princeton  The First National Bank of  Jan 30, 1913  E  4877  PA  Verona  The First National Bank of  Feb 25, 1913  E  4879  PA  Warren  The Warren National Bank  Feb 23, 1913  E  4880  NY  Hempstead  The First National Bank of  Mar 3, 1913  E  4881  IA  Hartley  The First National Bank of  Feb 22, 1913  E  4882  IN  Noblesville  The First National Bank of  Mar 1, 1913    4883  PA  Pittsburgh  The Lincoln National Bank of  Mar 2, 1913  E  4884  OH  Girard  The First National Bank of  Mar 1, 1913  E  4885  IA  Osage  The Farmers National Bank of  Feb 25, 1913  E  4886  CA  San Diego  The Merchants National Bank of  Mar 4, 1913  E  4887  PA  Reading  The Reading National Bank  Jan 27, 1913  E  4889  IA  Forest City  The First National Bank of  Feb 20, 1913  E  4891  IA  Audubon  The First National Bank of  Mar 14, 1913  E  4894  PA  Beaver Falls  The Farmers National Bank of  Feb 3, 1913  E  4896  NC  Mount Airy  The First National Bank of  Mar 28, 1913  E  4897  IA  Cresco  The First National Bank of  Apr 7, 1913  EW  4900  TX  Hillsboro  The Citizens National Bank of  Apr 12, 1913  EW  4901  IN  Vincennes  The Second National Bank of  Apr 12, 1913  EW  4902  IA  Blanchard  The First National Bank of  Apr 13, 1913  EW  4910  PA  Pittsburgh  The Columbia National Bank of  Apr 3, 1913  EW  7989  TX  Garland  The State National Bank of  Jan 23, 1913  T  8470  GA  Lavonia  The First National Bank of  Jan 10, 1913  T  8734  LA  New Orleans  The Hibernia National Bank of  Jan 16, 1913  T  8946  PA  Sligo  Sligo National Bank  Feb 21, 1913  T  10290  IN  Anderson  The Peoples State National Bank of  Nov 23, 1912  N  10293  CA  Selma  The Selma National Bank  Nov 22, 1912  N  10294  ID  Hagerman  The First National Bank of  Nov 23, 1912  N  10296  IL  Divernon  The First National Bank of  Dec 5, 1912  N  10298  OK  Keota  The Keota National Bank  Dec 6, 1912  N  10299  CA  Yuba City  The First National Bank of  Dec 9, 1912  N  10303  GA  Rome  The Exchange National Bank of  Dec 19, 1912  N  10304  OK  Tecumseh  The Tecumseh National Bank  Dec 14, 1912  N  10305  IL  Rogers Park  The Rogers Park National Bank  Dec 16, 1912  N  10306  TN  Petersburg  The First National Bank of  Dec 10, 1912  N  10307  AL  Geneva  The Farmers National Bank of  Dec 20, 1912  N  10309  CA  Woodlake  The First National Bank of  Dec 7, 1912  N  10310  FL  Gainsville  The Florida National Bank of  Jan 4, 1913  N  10311  OK  Snyder  The Kiowa National Bank of  Jan 6, 1913  N  10312  CA  Fowler  The Fowler National Bank  Dec 28, 1912  N  10313  PA  Petersburg  The First National Bank of  Jan 10, 1913  N  10314  OK  Sasakwa  The First National Bank of  Jan 2, 1913  N  ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 160 10315  SC  Columbia  The National State Bank of  Jan 10, 1913  N  10316  DC  Washington  Federal National Bank of  Jan 15, 1913  N  10316  DC  Washington  Federal‐American National Bank of  Jan 15, 1913  T*   10317  OK  Snyder  The First National Bank of  Jan 2, 1913  N  10318  IL  Allendale  The Farmers National Bank of  Jan 15, 1913  N  10319  IL  Des Plaines  The First National Bank of  Jan 11, 1913  N  10320  TX  Poth  The First National Bank of  Jan 16, 1913  N  10321  OK  Muskogee  The Exchange National Bank of  Jan 27, 1913  N  10322  WI  Stone Lake  The First National Bank of  Jan 24, 1913  N  10323  TX  Lometa  The First National Bank of  Jan 11, 1913  N  10324  CA  Mountain View  The First National Bank of  Jan 16, 1913  N  10325  VA  Fredericksburg  The Planters National Bank of  Feb 4, 1913  N  10326  MS  Columbia  The Citizens National Bank of  Jan 2, 1913  N  10327  TN  Knoxville  The American National Bank of  Feb 6, 1913  N  10328  CA  Orosi  The National Bank of  Feb 5, 1913  N  10329  NY  Long Island City  Commercial National Bank of  Feb 5, 1913  N  10330  WI  Grand Rapids  The Citizens National Bank of  Dec 30, 1912  N  10330  WI  Wisconsin Rapids  The Citizens National Bank of  Dec 30, 1912  T*  10331  TX  Dallas  The Merchants National Bank of  Feb 10, 1913  N  10332  OK  Cushing  The Farmers National Bank of  Jan 27, 1913  N  10333  GA  Claxton  The First National Bank of  Feb 10, 1913  N  10334  TN  Jackson  The Security National Bank of  Feb 10, 1913  N  10335  PA  Orbisonia  The Orbisonia National Bank  Feb 14, 1913  N  10336  AL  Decatur  The City National Bank of  Feb 21, 1913  N  10337  IL  Austin  The Austin National Bank  Feb 7, 1913  N  10337  IL  Chicago  The Austin National Bank of  Feb 7, 1913  T*  10338  MS  Summit  The Progressive National Bank of  Feb 13, 1913  N  10339  OK  Afton  The First National Bank of  Feb 24, 1913  N  10340  NE  Fairbury  The Farmers and Merchants National Bank of  Feb 8, 1913  N  10341  ID  Burley  The First National Bank of  Feb 20, 1913  N  10342  OK  Tulsa  The American National Bank of  Feb 12, 1913  N  10343  OK  Bennington  The Bennington National Bank  Mar 4, 1913  N  10344  VA  Richmond  The Broadway National Bank of  Feb 10, 1913  N  10345  OR  Eugene  The United States National Bank of  Feb 13, 1913  N  10346  FL  Panama City  The First National Bank of  Feb 26, 1913  N  10347  OK  Achille  The First National Bank of  Feb 15, 1913  N  10348  WV  Hinton  The Citizens National Bank of  Mar 11, 1913  N  10349  OK  Henryetta  The Miners National Bank of  Feb 20, 1913  N  10350  TX  Richmond  The First National Bank of  Feb 19, 1913  N  10351  NY  Frankfort  The Citizens National Bank of  Dec 17, 1912  N  10351  NY  Frankfort  Citizens First National Bank of  Dec 17, 1912  T*  10352  CA  Merced  The Farmers and Merchants National Bank of  Jan 4, 1913  N  10353  PA  New Florence  The New Florence National Bank  Jan 29, 1913  N  10354  IA  Harlan  The Harlan National Bank  Feb 24, 1913  N  10355  IL  Waukegan  The Waukegan National Bank  Mar 7, 1913  N  10356  OK  Foraker  The First National Bank of  Mar 15, 1913  N  10357  CA  Bakersfield  The National Bank of  Mar 6, 1913  N  10358  NY  Babylon  The Babylon National Bank  Jan 24, `913  N  10359  KS  Attica  The First National Bank of  Mar 19, 1913  N  10360  TX  Victoria  The Victoria National Bank  Mar 31, 1913  N  10364  CA  Hardwick  The First National Bank of  Mar 31, 193  N  10367  MO  North Kansas City   The National Bank of  Jan 13, 1913  N  10369  WV  Keystone  The First National Bank of  Mar 27, 1913  N  10371  IA  Bode  The First National Bank of  Mar 29, 1913  N  10372  CA  Arcata  The First National Bank of  Mar 29, 1913  N  10374  NY  Redwood  The Redwood National Bank  Feb 12, 1913  N  10376  NJ  Keansburg  The Keansburg National Bank  Mar 24, 1913  N  10378  CA  Orland  The First National Bank of  Mar 5, 1913  N  ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 161 10382  MN  Ironton  The First National Bank of  Mar 31, 1913  N  10383  PA  Clarks Summit  The Abington National Bank of  Mar 7, 1913  N  10384  MO  Holden  The First National Bank of  Mar 29, 1913  N  10397  IL  Brownstown  The First National Bank of  Mar 17, 1913  N  10446  NY  Heuvelton  The First National Bank of  Mar 28, 1913  N    Table 3. Series of 1902 blue seal date and plain back national bank note titles that carry the  Napier‐Burke  signature  combination.  The  combination was  used  only  on  the  titles  listed  for  the  bank.  Causes:            E = extended bank          N = new bank at the time the plate was made        T = title change            Ch. No.  Location  Bank Name  Plate Date  Cause  252  PA  Pittsburgh  The First‐Second National Bank of  Apr 21, 1913  T  906  KY  Lexington  The First and City National Bank of  Aug 8, 1913  T  2114  TN  Fayetteville  The First National Bank of  Jun 9, 1913  E  2116  IL  Griggsville  The Griggsville National Bank  May 13, 1913  E  2117  NY  Ellenville  The Home National Bank of  May 6, 1913  E  2119  IN  Plymouth  The First National Bank of Marshall County at  Jun 19, 1913  E  2125  WI  Chippewa Falls  The First National Bank of  May 1, 1913  E  2126  IL  Lincoln  The First National Bank of  Jul 29, 1913  E  2127  TN  Memphis  The Central‐State National Bank of  Jul 26, 1913  E  2128  IL  Shelbyville  The First National Bank of  Aug 21, 1913  E  2129  CO  Central City  The First National Bank of  Sep 15, 1913  E  2130  IA  Red Oak  The First National Bank of  Sep 24, 1913  E  3417  WA  Tacoma  The National Bank of  Sep 2, 1913  T  4319  AL  Jacksonville  The First National Bank of  Apr 7, 1913  T  4857  PA  Patton  The First National Bank of  Sep 13, 1913  E  4868  ME  Portland  The Chapman National Bank of  Sep 16, 1913  E  4904  IL  Carbondale  The First National Bank of  Apr 15, 1913  E  4905  TX  Hempstead  The Farmers National Bank of  Apr 15, 1913  E  4907  MA  Springfield  The Springfield National Bank  Apr 22, 1913  E  4908  PA  Reynoldsville  The First National Bank of  Apr 20, 1913  E  4912  WI  Stevens Point  The Citizens National Bank of  Apr 27, 1913  E  4913  PA  New Kensington  The First National Bank of  May 6, 1913  E  4914  NY  Matteawan  The Matteawan National Bank  May 9, 1913  E  4915  PA  Athens  The Farmers National Bank of  May 1, 1913  E  4916  MN  Wadena  The Merchants National Bank of  May 15, 1913  E  4917  PA  Newport  The First National Bank of  May 8, 1913  E  4918  PA  Pittsburgh  Western National Bank of  May 18, 1913  T  4919  PA  Blairsville  The Blairsville National Bank  Jun 9, 1913  E  4920  IL  Decatur  The National Bank of  May 16, 1913  E  4921  IA  Waukon  The First National Bank of  Apr 22, 1913  E  4922  TX  Atlanta  The First National Bank of  May 13, 1913  E  4923  PA  Ephrata  The Farmer's National Bank of  May 27, 1913  E  4925  NY  Liberty  The Sullivan County National Bank of  May 29, 1913  E  4926  MD  Frostburg  The Citizens National Bank of  May 24, 1913  E  4927  PA  North East  The First National Bank of  Jun 3, 1913  E  4928  MN  Owatonna  The National Farmers Bank of  May 29, 1913  E  4929  VT  Chelsea  The National Bank of Orange County at  Sep 9, 1913  E  4930  IL  Normal  The First National Bank of  Jul 3, 1913  E  4937  WI  Appleton  The Citizens National Bank of  Jun 1, 1913  E  6535  IL  Chicago  The Drovers National Bank of  May 22, 1913  T  8230  ND  Lidgerwood  The Farmers National Bank of  Sep 6, 1913  T  8827  CA  Los Angeles  Security National Bank of  Sep 2, 1913  T  9966  CA  Alhambra  The Alhambra National Bank  May 27, 1913  T  ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 162 10416  SD  Henry  The First National Bank of  Apr 30, 1913  N  10417  NJ  Lyndhurst  The First National Bank of  May 20, 1913  N  10418  TX  Krum  The First National Bank of  Jun 26, 1913  N  10419  IN  Fishers  The Fishers National Bank  Jul 5, 1913  N  10420  TX  Freeport  The Freeport National Bank  Apr 23, 1913  N  10421  AL  Enterprise  The Farmers and Merchants National Bank of  Jul 2, 1913  N  10422  AR  Green Forest  The First National Bank of  Jun 7, 1913  N  10423  AL  New Decatur  The Central National Bank of  Jul 10, 1913  N  10424  OK  Broken Bow  The First National Bank of  Jul 3, 1913  N  10425  ND  East Fairview  The First National Bank of  Jun 19, 1913  N  10426  TX  Omaha  The First National Bank of  Jul 7, 1913  N  10427  CA  Riverbank  First National Bank of  Jun 26, 1913  N  10428  IA  Mason City  The Security National Bank of  Jul 16, 1913  N  10429  ID  Rupert  The First National Bank of  Jul 29, 1913  N  10430  NJ  Westville  The First National Bank of  Jul 16, 1913  N  10431  OK  Tishomingo  The Farmers National Bank of  Jul 23, 1913  N  10432  OR  Paisley  Paisley National Bank of  Jul 14, 1913  N  10433  KY  Whitesburg  The First National Bank of  Jul 14, 1913  N  10434  AR  Morrilton  The First National Bank of  Jul 19, 1913  N  10435  CA  San Diego  The Union National Bank of  Jul 23, 1913  N  10436  OH  Haviland  The Farmers National Bank of  Aug 1, 1913  N  10437  OK  Braggs  The First National Bank of  Aug 1, 1913  N  10438  MT  Plentywood  The First National Bank of  May 12, 1913  N  10439  AR  Judsonia  The First National Bank of  Jul 3, 1913  N  10440  NJ  Minotola  The First National Bank of  Jul 25, 1913  N  10441  AL  Boaz  The First National Bank of  Sep 1, 1913  N  10442  OK  Hydro  The Farmers National Bank of  Aug 9, 1913  N  10443  MT  Baker  The First National Bank of  Aug 19, 1913  N  10444  NY  Forestville  The First National Bank of  Sep 3, 1913  N  10445  IL  Mounds  The First National Bank of  Aug 29, 1913  N  10446  NY  Heuvelton  The First National Bank of  Mar 28, 1913  N  10447  AR  Horatio  The First National Bank of  Aug 15, 1913  N  10448  KY  Bowling Green  The Warren National Bank of  Sep 8, 1913  N  10449  TN  Ripley  The First National Bank of  Sep 6, 1913  N  10450  WV  Worthington  The First National Bank of  Apr 14, 1913  N  10451  HI  Paia  The First National Bank of  Jul 29, 1913  N  10452  PA  Strausstown  The Strausstown National Bank  Jul 19, 1913  N  10453  CA  Gardena  The First National Bank of  Sep 10, 1913  N  10455  WV  Wheeling  The Citizens National Bank of  Jun 7, 1913  N  10456  NY  Jeffersonville  The First National Bank of  Sep 8, 1913  N  10459  AR  Stuttgart  The First National Bank of  Sep 25, 1913  N  10462  CA  Seeley  The First National Bank of  Sep 5, 1913  N  Table 5. New banks  that  received Series of 1902 notes with  obsolete  treasury  signature  combinations.  The  obsolete  signature on the notes is the one shown in boldface.  Plate Date  Parker‐Burke/Teehee‐Burke1   (Mar 23/Mar 24, 1915)2  9 cases  10720  Citizens NB  Cicero  IL  Mar 25, 1915  10727  FNB  Bonners Ferry  ID  Mar 25, 1915  10721  FNB  NcVille  ND  Mar 30, 1915  10731  FNB  Yreka  CA  Apr 17, 1915  10734  Citizens NB  Hendersonville  KY  Apr 21, 1915  10736  FNB  Nashwauk  MN  Apr 22, 1915  10745  FNB  Rosedale  MS  Apr 24, 1915  10741  FNB  Hebron  ND  Apr 27, 1915  ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 163 10735  Citizens NB  Athens  TN  Apr 29, 1915    Teehee‐Burke/Elliott‐Burke   (Nov 20/Nov 21, 1919)  1 case  11548  FNB  Dawson Springs  KY  Nov 21, 1919  Elliott‐Burke/Elliott‐White   (May 1/May 2, 1921)  none  Elliott‐White/Speelman‐White   (Jan 24/Jan 25, 1922)  2 cases  12112  Citizens NB  Lodi  CA  Jan 28, 1922  12115  Richfield NB  Richfield  MN  Jan 31, 1922   Footnotes:  1. Boldface = obsolete signature combination on notes. Italics = combination current on  the plate date.  2.  Changeover  dates  between  the  signature  combinations. Boldface  =  day when  the  new combination became current.    Table  6.  Extended  banks  that  received  Series  of  1902  notes  with  obsolete  treasury  signature  combinations.  The  obsolete  signature on the notes is the one shown in boldface.          Plate Date  Vernon‐McClung/Napier‐McClung1   (May 17/May 18, 1911)2  7 cases  18343  NB  Franklin  TN  May 26, 1911  4573  FNB  Marshfield  WI  May 19, 1911  4586  FNB  Kalispell  MT  May 24, 1911  4611  FNB  Cape Girardeau  MO  May 24, 1911  4596  Old Second NB  Aurora  IL  May 26, 1911  4583  FNB  Arlington  NE  May 27, 1911  4628  FNB  Elizabeth City  NC  May 27, 1911  Napier‐McClung/Napier‐Thompson   (Nov 21/Nov 22, 1912)  14 Cases  2068  FNB  Yankton  SD  Nov 26, 1912  2073  FNB  Northfield  MN  Dec 14, 1912  2076  N Union B  Dover  NJ  Dec 20, 1912  2078  FNB  Conshohocken  PA  Dec 29, 1912  4821  FNB  Wadena  MN  Nov 29, 1912  4833  Merchants NB  Haverhill  MA  Dec 7, 1912  4830  FNB  El Reno  OK  Dec 8, 1912  4839  FNB  Arcanum  OH  Dec 11, 1912  4828  NB  Davis  WV  Dec 21, 1912  4836  Clearfield NB  Clearfield  PA  Dec 21, 1912  4853  Fourth NB  Cadiz  OH  Dec 22, 1912  4844  York County NB  York Village  ME  Dec 24, 1912  4832  FNB  Phillipsburg  PA  Dec 30, 1912  4842  Old Phoenix NB  Media  OH  Dec 31, 1912  Napier‐Thompson/Napier‐Burke   (Mar 31/Apr 1, 1913)  7 cases  2106  FNB  Missoula  MT  Apr 11, 1913  2108  Union Market NB  Watertown  MA  Apr 11, 1913  4910  Columbia NB  Pittsburgh  PA  Apr 3, 1913  4897  FNB  Cresco  IA  Apr 7, 1913  ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 164 4900  Citizens NB  Hillsboro  TX  Apr 12, 1913  4901  Second NB  Vincennes  IN  Apr 12, 1913  4902  FNB  Blanchard  IA  Apr 13, 1913  Napier‐Burke/Parker‐Burke   (Oct 1/Oct 1, 1913)  None  Parker‐Burke/Teehee‐Burke   (Mar 23/Mar 24, 1915)  14 cases  2242  Havana NB  Havana  IL  Mar 25, 1915  2248  FNB  Oakland  CA  Mar 30, 1915  2252  FNB  Millersburg  PA  Apr 5, 1915  2256  Farm & Mech NB  Mercer  PA  Apr 7, 1915  2255  Orange NB  Orange  MA  Apr 13, 1915  2250  Bristol NB  Bristol  CO  Apr 14, 1915  2251  Greenville  Greenville  PA  Apr 15, 1915  2257  Second NB  Red Bank  NJ  Apr 17, 1915  2295  Merchants NB  St. Johnsbury  VT  Apr 27, 1915  2261  German NB  Allegheny  PA  Apr 30, 1915  4997  FNB  Washington  NC  Apr 11, 1915  4996  Central NB  Spartenburg  SC  Apr 17, 1915  4994  FNB  Vandalia  IL  Apr 18, 1915  5000  E Pittsburg NB  Wilmerding  PA  Apr 27, 1915  Teehee‐Burke/Elliott‐Burke   (Nov 20/Nov 21, 1919)  none  Elliott‐Burke/Elliott‐White   (May 1/May 2, 1921)  104 cases  2530  New Holland NB  New Holland  PA  May 5, 1921  2536  Merchants NB  Nebraska City  NE  May 14, 1921  2528  FNB  Hastings  NE  May 23, 1921  2531  Mercer NB  Harrodsburg  KY  May 25, 1921  2532  FNB  El Paso  TX  May 28, 1921  2533  Citizens NB  Crawfordsville  IN  May 28, 1921  2539  FNB  Manistee  MI  Jun 16, 1921  2540  FNB  Cambridge  IL  Jun 17, 1921  2543  FNB  Bainbridge  NY  Jul 6, 1921  2544  Potters NB  East Liverpool  OH  Jul 11, 1921  2547  Denton NB  Denton  MD  Jul 15, 1921  2548  FNB  Valley City  ND  Jul 16, 1921  2550  FNB  Quincy  MI  Jul 18, 1921  2545  FNB  Poultney  VT  Jul 19, 1921  2546  Western NB  Pueblo  CO  Jul 26, 1921  5878  Monaca NB  Monaca  PA  May 2, 1921  5825  American NB  Beaumont  TX  May 4, 1921  5827  FNB  Gallatin  MO  May 4, 1921  5852  FNB  Jackson  MN  May 4, 1921  5847  FNB  Whitesboro  TX  May 6, 1921  5823  FNB  Berlin  PA  May 6, 1921  5815  FNB  Malta  IL  May 7, 1921  5816  N Exchange B  Castleton  NY  May 7, 1921  5824  FNB  Crandall  TX  May 8, 1921  5850  FNB  Mart  TX  May 8, 1921  5968  FNB  Monongahela City  PA  May 9, 1921  5822  FNB  Ontario  OR  May 10, 1921  5821  FNB  Clifton  AZ  May 14, 1921  5836  Citizens NB  Dublin  TX  May 14, 1921  5842  Home NB  Thorntown  IN  May 15, 1921  5912  FNB  Prescott  IA  May 15, 1921  ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 165 5849  FNB  Waldron  AR  May 17, 1921  5866  FNB  Warren  MN  May 18, 1921  5848  FNB  Pitcairn  PA  May 20, 1921  5884  Chelsa NB  Atlantic City  NJ  May 20, 1921  5862  Paulding NB  Paulding  OH  May 21, 1921  5879  Citizens NB  Monaca  PA  May 22, 1921  5880  Farm & Mer NB  Cambridge  MD  May 22, 1921  5921  Hackensack NB  Hackensack  NJ  May 23, 1921  5869  FNB  Newton  IL  May 24, 1921  5877  Fourth NB  Montgomery  AL  May 24, 1921  5881  Farmers NB  Somerset  KY  May 27, 1921  5902  FNB  Eufaula  OK  May 27, 1921  5854  FNB  Flaudreau  SD  May 29, 1921  5874  Peoples NB  Hoosick Falls  NY  May 29, 1921  5882  FNB  Thorndale  TX  May 29, 1921  5863  FNB  Hanford  CA  Jun 1, 1921  5861  Peoples NB  Farmington  ME  Jun 3, 1921  5856  FNB  Gilman  IL  Jun 4, 1921  5853  Llano NB  Llano  TX  Jun 5, 1921  5908  FNB  Houston  PA  Jun 6, 1921  5859  Farmers NB  Alexandria  MN  Jun 7, 1921  5910  Citizens NB  Worthington  MN  Jun 7, 1921  6109  FNB  Swissvale  PA  Jun 7, 1921*  5865  FNB  Roby  TX  Jun 8, 1921  5923  NB  Anadarko  OK  Jun 8, 1921  5876  FNB  Chicago Heights  IL  Jun 11, 1921  5889  N Fowler B  Lafayette  IN  Jun 11, 1921  5873  FNB  Manilla  IA  Jun 14, 1921  5896  Citizens NB  Houghton  MI  Jun 14, 1921  5868  FNB  Lehigh  IA  Jun 15, 1921  5935  FNB  Wetumpka  OK  Jun 15, 1921  5883  FNB  Roseville  IL  Jun 17, 1921  5893  FNB  Hope  ND  Jun 17, 1921  5907  FNB  Argyle  MN  Jun 18, 1921  5903  FNB  Alderson  WV  Jun 19, 1921  5955  FNB  Chelsea  OK  Jun 19, 1921  5885  FNB  Oxford  NC  Jun 20, 1921  5905  FNB  Anadarko  OK  Jun 20, 1921  5932  FNB  Kemp  TX  Jun 20, 1921  5901  FNB  Elk Point  SD  Jun 22, 1921  5906  FNB  Payette  ID  Jun 22, 1921  5891  FNB  Valley Junction  IA  Jun 24, 1921  5900  Citizens NB  Bowling Green  KY  Jun 27, 1921  5920  FNB  Fredericktown  PA  Jun 27, 1921  5895  Northfield NB  Northfield  MN  Jun 28, 1921  5894  FNB  Thief River Falls  MN  Jun 29, 1921  5897  Graham NB  Graham  TX  Jun 29, 1921  5898  FNB  Salem  SD  Jul 5, 1921  5911  FNB  Cleveland  OK  Jul 5, 1921  5909  Dothan NB  Dothan  AL  Jul 6, 1921  5929  FNB  DeQueen  AR  Jul 6, 1921  5916  FNB  Arlington  SD  Jul 8, 1921  5913  USNB  Johnstown  PA  Jul 9, 1921  5926  FNB  Seabright  NJ  Jul 9, 1921  5931  State NB  Lowell  IN  Jul 11, 1921  5974  Broadway NB  Scottdale  PA  Jul 12, 1921  6018  Purcellville NB  Purcellville  VA  Jul 12, 1921  5918  FNB  Alexandria  SD  Jul 16, 1921  ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 166 5914  FNB  Lawton  OK  Jul 18, 1921  5924  Peoples NB  Margaretville  NY  Jul 18, 1921  5967  Eufaula NB  Eufaula  OK  Jul 18, 1921  5936  FNB  Northport  NY  Jul 20, 1921  5928  FNB  Wolcott  NY  Jul 23, 1921  5927  Citizens NB  Los Angeles  CA  Jul 24, 1921  5949  FNB  Thermopolis  WY  Jul 24, 1921  5981  FNB  Paulsboro  NJ  Jul 24, 1921  5938  Citizens NB  Crandall  TX  Jul 29, 1921  5961  FNB  Pawhuska  OK  Jul 29, 1921  5941  Farmers NB  Pilger  NE  Jul 30, 1921  5956  Peoples NB  Monessen  PA  Jul 30, 1921  5933  Chilton NB  Chilton  WI  Jul 31, 1921  5952  Baxter NB  Baxter Springs  KS  Jul 31, 1921  5942  Langlade NB  Antigo  WI  Aug 1, 1921  Elliott‐White/Speelman‐White   (Jan 24/Jan 25, 1922)  94 cases  2644  FNB  Newton  IA  Jan 30, 1922  2643  City NB  South Norwalk  CT  Jan 31, 1922  2637  FNB  Durango  CO  Feb 4, 1922  2628  Van Wert NB  Van Wert  OH  Feb 8, 1922  2634  Fulton NB  Lancaster  PA  Feb 8, 1922  2645  FNB  Mitchell  SD  Feb 8, 1922  2642  Searsport NB  Searsport  ME  Feb 14, 1922  2647  N Exchange B  Waukesha  WI  Feb 14, 1922  2636  FNB  Appleton City  MO  Feb 15, 1922  2649  Citizens NB  Parkersburg  WV  Feb 16, 1922  2651  FNB  Richfield Springs  NY  Feb 16, 1922  2661  Millerton NB  Millerton  NY  Feb 18, 1922*  2681  Streator NB  Streator  IL  Feb 22, 1922*  2667  Sellersville NB  Sellersville  PA  Feb 23, 1922*  19  FNB  Portsmouth  NH  Mar 2, 1922*  2679  Shenandoah NB  Shenandoah  IA  Mar 3, 1922*  2648  Fergus Falls  Fergus Falls  MN  Mar 4, 1922  2659  FNB  Bangor  PA  Mar 14, 1922*  2705  FNB  Georgetown  OH  Mar 24, 1922*  2669  NB  West Grove  PA  Mar 25, 1922*  2663  State NB  Maysville  KY  Mar 27, 1922*  2674  FNB  Stillwell  MN  Mar 28, 1922*  2657  Watertown NB  Watertown  NY  Mar 29, 1922*  6227  FNB  Port Clinton  OH  Jan 25, 1922*  6141  FNB  Zelienople  PA  Jan 27, 1922*  6187  FNB  Portales  NM  Jan 27, 1922*  6130  FNB  Hugo  OK  Jan 29, 1922*  6139  State NB  Mount Pleasant  TX  Jan 30, 1922*  6179  FNB  South River  NJ  Jan 30, 1922*  6124  FNB  Waubay  SD  Jan 31, 1922*  6188  FNB  Gulfport  MS  Feb 1, 1922*  6196  FNB  Friendsville  MD  Feb 1, 1922*  6137  Grand Valley NB  Grand Valley  CO  Feb 4, 1922*  6146  FNB  Athens  AL  Feb 6, 1922*  6149  FNB  Leroy  KS  Feb 6, 1922*  6127  N Kittanning B  Kittanning  PA  Feb 8, 1922*  6126  Fauquier NB  Warrenton  VA  Feb 11, 1922*  6150  Gatesville NB  Gatesville  TX  Feb 12, 1922*  6190  Caribou NB  Caribou  ME  Feb 12, 1922*  6131  Union NB  Minersville  PA  Feb 13, 1922*  6170  FNB  Middlebourne  WV  Feb 13, 1922*  ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 167 6219  St. Charles NB  St. Charles  IL  Feb 14, 1922*  6157  FNB  Rolla  ND  Feb 15, 1922*  6175  FNB  Freeland  PA  Feb 15, 1922*  6209  American NB  Ebensburg  PA  Feb 17, 1922*  6143  FNB  Kinmundy  IL  Feb 19, 1922*  6158  FNB  Jermyn  PA  Feb 19, 1922*  6140  FNB  Mesquite  TX  Feb 21, 1922*  6151  FNB  Willmar  MN  Feb 24, 1922*  6154  FNB  Benson  MN  Feb 24, 1922*  6144  FNB  Mt. Savage  MD  Feb 26, 1922*  6162  Berwick NB  Berwick  PA  Feb 27, 1922*  6165  Tremont NB  Tremont  PA  Feb 27, 1922*  6160  Montgomery NB  Mount Sterling  KY  Mar 1, 1922*  6183  FNB  Farmington  NM  Mar 1, 1922*  6159  FNB  Yukon  OK  Mar 5, 1922*  6161  FNB  Cashion  OK  Mar 5, 1922*  6205  FNB  Keyser  WV  Mar 5, 1922*  6212  FNB  Troupe  TX  Mar 6, 1922*  6215  Valparaiso NB  Valparaiso  IN  Mar 6, 1922*  6156  FNB  Edmond  OK  Mar 8, 1922*  6246  Parksley NB  Parksley  VA  Mar 8, 1922*  6172  Monticello NB  Monticello  IN  Mar 10, 1922*  6185  FNB  White Rock  SD  Mar 10, 1922*  6180  FNB  Sylvester  GA  Mar 11, 1922*  6210  FNB  Courtenay  ND  Mar 11, 1922*  6171  FNB  Lindsay  OK  Mar 12, 1922*  6198  Port Richmond NB  Port Richmond  NY  Mar 12, 1922*  6202  Citizens NB  Pocomoke City  MD  Mar 12, 1922*  6271  FNB  Enloe  TX  Mar 12, 1922*  6174  Carnegie NB  Carnegie  PA  Mar 13, 1922*  6167  City NB  Fulton  KY  Mar 15, 1922*  6218  FNB  Hankinson  ND  Mar 15, 1922*  6249  FNB  Burton  OH  Mar 15, 1922*  6169  FNB  Livingston  TX  Mar 17, 1922*  6176  FNB  Henderson  TX  Mar 17, 1922*  6239  Yorkville NB  Yorkville  IL  Mar 17, 1922*  6173  City NB  Tuscaloosa  AL  Mar 18, 1922*  6220  FNB  Everett  PA  Mar 18, 1922*  6270  FNB  Sutersville  PA  Mar 20, 1922*  6193  Sheffield NB  Sheffield  PA  Mar 21, 1922*  6182  Clarion County NB  Edenburg  PA  Mar 22, 1922*  6199  FNB  Hills  MN  Mar 22, 1922*  6225  FNB  Drayton  ND  Mar 22, 1922*  6232  FNB  Ralston  OK  Mar 22, 1922*  6230  American NB  McAlester  OK  Mar 25, 1922*  6186  Manuf & Trade NB  Buffalo  NY  Mar 26, 1922*  6197  FNB  Carthage  TX  Mar 26, 1922*  6207  FNB  Louisville  GA  Mar 26, 1922*  6250  FNB  Hooversville  PA  Mar 27, 1922*  6248  FNB  Latonia  KY  Mar 28, 1922*  6224  Planters & Mer NB  Commerce  TX  Mar 29, 1922*  6208  FNB  Long Prairie  MN  Mar 31, 1922*  6288  FNB  Tucumcari  NM  Mar 31, 1922*  Footnotes:  1. Boldface = obsolete signature combination on notes. Italics = combination current on  the plate date.  2.  Changeover  dates  between  the  signature  combinations. Boldface  =  day when  the  ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 168 new combination became current.  3. Charter numbers  2705 or  less  are banks  extending  for  the  second  time,  4573  and  above are banks extending for the first time.  * = Series of 1902 notes with 1901 or 1902 plate dates were issued to the bank prior to  its being extended in 1921 or 1922.      Figure 19. Only eleven banks in the entire country received Series of 1875 notes with Rosecrans-Nebeker signatures, but of those only The United States National Bank of New York got $5s. The bankers didn’t order a 5-5-5-5 plate until 1891 so it carried an 1891 batch date that dictated that the plate carry Rosecrans-Nebeker signatures. Figure 20. The First National Bank of Woonsocket, South Dakota (5946), underwent a title change from The Citizens National Bank in 1914, yielding for it a10-10-10-20 plate bearing the title change date of April 27, 1914 with Parker-Burke signatures. That plate when on to produce the only Series of 1882 Parker-Burke value backs in the entire country. ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 169    Paper Money will accept classified advertising on a basis of 15¢ per word(minimum charge of $3.75). Commercial word ads are now allowed. Word count: Name and address count as five words. All other words and abbreviations, figure combinations and initials count as separate words. Editor does NOT check copy. 10% discount for four or more insertions of the same copy. Authors are also offered a free three-line classified ad in recognition of their contribution to the Society. These adsare run on a space available basis.   WANTED: 1778 NORTH CAROLINA COLONIAL $40. (Free Speech Motto). Kenneth Casebeer, (828) 277- 1779; WORLD PAPER MONEY. 2 stamps for new arrival price list. I actively buy and sell. Mention PM receive $3 credit. 661-298-3149. Gary Snover, PO Box 1932, Canyon Country, CA 91386 TRADE MY DUPLICATE, circulated FRN $1 star notes for yours I need. Have many in the low printings. Free list. Ken Kooistra, PO Box 71, Perkiomenville, PA 18074. WANTED: Notes from the State Bank of Indiana, Bank of the State of Indiana, and related documents, reports, and other items. Write with description (include photocopy if possible) first. Wendell Wolka, PO Box 1211, Greenwood, IN 46142 FOR SALE: College Currency/advertising notes/ 1907 depression scrip/Michigan Obsoletes/Michigan Nationals/stock certificates. Other interests? please advise. Lawrence Falater.Box 81, Allen, MI. 49227 WANTED: Any type Nationals containing the name “LAWRENCE” (i.e. bank of LAWRENCE). Send photo/price/description to BUYING ONLY $1 HAWAII OVERPRINTS. White, no stains, ink, rust or rubber stamping, only EF or AU. Pay Ask. Craig Watanabe. 808-531- 2702. Vermont National Bank Notes for sale. For list contact. WANTED: Any type Nationals from Charter #10444 Forestville, NY. Contact with price. Leo Duliba, 469 Willard St., Jamestown, NY 14701-4129. "Collecting Paper Money with Confidence". All 27 grading factors explained clearly and in detail. Now available . Stamford CT Nationals For Sale or Trade. Have some duplicate notes, prefer trade for other Stamford notes, will consider cash. WANTED: Republic of Texas “Star” (1st issue) notes. Also “Medallion” (3rd issue) notes. VF+. Serious Collector. Wanted Railroad scrip Wills Valley; Western & Atlantic 1840s; East Tennessee & Georgia; Memphis and Charleston. Dennis Schafluetzel 1900 Red Fox Lane; Hixson, TN 37343. Call 423-842-5527 or email dennis@schafluetzel       WANT ADS WORK FOR YOU  We could all use a few extra bucks. Money Mart ads can help you sell duplicates,  advertise wants,  increase your collection, and have more fun with your hobby.  Up to 20 words plus your address in SIX BIG ISSUES only $20.50/year!!!! *    Take it from those who have found the key to “Money Mart success” Put out your want list in “Money Mart” and see what great notes become part of your collecting future, too. ONLY$20.50 / YEAR ! ! ! (wow)  $ MoneyMart $  ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 170 Florida Paper Money Ron Benice “I collect all kinds of Florida paper money” 4452 Deer Trail Blvd. Sarasota, FL 34238 941 927 8765 Books available,, MYLAR D® CURRENCY HOLDERS PRICED AS FOLLOWS BANK NOTE AND CHECK HOLDERS SIZE INCHES 50 100 500 1000 Fractional Colonial Small Currency Large Currency Auction Foreign Currency Checks 4-3/4" x 2-1/4" $21.60 $38.70 $171.00 $302.00 5-1/2" x 3-1/16" $22.60 $41.00 $190.00 $342.00 6-5/8" x 2-7/8" $22.75 $42.50 $190.00 $360.00 7-7/8" x 3-1/2" $26.75 $48.00 $226.00 $410.00 9 x 3-3/4" $26.75 $48.00 $226.00 $410.00 8 x 5 $32.00 $58.00 $265.00 $465.00 9-5/8 x 4-1/4" $32.00 $58.00 $265.00 $465.00 SHEET HOLDERS SIZE INCHES 10 50 100 250 Obsolete Sheet End Open 8-3/4" x 14-1/2" $20.00 $88.00 $154.00 $358.00 National Sheet Side Open 8-1/2" x 17-1/2" $21.00 $93.00 $165.00 $380.00 Stock Certificate End Open 9-1/2" x 12-1/2" $19.00 $83.00 $150.00 $345.00 Map & Bond Size End Open 18" x 24" $82.00 $365.00 $665.00 $1530.00 You may assort note holders for best price (min. 50 pcs. one size). You may assort sheet holders for best price (min. 10 pcs. one size). SHIPPING IN THE U.S. (PARCEL POST) FREE OF CHARGE Out of Country sent Registered Mail at Your Cost Mylar D® is a Registered Trademark of the Dupont Corporation. This also applies to uncoated archival quality Mylar® Type D by the Dupont Corp. or the equivalent material by ICI Industries Corp. Melinex Type 516. DENLY’S OF BOSTON P.O. Box 29, Dedham, MA 02027 • 781-326-9481 ORDERS: 800-HI-DENLY • FAX 781-326-9484 DBR Currency We Pay top dollar for *National Bank notes *Large size notes *Large size FRNs and FBNs P.O. Box 28339 San Diego, CA 92198 Phone: 858-679-3350 Fax: 858-679-7505 See out eBay auctions under user ID DBRcurrency HIGGINS MUSEUM 1507 Sanborn Ave. • Box 258 Okoboji, IA 51355 (712) 332-5859 email: Open: Tuesday-Sunday 11 to 5:30 Open from Memorial Day thru Labor Day History of National Banking & Bank Notes Turn of the Century Iowa Postcards Maryland Paper Money: An Illustrated History, 1864-1935 This 348-page hardcover book documents Maryland’s national currency era of banking from 1864 to 1935. Almost 300 photos of surviving notes are shown, including many rarities from the landmark Marc Watts Collection of National Currnecy. “This is a wonderful specialized work on Maryland nation bank and their notes that is destined to be the guidebook for generations to come.” Mark Hotz. Available for purchase online at and Foreign Oversize Foreign Jumbo 10" x 6" $23.00 $89.00 $150.00 $320.00 10" x 8" $30.00 $118.00 $199.00 $425.00 ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 171 Fractional Currency Collectors Join the Fractional Currency Collectors Board (FCCB) today and join with other collectors who study, collect and commiserate about these fascinating notes. New members get a copy of Milt Friedberg’s updated version of the Encyclopedia of United States Postage and Fractional Currency as well as a copy of the Simplified copy of the same which is aimed at new collectors. Nst ew members will also get a copy of Rob Kravitz’s 1 edition “A Collector’s Guide to Postage and Fractional Currency” while supplies last. New Membership is $30 or $22 for the Simplified edition only To join, contact William Brandimore, membership chairman at 1009 Nina, Wausau, WI 54403. United States Paper Money specialselectionsfordiscriminatingcollectors Buying and Selling the finest in U.S. paper money Individual Rarities: Large, Small National Serial Number One Notes Large Size Type ErrorNotes Small Size Type National Currency StarorReplacementNotes Specimens, Proofs,Experimentals FrederickJ. Bart Bart,Inc. website: (586) 979-3400 POBox2• Roseville,MI 48066 e-mail: Buying & Selling • Obsolete • Confederate • Colonial & Continental • Fractional • Large & Small U.S. Type Notes Vern Potter Currency & Collectibles Please visit our Website at Hundreds of Quality Notes Scanned, Attributed & Priced P.O. Box 10040 Torrance, CA 90505-0740 Phone: 310-326-0406 Email: Member •PCDA •SPMC •FUN •ANA Advertise your products here. Only $45/issue Contact Benny Bolin, Editor ___________________________________________________________Paper Money * March/April 2017 * Whole No. 308_____________________________________________________________ 172 OUR MEMBERS SPECIALIZE IN NATIONAL CURRENCY They also specialize in Large Size Type Notes, Small Size Currency, Obsolete Currency, Colonial and Continental Currency, Fractionals, Error Notes, MPC’s, Confederate Currency, Encased Postage, Stocks and Bonds, Autographs and Documents, World Paper Money . . . and numerous other areas. THE PROFESSIONAL CURRENCY DEALERS ASSOCIATION is the leading organization of OVER 100 DEALERS in Currency, Stocks and Bonds, Fiscal Documents and related paper items. PCDA • Hosts the annual National and World Paper Money Convention each fall in St. Louis, Missouri. Please visit our Web Site for dates and location. • Encourages public awareness and education regarding the hobby of Paper Money Collecting. • Sponsors the John Hickman National Currency Exhibit Award each June at the Memphis Paper Money Convention, as well as Paper Money classes at the A.N.A.’s Summer Seminar series. • Publishes several “How to Collect” booklets regarding currency and related paper items. Availability of these booklets can be found in the Membership Directory or on our Web Site. • Is a proud supporter of the Society of Paper Money Collectors. To be assured of knowledgeable, professional, and ethical dealings when buying or selling currency, look for dealers who proudly display the PCDA emblem. The Professional Currency Dealers Association For a FREE copy of the PCDA Membership Directory listing names, addresses and specialties of all members, send your request to: PCDA James A. Simek – Secretary P.O. Box 7157 • Westchester, IL 60154 (630) 889-8207 Or Visit Our Web Site At: Selections From the Jeffrey S. Jones Collection of Small Size Currency Consignment deadline: March 13 Contact a Heritage Consignment Director today 800-835-6000 Front and Back Specimen Pair Fr. 1654 $5 1934D Silver Certificates Fr. 1605* $1 1928E Silver Certificate PMG Gem Uncirculated 65 EPQ Fr. 1604* $1 1928D Silver Certificate PMG Gem Uncirculated 66 EPQ Fr. 1603* $1 1928C Silver Certificate PMG Superb Gem Unc 67 EPQ Fr. 1700 $10 1933 Silver Certificate PMG Choice Uncirculated 63 EPQ Fr. 2405* $100 1928 Gold Certificate PMG Choice Uncirculated 63 PLATINUM NIGHT® & SIGNATURE® AUCTIONS April 26-May 2, 2017 | Chicago | Live & Online Paul R. Minshull IL #441002067; Heritage Auctions #444000370. BP 17.5%; see 44404 DALLAS | NEW YORK | BEVERLY HILLS | SAN FRANCISCO | CHICAGO | PALM BEACH PARIS | GENEVA | AMSTERDAM | HONG KONG Always Accepting Quality Consignments in 40 Categories Immediate Cash Advances Available 1 Million+ Online Bidder-Members