Paper Money - Vol. XXXIV, No. 3 - Whole No. 177 - May - June 1995

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VOL. XXXIV No. 3 WHOLE No. 177 MAY JUNE 1995 ABRAHAM LINCOLN Send for our latest fixed price list of stocks and bonds. TOLL FREE 800-622-1880 NY 212-943-1880 FAX: 212-908-4047 26 Broadway Suite 271 New York, NY 10004-1701 6111E ID 14111 ~10 MEMBER co, 411,111C. 11 /111,1, 11111-1 R. M. SMYTH E We Buy, Sell & Auction The Very Best In Paper Money, Stocks & Bonds, Coins & Autographs SHAKO (Inirn 1,1 Es Tom, -- II 1 AVE 1,15,11s1'1'no IN 1111: 1 .12C.:11121, . 828 4661- 29645.711 gligAtrI.Mg:11t4111=1;' PIROVI■111..0.1.11111T3.141111LY. ******* ******************************* Accepting Consignments Now for Major Public and Mail Bid Auctions in 1994 & 1995. Call or write for further information. ************************************** SOCIETY OF PAPER MONEY COLLECTORS INC. Paper Money Whole No. 177 Page 81 PAPER MONEY is published every other month beginning in January by The Society of Paper Money Collectors. Second class postage paid at Dover, DE 19901. Postmaster send address changes to: Bob Cochran, Secretary, P.O. Box 1085, Florissant, MO 63031. © Society of Paper Money Collectors, Inc., 1995. All rights reserved. Reproduction of any article, in whole or in part, without ex- press written permission, is prohibited. Individual copies of this issue of PAPER MONEY are available from the Secretary for $2.75 each plus $1 postage. Five or more copies are sent postage free. ADVERTISING RATES SPACE Outside 1 TIME 3 TIMES 6 TIMES Back Cover $152 $420 $825 Inside Front & Back Cover $145 $405 $798 Full Page $140 $395 $775 Half-page $75 $200 $390 Quarter-page $38 $105 $198 Eighth-page $20 $55 $105 To keep rates at a minimum, advertising must be prepaid in advance according to the above sched- ule. In exceptional cases where special artwork or extra typing are required, the advertiser will be no- tified and billed extra for them accordingly. Rates are not commissionable. Proofs are not supplied. Deadline: Copy must be in the editorial office no later than the 1st of the month preceding issue (e.g., Feb. 1 for March/April issue). With advance notice, camera-ready copy will be accepted up to three weeks later. Mechanical Requirements: Full page 42-57 picas; half-page may be either vertical or horizontal in format. Single column width, 20 picas. Halftones acceptable, but not mats or stereos. Page position may be requested but cannot be guaranteed. Advertising copy shall be restricted to paper cur- rency and allied numismatic material and publi- cations and accessories related thereto. SPMC does not guarantee advertisements but accepts copy in good faith, reserving the right to reject objection- able material or edit any copy. SPMC assumes no financial responsibility for typographical errors in advertisements, but agrees to reprint that portion of an advertisement in which typographical error should occur upon prompt notification of such error. All advertising copy and correspondence should be sent to the Editor. Official Bimonthly Publication of The Society of Paper Money Collectors, Inc. Vol. XXXIV No. 3 Whole No. 177 MAY/JUNE 1995 ISSN 0031-1162 GENE HESSLER, Editor, P.O. Box 8147, St. Louis, MO 63156 Manuscripts (ntss), not under consideration elsewhere, and publications for review should be sent to the Editor. Accepted mss will be published as soon as possible; however, publication in a specific issue cannot be guaranteed. Opinions expressed by authors do not necessarily reflect those of the SPMC. Mss are to be typed on one side only, double-spaced with at least one-inch margins. A copy should be retained by the author. The author's name, ad- dress and telephone number should appear on the first page. In addition, you may also submit a copy on a 31/2 or 5 1/4 inch MS DOS disk, identified with the name and version of software used: Microsoft Word, Word Perfect or text (ASCII) are preferred. Avoid unnecessary carriage returns, spaces, tabs and formatting. Avoid tabs or extra lines to begin paragraphs, and in tables use only one tab per column. If disk is submitted, double-spaced printout must accompany disk. IN THIS ISSUE PAPER ISSUES BY CIVIL WAR SUTLERS Brent Hughes 83 ENGRAVING ERRORS ON HARD TIMES CURRENCY Robert A. Vlack 92 ABE'S HAIR Gene Hessler 96 WHAT A PAIR! R. Logan Talks 98 SUGGESTIONS FOR YOUR VACATION IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES Christof Zellweger 99 A.B. WHITLOCK & BRO. SCRIP Ronald J. Benice 100 THE BUCK STARTS HERE Gene Hessler 102 THE AUTOGRAPH OF JOHN B. CONNALLY Raphael Ellenbogen 103 THE BLACKSTONE NATIONAL BANK OF PROVIDENCE, RHODE ISLAND Bob Cochran 104 CATALOG OF ENVELOPED POSTAGE Milton R. Friedberg 109 CONFEDERATE GREEN GOODS: TWO CASES Forrest W. Daniel 110 BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, PAPER MONEY PRINTER Florence Finkel 114 CAMP WEINGARTEN, MO Bob Schmidt 115 SOCIETY FEATURES NOTES FROM ALL OVER 116 NEW BOARD MEMBERS 116 THE ANSWER MAN 116 IN MEMORIAM: HAROLD E. HELM 119 MONEY MART 119 ON THE COVER. This Lincoln portrait by Matthew Brady was engraved by Charles Burt. See p. 96. Inquires concerning non-delivery of PAPER MONEY and for additional copies of this issue contact the Secretary; the address is on the next page. For earlier issues contact Classic Coins, P.O. Box 95, Allen, MI 49227. SOCIETY OF PAPER MONEY COLLECTORS OFFICERS PRESIDENT JUDITH MURPHY, P.O. Box 24056, Winston Salem, NC 27114 VICE-PRESIDENT DEAN OAKES, Drawer 1456, Iowa City, IA 52240 SECRETARY ROBERT COCHRAN, P.O. Box 1085, Florissant, MO 63031 TREASURER TIM KYZIVAT, P.O. Box 803, LaGrange, IL 60525 APPOINTEES EDITOR GENE HESSLER, P.O. Box 8147, St. Louis, MO 63156 MEMBERSHIP DIRECTOR RON HORSTMAN, Box 2999, Leslie, MO 63056 WISMER BOOK PROJECT STEVEN K. WHITFIELD, 14092 W. 115th St., Olathe, KS 66062 LEGAL COUNSEL ROBERT J. GALIETTE, 10 Wilcox Lane, Avon, CT 06001 LIBRARIAN ROGER H. DURAND, P.O. Box 186, Rehoboth, MA 02769 PAST-PRESIDENT AUSTIN M. SHEHEEN Jr., P.O. Box 428, Camden, SC 29020 BOARD OF GOVERNORS FRANK CLARK„ P.O. Box 117060, Carrollton, TX 75011 CHARLES COLVER, 611 N. Banna Avenue, Covina, CA 91724 MICHAEL CRABB, Jr., P.O. Box 17871, Memphis, TN 38187-0871 C. JOHN FERRERI, P.O. Box 33, Storrs, CT 06268 MILTON R. FRIEDBERG, 8803 Brecksville Rd., Unit 7, #203, Brecksville, OH 44141 GENE HESSLER, P.O. Box 8147, St. Louis, MO 63156 RON HORSTMAN, Box 2999, Leslie, MO 63056 JOHN JACKSON, P.O. Box 4629, Warren, NJ 07059 ROBERT R. MOON, P.O. Box 81, Kinderhook, NY 12106 WILLIAM F. MROSS, P.O. Box 21, Racine, WI 53401 STEPHEN TAYLOR, 70 West View Avenue, Dover, DE 19901 WENDELL W. WOLKA, P.O. Box 569, Dublin, OH 43017 The Society of Paper Money Collectors was organized in 1961 and incorporated in 1964 as a non-profit organization under the laws of the District of Columbia. It is affiliated with the American Numismatic Association. The annual meeting is held at the Memphis IPMS in June. MEMBERSHIP—REGULAR and LIFE. Applicants must be at least 18 years of age and of good moral character. JUN- IOR. Applicants must be from 12 to 18 years of age and of good moral character. Their application must be signed by a parent or guardian. They will be preceded by the letter "j". This letter will be removed upon notification to the secre- tary that the member has reached 18 years of age. Junior members are not eligible to hold office or vote. Members of the ANA or other recognized numismatic so- cieties are eligible for membership. Other applicants should be sponsored by an SMPC member or provide suitable references. DUES—Annual dues are $20. Members in Canada and Mex- ico should add $5 to cover additional postage; members throughout the rest of the world add $10. Life membership, payable in installments within one year, is $300. Members who join the Society prior to Oct. 1st receive the magazines already issued in the year in which they join. Members who join after Oct. 1st will have their dues paid through Decem- ber of the following year. They will also receive, as a bonus, a copy of the magazine issued in November of the year in which they joined. 1 BUYING and SELLING CSA and Obsolete Notes CSA Bonds, Stocks & Financial Items Extensive Catalog for $3.00, Refundable With Order ANA-LM SCNA PC DA HUGH SHULL PO. Box 761, Camden, SC 29020 / (803) 432-8500 FAX 803-432-9958 SPMC-LM BRNA FUN Page 82 Paper Money Whole No. 177 SPMC TO MEET IN MEMPHIS! Breakfast is Friday Morning, June 16th Annual "TOM BAIN RAFFLE" to include personal check of J.S.G. Boggs! Mark your calendar for Friday morning, June 16th, 1995! That's the day the Society of Paper Money Collectors will host a breakfast at the Memphis Cook Convention Center. The Breakfast will begin at 7:30 a.m., which will give everyone the chance to fortify themselves before the bourse opens at 9 a.m. As in past years, the highlights of the festivities will be the "Tom Bain Raffle." For our newer members, the late Tom Bain served as President of SPMC, and he created a "raffle" to generate needed funds for the Society. Each year, members and dealers kindly donate numismatic material for the raffle. Sometimes the prizes are rather common (often humorous) material, but occasionally a real winner pops up. And that's the case this year! SPMC member, and noted "money artist" J.S.G. Boggs has kindly agreed to allow his personal check for his 1995 SPMC dues to be one of the prizes in the "Tom Bain Raffle." As most everyone knows, J.S.G. Boggs uses his "money" for financial transactions, offering his "notes" at face value in exchange for goods and services. His trials and tribulations have been extensively covered by the numismatic press as well as the national media, creating a huge demand for his "notes." Overlooked, however, are Boggs' PERSONAL CHECKS! His "notes" have received large acclaim, but his personal checks are SUBSTANTIALLY rarer than his "notes!" Boggs has agreed that the check awarded is still negotiable. Therefore, the proud possessor of this $20 check will, if he/she so chooses, have the opportunity to negotiate a "REVERSE TRANS- ACTION" WITH BOGGS! It's certain that the numismatic press will be quite interested in covering such an event. So if you're a collector of Boggs material, this could possibly be your chance to win an item that would blend wonderfully with your Boggs "notes" — or, to negotiate your own special "transaction" with Boggs! BUT YOU MUST BE PRESENT TO WIN!!! Tickets for the SPMC Breakfast are $6 in advance, $7 at the door; to reserve your seat, send a check (made out to SPMC) to Bob Cochran, P.O. Box 1085, Florissant, MO 63031. Seating is limited, so you should get your payment in early. The tickets can be picked up at the IPMS Registration Table. The raffle tickets will still be $1 each, and they will be sold ONLY inside the room! "Average Circulated Notes" What are they? SPMC members are fortunate in that most of the dealers who belong to our organization are truly "professionals," because they have been buying and selling paper money for many years. The benefit of working with these dealers is that they are SERIOUS about their chosen profession, and take justifiable pride in a reputation for customer satisfaction. If you're a beginning collector, choose one or a few dealers that you're comfortable with, and let them help you build your collection, your satisfaction, and your fun with this hobby. Every dozen years or so, paper money gets "hot." We're in such a period right now. The mem- bership of SPMC is growing, as more and more collectors discover the joy of financial paper. However, this popularity is not lost on some coin dealers seeking to take advantage of an oppor- tunity. I'm referring to ads that are popping up in the numismatic press touting notes in "AVERAGE CIRCULATED" condition. This term has been used for years, but what does it really MEAN? In essence, it really doesn't mean ANYTHING! You will NOT find the grade "Average Circu- lated" condition in ANY reference book used by serious collectors and dealers. Any dealer worth his or her salt will ALWAYS put a FINITE grade on every note they offer for sale. "Average Circulated" is commonly used by non-professionals to describe VERY low-grade, common notes. The description is almost always applied to the large-size U.S. notes issued during the 20th Century, particularly the $1 Silver Certificates of the 1899 and 1923 Series, and the Blue Seal Federal Reserve Notes of the 1914 Series. The ads are designed to appeal to beginning collectors, or collectors of other material, in an attempt to get them to purchase a large size note or two at what appears to be an attractive price. The main customers for "Average Circulated" notes are flea market dealers, who specialize in selling low-grade notes at inflated prices to non-collectors passing by their table. The dealers you'll meet at the major paper money shows around the U.S. will be happy to explain their grading standards to you. They WANT you for a customer, and they WANT you to be satisfied with what you buy from them — so that you'll buy MORE notes. The same applies to the dealers who advertise in Paper Money, Bank Note Reporter, and the members of the Professional Currency Dealers Association. Customer satisfaction is how they make their living. But think twice or three times before you buy an "Average Circulated" note; would you buy an "Average Circulated" automobile, or an "Average Circulated" house? Paper Money Whole No. 177 Page 83 Paper Issues By CIVIL WAR SUTLERS by BRENT HUGHES Most collectors fantasize that one day they will un- earth a treasure. Paper money collectors are no different. They prowl antique shops and flea mar- kets, peering inside boxes and envelopes. Some go to used book stores not to buy books but to flip the pages for anything valuable left there by previous owners. The odds are against finding anything worth- while but it does happen occasionally. The key is being able to recognize things that the average person knows nothing about. Among these are the paper items created by or for the Civil War sutlers. T HE word "sutler" is obsolete today but it goes back a long way. As early as 1588 Shakespeare used it in Henry V— "I shall Sutler be unto the Campe and profits will accrue" An English army document dated 1590 said 'The Pro- vost Mareschal and Sargeant Major of every garrison shall keepe a perfect rolle of all such English Victuallers, (Called in Dutch, Sutlers) . ." Whether he was called a victualler, a provisioner or a sutler, the man was simply a civilian merchant who held an exclusive contract to sell items that soldiers needed or wanted that were not furnished by the government. Our interest is in the sutlers who served during the Civil War and the various paper items that they created in order to con- duct their business. There are enough collectors around today to support an active market and any items that are offered bring good prices. This sketch by the author, based on a rare contemporary photograph, shows the sutler but of A. Foulke, sutler attached to the First Brigade, Horse Artillery, Cavalry Corps, Army of the Potomac, United States Army. The crude log structure with canvas top and overhanging sides offered some protection from the weather and provided a certain amount of security for the sutler's stock. (0agat.. $//2 Sutler's Offic 6 To the Paymaster of the Invalid Corps. FOR VALUE RECEIVED, PLEASE PAY F. I3. FIRISI3 butler, or Order, 777 eift2PA A .. ... wet pm • na•vorr T ON. Page 84 Paper Money Whole No. 177 The United States Army and the Confederate Army both had sutlers but their organizations were a study in contrast. Since the Union had almost all of the factories that could produce items for the sutlers, U.S. Army officials kept them well- organized and regulated with more than 450 merchants on the roster. For these men, goods actually became more plentiful as the war went on. The Confederacy, on the other hand, had few factories and many of these were destroyed as the war moved against the South. The relatively few sutlers were augmented by many one- timers who somehow obtained a supply of a popular item, sold it to the nearest Confederate military group and left the area in search of more stock. Under the circumstances very few paper items were created by Confederate sutlers. Most of the sutler paymaster orders, scrip, tokens and chits that survived the war are Union. Some pieces of Confederate sutler scrip survived but they are quite scarce. There may be Confederate sutler tokens and chits around and somewhere there might be a Confederate paymaster order but such items would be prizes indeed. Among collectors the words "token," "scrip" and "chit" have been used interchangeably and will probably continue to be. For this article, however, I will simplify somewhat by reserving the word "token" for the coin-like metal disks that a few sutlers issued. These are covered in various coin publications and rep- resent a field of study within themselves, so we will do little more than mention them here. The paper items which resemble fractional currency will be called "scrip" and the word "chit" will be used to refer to the small light cardboard items that were used to make change. The Paymaster Orders were ac- tually promissary notes signed by soldiers to obtain credit until pay day. Specialists also try to find payroll lists, invoices and Voucher form used by EB. Frisbie, Sutler, Invalid Corps showing that a soldier named T.T. Moore received one dollar in credit on October 31, 1863. Only the words "Invalid Corps" identify this item as Union. In an article titled "An Invalid Corps" in the December 1985 issue of "Civil War Times," author Gary L. Todd stated that the Confederacy had no organized Invalid Corps, so we know that it cannot be Confederate. The printer's name at bottom center is Rose & Co., Prs., 5 So. Calvert St. which sounds like Baltimore, Maryland. From this evidence we can say that Frisbie was a sutler with a U.S. Army regiment. The sutler attached to the 50th Regiment, Ohio Volunteers issued some of the more elaborate of sutler scrip. The camp scene at center is complete with flag pole, artillery piece and two styles of tents. Paper Money Whole No. 177 Page 85 paper items related to sutler activities. There are even collectors who prize the bottles that once contained patent medicines, the production and sale of which was a major industry at that time. In most cases it is not difficult to identify U.S. Army sutler items. Many will include the name of a state while others will have "U.S. Army" or "U.S." The words "Invalid Corps" on an item mark it as Union since the Confederacy never had an organized Invalid Corps. Such units were made up of men who had been wounded and rendered unfit for battle, but could still serve as prison guards or perform other light duties. Confederate sutler items are of course quickly identified if they carry the name of one of the Southern states or if they were made payable in Confederate currency. There were a few hybrid issues that were payable at either a bank or at a sutler's store. Close examination will usually turn up some clue about its origins. Confederate sutler items are much more scarce than those issued by their Union counterparts. When the Civil War began and raw recruits filled army ranks, the role of the sutler became controversial. The soldiers wanted to write letters home and were appalled at the prices charged by the camp sutlers for such items as stationery, pencils, pens and ink. Paper was in short supply on both sides throughout the war as making it was a slow process in those days. In 1864 a rebel soldier wrote his wife, "Unless paper becomes more plen- tiful I shall have to quit writing. It is worth a dollar a sheet!' An- other man mentioned that a small bottle of ink had cost him three dollars. Civil War books are filled with soldiers' statements ex- pressing hatred for the sutler. Officers considered him a neces- sary evil while enlisted men regarded him as a thief and gouger who systematically robbed them of their pay. Nevertheless, he was the sole source of such items as stationery, tobacco, soap, needles, thread, combs, candles and canned food. Much of the animosity came about because most sales were on credit, somewhat like the company store operation so prevalent in textile and mining villages later on. Soldiers were always one month behind and had to pledge their future to buy what they needed today. The sutler had the soldier sign a paymaster order, usually in whole dollar amounts, and the sut- ler handed him that amount in tokens, scrip or chits (some- times called "tickets"). It was a makeshift system to say the least. The paymaster orders would be accumulated by the sutler during the month and turned in to the military paymaster three days before pay day. The paymaster then deducted what was due the sutler before paying the soldiers. Typically, the sut- ler would leave camp on pay day with most of the payroll money, leaving the soldiers deeply resentful even though they had spent their money voluntarily during the preceding weeks. Many soldiers were aghast at how much they had spent. Union Army Regulations of 1861 specified that a sutler could not extend credit of more than one-third of a soldier's pay, but the limits were not strictly enforced. There are some accounts indicating that some soldiers received almost nothing on pay day. Other than the hassles over credit there were violent argu- ments over prices. The typical soldier was convinced that the sutler charged five times what an item was worth. Others claimed his markup was 1,000 percent. The truth is hard to de- termine. It is likely that the markup varied from one product to another, depending upon spoilage and how close to the front the sutler was allowed to operate. His losses were increased even more when officers looked the other way while angry or drunken soldiers attacked the sutler's but and took everything. Something else that critics overlooked was that if a soldier were killed in battle, died from disease or simply deserted, the sutler was required by law to absorb the loss. Since he was banned from the front lines because he might get in the way, the sutler had a difficult time keeping track of the soldiers who were listed as missing. There is evidence that most sutlers simply charged what the traffic would bear. A sutler located at the huge Union depot at White House Landing in Virginia was supplying goods to the soldiers of the 40th New York infantry. The sutler bought a load of one hundred watermelons from a local farmer for five cents each and sold them to the men for one dollar each, on credit. A soldier talked to the farmer and told his comrades that while the farmer had received five dollars, the sutler had ended up with one hundred dollars in paymaster orders. There were howls of protest from the soldiers, made worse at the end of the month when the sutler left camp with $1,436 of a total pay- roll of $2,354. In fairness it should be pointed out that the sutler often had problems that were not generally known. Before he could go into business he had to obtain a commission that was issued by a politician who sold the permit to the highest bidder. In many cases the crooked politician became a silent partner of the sutler, getting his cut at the end of the month. The sutler had no choice except to increase his prices to cover the graft. Some sutlers received some help from their politician sponsors when they used their influence to keep inventory flowing to the sutler or bribed railroad officials to expedite shipments that might otherwise be left at depots to rot or be hauled away by thieves. We all know that the Civil War was fought under appalling conditions in which thousands of slightly wounded men died from infection. Food was notoriously poor as armies moved from one area to another. Winters were especially harsh be- cause of the chronic shortage of warm clothing and shoes. Under such conditions it is not surprising that armies of men buried their misery in alcohol. A routine inspection in October 1861 revealed that in the two hundred regiments examined, thirty one allowed sutlers to sell liquor openly. In the other regiments the soldiers got their liquor from bootleggers posing as "pie peddlers" Lager beer was consumed in huge quantities since some doctors believed it had medicinal qualities. In the Union army an officer could employ the sutler as his "agent" to buy and deliver whatever he wanted in the way of spirits. Soldiers on guard duty around officers' tents witnessed many drunken parties while they themselves were denied alcohol in any form. There were many instances in which alcohol came into camp under odd labels. On Thanksgiving Day of 1862, troops of the 39th Massachusetts Infantry enjoyed alcoholic beverages from containers labelled "canned tomatoes!' Other shipments came in boxes labelled "boots and shoes" The classic label however had to be a crate of "Spiritus Frumenti," the medical name for whiskey. More popular names for whiskey were "tanglefoot," "red eye" and "rot gut" There were many men who were morally opposed to liquor who found that they could get the same results from a bottle of patent medicine. Typical of these remedies for every ailment of man or beast was a product called "Hosteller's Bitters" made of 64 percent water, 4 percent herbs and 32 percent alcohol. Page 86 Paper Money Whole No. 177 "Hinkley's Bone Liniment" was even better. It contained a star- tling 86 percent alcohol. Since patent medicines represented a cheap and readily available source of alcohol to the typical soldier, sutlers sold literally millions of bottles. In recent years bottle collectors have unearthed hundreds of these bottles, some with the original labels intact. Another commodity that was sold in quantity was tobacco. Almost everyone used it in one form or another whether it was cigars, pipe tobacco, chewing tobacco or snuff. Sutlers sold all of these but many products turned out to be something other than real tobacco. Many soldiers complained that they knew they were smoking weeds blended with a small quantity of real tobacco leaf. The list of items sold by sutlers is a long one. In addition to those mentioned previously, they also sold reading material, shoe blacking, wash basins, tooth brushes, razors and mirrors. All kinds of cutlery were offered including scissors, knives, forks, spoons and can openers. Coffee pots were also popular even though real coffee was as hard to find as tobacco. Since refrigeration was unknown, fresh food had to be moved quickly. Vegetables and fruits were provided in season when and if the sutler could find them close by. He also sold canned meats and oysters, dried beef, milk, syrup, molasses, raisins, crackers, sardines, sausages, eggs, butter, cheese and pickles. Butter caused some problems when soldiers who came down with food poisoning blamed the sutler for selling the product after it had spoiled. The worst of the sutlers pulled down those who tried to run their businesses properly. One sutler who came out of the war with his reputation intact was J.R. Bostwick, regimental sutler attached to the 11th New York Cavalry. This group was known as "Scott's Nine Hundred" and was part of the 8th and 22nd Army Corps. Bostwick had a reputation for fair prices and good products. He also loaned money at a fair rate of interest and was quite tolerant with those who were late in their payments. From all accounts he made a living while serving this one group for the entire war, but left the service with little money. Readers wanting a full account of sutler activities are referred to Civil War Sutlers and Their Wares by Dr. Francis A. Lord. A lot of research went into this book but even Dr. Lord found that in- formation about Confederate sutlers was difficult to find. Some of the names known to him were Asher, Cottingham, Deupre, Edwards, Ezekial, Gray, Guthrie, Hartman, Kahn, Kohn, Moken, Mooney, O'Neal, Rice, Sawtell, Sherwood, Smith, Swan, White and Winslow. These are names to look for as possible Confederate sutlers whose paper issues would be quite valuable. Collectors are cautioned, however, that Dr. Lord's list of Union sutlers also includes a Hartman, a Mooney, a Rice, sixteen Smiths and four Whites. So name alone will not separate Confederate from Union sutlers. When the Civil War ended, the U.S. Congress got around to reacting to the hundreds of letters it had received about the way the military sutlers had treated the soldiers. In 1866 the name "sutler" was replaced with the title "Post Trader!' A gradual change took place as the government added items to those is- sued to the troops. The military also kept close watch on the ac- tivities of the post traders. Finally in 1893 the Post Exchange, or PX, system was created. On larger military installations today the PX is a modern supermarket selling a great variety of goods. Thus the various forms, scrip, chits and tokens issued by the Civil War sutlers became a fertile field for collectors. The Pay- master Orders survived in unused sheet form but collectors prefer those that were actually filled out and signed by soldiers. Even better are the ones issued by sutlers attached to special military units such as the Invalid Corps. Also prized are Pay- master Orders which were entirely handwritten in a variety of styles. Such items are considered scarce in today's market. The scrip items come in a wide range of designs and sizes. Some imitated the U.S. Fractional Currency then in circulation. Other sutlers used ornate designs with military scenes and patriotic symbols. Given a choice, most sutlers would probably have preferred to issue the small chits or tickets made of light cardboard. Soldiers tended to lose them, which meant greater profits for the sutlers. Chits were as varied as the printers who made them. Most were simple job-printing products in which the printer used what type elements he happened to have at the moment. Advantages were that they could be produced quickly and cheaply, two factors that pleased the sutlers. A few were round but most were rectangular, typically one and one-half inches long by one inch wide. Colors were white, tan, gray, yellow, pink, red, green, blue, purple, and orange. Some were signed by the sutlers but most were not. Circulated specimens show worn rounded corners and are usually dirty. David E. Schenkman, in his excellent book titled Civil War Sutler Tokens and Cardboard Scrip (Jade House Publications, P.O. Box 265, Bryantown, Maryland 20617), says that cardboard 1.R. Bostwick was the sutler attached to the 11th New York Cavalry. His handsome scrip items imitated U.S. Fractional Currency and were issued in denominations of 54, 104, 254 and 504. 100 And deduct the sail . e from my pay for services to the U. S. gfri;Vvi 7,,(1.z)"^7 Company.. Regiment, U. S. A. CA Cashier u/ the Farmers Bonk. al Richmond, Vu., pay TWENTY-FIVE CTS.. q 'To Bearer. when presented in sums of Five Dollars. Re-eleemable, also, in Sutler's Stores. (71 25 25 5 THE SUTLER OF THE BOTH REGENT GA. VOLS., o. fiacaomah, Georgia, October 2311, 1801. Will pay FIVE CENTS to Bearer on demand, when presented in SUMS of One Dollar and uinuards, in Treasury Notes, or Goods. THE WITHIN NAMED /L--y0 (Back) Virginia Georgia Paper Money Whole No. 177 Page 87 No. Date. , I 1 ',,,.,1. qa7-n f f‘ Ez te- Vaprasfer Bf the 2 Maine gzgimart. r-=7"■:" Fur value received, please pay to A. F. JACKSON, Sutler, Amt. 1%-P4?"!, ';k) I Dollars, and deduct the same Irons my pay at the next pay day. , i\-„ Co. (50. WITNESS, Name.. This blank printed form is worth much less than one which has been filled out. It was printed in sheet form with spaces on the left stub reserved for bookkeeping information. A.E Jackson was the sutler attached to the 23rd Maine Regiment. „A. fE63 ;; 6N Paymaster ?Pr/ V., U. S. A. . ON FIRST PAY DAY, PAY TO -THE ORDER OF Sutler, _ Reg Vols. Paymaster Order form used by W Copes, Sutler, 89th Regiment, Ohio Volunteers, showing that a soldier named Ephraim Bowman received $2 credit on August 11, 1863. GOOD FOR 1 CENT. Because coins had disappeared from circulation during the Civil War, merchants had to substitute cardboard chits in order to make change. Many military sutlers were forced to do the same. T1 c nva 1-0-69) enls: ahei?pno-azteel' SUMS or TWO nbeL_AITS:, --.72- This 51t scrip bore the signature of George Mountjoy, sutler attached to the Excelsior Light Cavalry Brigade of New York. The identity of the young girl is not known. •— "4. 4: J. W. '1' EFFT, 49 East Genesee Street, SYRACUSE, WILL PAY THE BEARKR ON DEMAND VEVE CENTS, LIn Ca•rept Bit& Rllb whin prompted in Rum .f Oat Wofteli at Al. Mare. 1%7'017. Err 1962. e-- cl () it 0 01 Good for ONE LOAF BREAD . Lorenz Kalfenbeizer. 711171MM7-7rAilM 771 a...v ...w.............,.....A., ..........c.a.A. ,v,..v......v..4.....4i....Ii.-', N cl..."1 . New Linden; Jab. 1, 1.64. (, JOH IN i.,'JEFFERY '2 1 TWO CENTS, Ar Nee Ira )1110 REIMUND Knomvic:\ Grocery EL Provision Store, Corner of Sigel & Sedgwick Streets. • • • •.• N•••••••••••• ••••• • • • GOOD FOR CENT In Trade, or redeemable in sums of b Cents and upwards. Page 88 Paper Money Whole No. 177 4111011410 30 IV la .0. de /ea.ealb ek,./.4.ne mom? w+44 4et .4/4es anal oren i eileet arost ee \ cf 3. q" Virginia . .fdRafreri, Georgia StVANNIN, 00011111 , 7/V/ier• 1 r■Or /col I;# e TWIT MU. WIT NOT= 1,00). Port licuison. La. giutireo ltuttattp rilipoy TW'ENT'Y-FIVE OF...1•TrrEi to agat- es Won presented 4. now !f,/fee dollars. Will be redeemed in- Goode, or, when preirented in 81171t1 of Floe Dollar* or etinoortle in Omfiderote Noto,. - -; -•••■ Ord Tu. Yr. It Louisiana Tennessee Paper Money Whole No. 177 Texas ODD FELLOWS HALL, RICHMOND, VIRGINIA 25 TWENTY-FIVE CENTS 25 tailtVegMlaWattnnastgaUs1 2XXIMMODOUIROCCROSOLIMalliA=00204 H.B. Sheldon, sutler attached to the 14th Massachusetts Regiment, Heavy Artillery, used some of the fanciest of all sutler scrip. Behind the printing was a delicate lacework with the sutler's name in large letters. Such elaborate designs are much sought-after by today's collectors. Scrip of Confederate Army Sutlers Ira TWENTY -FIVE CENTS„), M. S. DEUPREE liceleemn14 , at my Ofic,. NO. Agri! 1862. 35 Hcail•QuatIer 2'411 Rev. Y. VolunIcem 2 Page 89 440th Re't Pa. Vols. Good for 10 Cts. BAIT DARRAGH, SUTLER. Monooacy Junotion, Md. 10 CENTS. P. H. TERHUNE, Pagt Staler. Good For Trade Only. GOOD FOR 25 Cents. GEORGE RICHARD, Sutler 61st Regt Penn. Vols Good to the Bearer FOR Seventy-PY I e.) CENTS.Five J. Al. Christy. As a substitute for coins, many sutlers issued chits made of light cardboard in colors such as tan, pink, yellow, orange, green, red and blue. Since these items were small and fragile and easy to lose, they probably represented extra profit for the sutlers. Very few of these chits survived the war and are seldom offered in today's market. GOOD FUR FIVE CENTS. Butler, but Keel Pa IL V. 0. 1 1 Cent. G. NI ALEXANDER, &Ott. i Henry Good for 5 Cts.I BUTLER 12th II. S. Inftry.1 L GOOD FOR 10 CIS. 0001DS. 7-- At 7th Michigan Volunteers. R. GLEASON, Sutler. FIFTY lggIO**000igi*****0*0 GOOD FOR * CENTS. : W. 1101.LERES. 0. Sutler 27th Reg. Penn. Vols. 38:01*:****-44**cvor* ood for 20 Cts. BUTLER 2th II. S Inrtry TW ENTY-FIVE CENTS Sutler GOOD FOR 25 CTS, IN 0.007:PS At 7th Michigan Volunteers, R. GLEASON, Sutler. I32d Iteg't N. Y. Vols. Good for 25 CENTS In Trade. V. Popper & Co., sutler, 152d Reg't N. Y. Vols. Good for 5 CENTS In Trades P. Popper ac Co., Butler GOOD FOR 5 Five Cents IN Goons. L. A. FONTALNE, Sutler, 67th Reg't 0 V. II. 8. A. Page 90 Paper Money Whole No. 177 -97E IITIFF .W.,-1,..TE_....._ the (deers j'"1,1/t• (A' fylinfw I ,.. 7.:Y/I/; (11., itt . ce--"-4. /.274;,.. /44:e.i/r,;_a .' ..- ,,,,seli?',/,,47 tore, ,itla other Mtn orders, in c5agr,&' I 74 Cents. it• NTPFIIEC ZILThitatter, Paper Money Whole No. 177 Page 93 (CI') 'Tf (DI :13, ' :L. _11 IN 'I') C7,13 IN. RECEIVABLE 114 PAYMENT FOR CITY TAXES, ..'le;: f' g."' oft, gpott. 1, 1A37. , -01,„ Aaavr, ‘ cttztin anV Znicirtun a 11.. ceitly , it5 ma cm; `:?ttntio. erto-Vsul, tgo 'awl., Mb aficaiu), at cotticg4a,,,. ! netqiNana, iftaaant, at Iftaelpe and a Half Cent's. ir.. / -iv ez.„ et-'1 e : 7 e :,,/ 1a N et tt, r T167E14110 AND A. RALF CENTS. . 4. MICHIGAN, Detroit, September 1, 1837, CITY OF DETROIT, 121/2e. Reversed "N's" in "IN PAYMENT', also fraction bar is missing from 121/2 CENTS at right end. Unlisted in Bowen. 5. MICHIGAN, Grand Rapids, February 15, 1838, KENT BOOK- STORE 121/2 C. Missing the " ,/2" after the 12 later penned in at the center and at right end. 6. NEW JERSEY, Bridgeton, October 1, 1838, CUMBERLAND BANK, $1, Wait 138, Haxby NJ-45 C12. Contemporary counterfeit with reversed "J" in NEW JERSEY. 7. NEW YORK, Bellona, June 8, 1837, GAGE & WHITAKER, 75e. Right vignette is inverted. FIFTY CENT S tit (per, .•;": ( 7 , .. 01.4,404.- toilzqcoli or rbtr4 Irmattz.!tta-ra suia 432 On Demand, in SAFETY FEND MLLE, when this, and other like ordkrs t to the 'amotnti, of FIVE DOLLAESshell ke presented at your Store , evir. owAtiriel A. j ,403,43) "14 4 1862 >1 FARMERS &DROVERS BANK. sonErts, c i? Plv, -\ \ c-,/(7 TWENTY FIVE C ■■-`- N? e checks dre preseitted.t o = de, FIVE DOLLARS • The three denominations of A. B. Whitlock & Bro. scrip. Paper Money Whole No. 177 Page 101 The business district of Crown Falls showing the Whitlock store circa 1870. The railroad cars belong to the New York and Harlem Railroad. 1865, this bank received charter number 1304 as the Farmers and Drovers National Bank of Somers. It issued first and second charter notes until it was absorbed in 1896 by the Mount Kisco National Bank.) Nothing remains today of Whitlockville. In 1893 the entire town was relocated and absorbed by the neighboring town of Katonah when the Croton and Cross Rivers were dammed and flooded to create a reservoir for New York City's water supply. The name survives in Katonah in a section of Whitlockville Road, originally built to access the now-submerged family saw- mill and gristmill. Tragically, Thaddeus died of typhoid fever on October 24, 1876. A very popular man, the funeral procession of carriages The final resting place of the Whitlocks in Somers. from the Methodist Episcopal Church in Purdy's Station to the cemetery in Somers was over a mile in length. Aaron Burr Whitlock died in his 81st year, on March 4, 1904. The fatal bladder ailment was his first illness since boyhood. His obituary described him: "Short of stature but endowed with great strength, he was always on the move . . . For many years he was a kind of banker and paymaster for his neighbors" He was buried in Ivandell Cemetery in Somers, a few hundred yards from the Farmers and Drovers Bank building. References Biographical Hilctory of Westchester County. (1899). Chicago: Lewis Pub- lishing Company. Brewster Standard, March 4, 1904 Duncombe, Frances R. (1961). Katonah, Katonah Village Improvement Society. 15 Year Commemorative. (1984). North Salem Historical Society. Purdy's Station Trumpet, November 1883. Purdy's Station Advance, December 1891 Putnam County Standard, October 27, 1876 Scharf, I. Thomas. (1886). History of Westchester County New York. Philadelphia: L.E. Preston & Co. Somers Historical Society. Records of deaths and burials. Todd, Charles Burr. (1902). The Burr Family. New York: Knickerbocker Press. About the Author A retired IBM executive, Ron Benice collects tokens and national, colonial and obsolete currency. The second edition of his book, Alaska Tokens, was published by the Token and Medal Society in January 1995. A previous article on Westchester County, New York obsolete currency appeared in the November 1992 issue of PAPER MONEY bearer OliPaYabh . In Ole - _ )111111"4 „.epew.te":"'-- - %1 i,C====1 • Page 102 Paper Money Whole No. 177 The Starts Here A Primer for Collectors by GENE HESSLER T HE theme for the 1994 Bureau of Engraving and Printing souvenir card series was "Unfinished Master- pieces!' For me, the unissued notes, or essays, some unfinished, are often more fascinating and artistically superior to the notes that were issued. I have championed these designs in U.S. Essay, Proof and Specimen Notes. Now, for the first time and for the cost of a movie, collectors can own uniface ex- amples of engraved work that exist only inside the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. One unfinished masterpiece that was ultimately altered and then issued has what I think to be a fas- cinating story to tell.* Since this note was not issued as originally designed, there is only one other U.S. federal note that has a battleship as part of the design. The 1918, $2 Federal Reserve Bank note has an en- graving of the New York on the back; it is the work of C.M. Chalmers. This is also the subject of a souvenir card. coupon bond. This engraving was done by Marcus W. Baldwin. At the outbreak of the Spanish-American War Theodore Roosevelt resigned as Assistant Secretary of the Navy to or- ganize and lead the First Regiment U.S. Volunteers or the "Rough Riders" in Cuba. On November 3, 1900 the plate for the battleship note was completed. One month later it was decided within the Treasury Department that the new silver certificate should be changed to a needed United States note. Soon thereafter future Vice Presi- dent Roosevelt returned from a camping trip with naturalist John Mar. During the time he spent in the West, Mar called Roosevelt's attention to the missing buffalo. Between 1884 and 1886 Roosevelt had hunted these animals in North Dakota. When Roosevelt returned to Washington he followed President Cleveland's policy by asking for more forest reserve. Later, as President he achieved this. In the early years of the century there had been about 34 mil- lion American bison, or buffalo, roaming freely in our land and lower Canada. By 1889 less than 100 survived, although three or four times that many populated Yellowstone and other Western areas. As Vice President, Roosevelt most certainly suggested that the near-extinct buffalo replace the Massachusetts on the new $10 design. This would help call attention to the plight of the American bison. The big game hunter realized that certain animals needed protection. In 1905, the year the American Bison Society was organized, Theodore Roosevelt was named honorary president. The battleship Massachusetts and Pablo were engraved by Marcus W. Baldwin. The portraits of Meriwether Lewis and Wil- liam Clark replaced those of Bainbridge and Decatur; all were engraved by G.F.C. Smillie. In 1899 a $10 silver certificate was prepared. This design, that included portraits of U.S. naval heroes William Bainbridge and Steven Decatur, had an engraving of the battleship Mas- sachusetts for the primary subject. One year earlier the battle- ship Maine was sunk in the harbor in Havana, Cuba. This event triggered the brief Spanish-American War. As a reminder of our naval strength the Massachusetts was selected as a symbol. For centuries governments have used coins and currency to send messages. An engraving of the Maine was placed on two Spanish- American War bonds: the $1,000 registered bond and the $500 The souvenir card with the battleship design was issued at the 1994 ANA early spring show in New Orleans. The time limit for ordering has passed. However, souvenir card dealers should have this card for a premium above the issued price. For those who wish to order future cards from the BEP, write to: The Bu- reau of Engraving and Printing, the Public Sales Division, Room 601-11A, 14th and C Sts., Washington, DC 20228; the cost of current cards is $6.50. The souvenir card with the altered buffalo design is available from some paper money dealers for about $15. (See The "Buffalo Bill" that beat a battleship, PAPER MONEY 1973, (Copyright story reprinted by permission from Coin World, April 25, No. 48, p. 168.) 1994.) -TIM UNIEE11)f9t).4111j193144,WAL(4_,1 K 00000010 A Wntati..-r■mix, Paper Money Whole No. 177 Page 103 The Autograph Of goizny0 by RAPHAEL ELLENBOGEN Collecting autographs of the signers of our cur- rency is a fascinating "side hobby" of syngraphics. Having the Secretary of the Treasury or the Treas- urer of the United States personally affix his or her signature over the engraved facsimile on a note, be- comes a treasured memento. T OHN Bowden Connally, Jr. was Secretary of the Treasury from February 1971 to May 1972. Together with U.S. Treasurer Dorothy Andrews Kabis, their combined ten- ure was from February 8, 1971 to July 3, 1971 (a total of four months and 25 days). Their signatures were recognized at a special ceremony on April 20, 1971 with the printing of the first notes for the Dallas Federal Reserve District. General issuing of these notes com- menced about a month later. At the ceremony were: Secretary and Mrs. Connally, Mrs. Kabis, Deputy Assistant Secretary Wil- liam Dicken and James Conlon, Director of the Bureau of En- graving and Printing. These notes were assigned Series 1969B. Federal Reserve notes are the mainstay of our contemporary currency, are obli- gations of the U.S., and are a first lien on the assets of the is- suing Federal Reserve Bank, secured by a pledge of collateral equal to the face value of the note. They are issued by the 12 districts of the Federal Reserve Bank and its 24 branches. Large- size Federal Reserve notes were authorized by an act of Con- gress on December 23, 1913 and bear the familiar green seal. Small-size Federal Reserve notes were authorized by Congress in June 1962 and were issued during November 1963. The illustrated note is in uncirculated condition and was is- sued by the Dallas, Texas district (11th, letter K). It bears serial number K00000010A, the 10th note on the first sheet, printed at the ceremony. At that time, notes were printed from a 32-subject plate, by the dry intaglio method. The new modern COPE (Currency Overprinting and Processing Equipment) was first used for the issues in this series. Secretary Connally, a former governor of Texas from 1963 to 1969, was a son of a tenant farmer, John B. Connally, and was born on February 27, 1917 at Floresville, Texas. He attended the University of Texas at Austin where he earned his law degree in 1941. Connally joined the U.S. Naval Reserve after graduation and served on the planning staff of General Dwight D. Eisen- hower. Later, he was a fighter plane director, aboard the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Essex in the Pacific, where he was awarded the Bronze Star. He married Idanell Brill in 1940. They had two sons. Connally returned to civilian life in 1946, and two years later managed Lyndon B. Johnson's successful bid for the U.S. Senate. He worked as Johnson's administrative assistant in 1949. Thereafter, he remained active in Texas Democratic Party politics. In early 1961, President John F. Kennedy appointed Connally Secretary of the Navy. He resigned this post in De- cember 1961 to enter the Texas gubernatorial race, in which he defeated his Republican opponent the following year. On November 22, 1963 Connally was riding in the presiden- tial limousine in Dallas at the time of the assassination of John E Kennedy and was himself seriously wounded. Connally's near-martyrdom made him a nationally known political figure and facilitated his reelection as governor of Texas in 1964. In 1968 he headed the Texas delegation to the Democratic Party convention in Chicago, where Hubert Humphrey was nominated for President. On December 1, 1970 Nixon appointed Connally to the prestigious Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board and days later, when David Kennedy stepped down, Nixon offered this now vacant Treasury post to Connally. Connally was appointed to the Treasury Department while the U.S. was mired in recession. He also played a key role in U.S. foreign economic policy in 1971-2, a time of the worst monetary crisis since World War II. During the months before he left the Treasury Department, Connally began to move toward open identification with the Republican Party. He began campaigning for Nixon in the early summer of 1972 and on August 9th announced the launching of "Democrats for Nixon," in response to the Democratic Party's nomination of Senator George McGovern. On May 1, 1973 Connally announced that he was switching to the Republican Party, and on May 10th the White House an- nounced that Connally would serve as a special advisor to the President, on domestic and foreign affairs, but he soon departed that post on June 20. By this point, however, Connally was already associated with the political scandals of the Nixon Administration, which ulti- mately destroyed his hopes and chances to run for President in 1976. (Continued on page 108) Page 104 Paper Money Whole No. 177 BANK NATIONAL I.JAN ° PROVIDENCE RI by BOB COCHRAN I've owned a note issued by the Blackstone Canal National Bank of Providence, Rhode Island for several years, and have always been intrigued by the bank's title. I assumed that the Blackstone Canal National Bank was a successor to a state- chartered bank, and that the original bank was as- sociated with the company that built the canal. Roger Durand's Obsolete Notes and Scrip of Rhode Island and The Providence Plantations states that the bank was "Incorporated in 1831 as a fiscal agent for the Canal Compan' That information led me to the other sources that are listed at the end of this article. William Blackstone and the Blackstone River ILLIAM Blackstone was an English clergyman who was the first white inhabitant of what is today's Boston and built the first house there. In 1635 he moved near to what is now Lonsdale, Rhode Island; he is known as the first settler of Rhode Island. He was somewhat of an eccentric, and in his later years he made trips to Boston riding a large white bull. The river that flows between Worcester, Massachusetts and Providence, Rhode Island was named the Blackstone River in his honor. The name "Black- stone" was given to the canal because it basically ran parallel to the river. The Blackstone Canal The July 1, 1828 edition of the Rhode Island American, a local newspaper, carried the following story: At about 10 o'clock in the morning, the "Lady Carrington" started from the first lock above tide water (opposite the jail) on Canal Street. A salute of artillery announced her departure, seconded by the cheers of those on board, and the shouts of hundreds of spec- tators who crowded the banks and surrounding eminences to wit- ness this novel spectacle. The boat is of the largest size that can be admitted into the locks, being about seventy feet long, nineteen and a half feet wide, and as high as will admit of a safe passage under the bridges crossing the canal. She is covered on the top, having below a cabin nearly the whole extent of the boat, con- veniently and neatly arranged. Her draft, when filled with pas- sengers, does not exceed eight or nine inches. Among the passengers were His Excellency the Governor, two of the Rhode Is- land Canal Commissioners, and about fifty citizens. The boat was drawn up the Canal by a tow-line attached to two horses that travelled with rapidity on the straight levels (of which there are some very beautiful ones before you come to the Blackstone River). She might be conveyed with ease at the rate of four or five miles per hour. Reverend William Blackstone astride his favorite steed. Between the water and the Albion Factory, nine granite locks, of the most substantial masonry, were passed. Just before entering Scott's Pond, a beautiful basin of deep water, there are three con- tinuous locks, by which you ascend an elevation of twenty-four feet. The novelty of ascending and descending from the different levels was particularly gratifying to those who had never before wit- nessed the operation. The boat glides into a solid iron box (so to speak) in which she is enclosed by the shutting of the folding gates. The water is then admitted through wickets in the upper gates, and the boat is rapidly raised to the level she is to ascend; the upper gates are then opened and she passes on. In descending, the lock is filled and the boat glides in on the level, and the upper gates are closed, and the water drawn from the lower gates until the water is depressed to the level below. This operation occupied, in passing up, about four minutes, and in descending about three minutes. The average height of the lock is about ten feet. There were men hired for lock tenders, whose duty was, for boats ascending, to see the lower gates opened, and after the boat glided into the lock, to close the lower gates, and draw the water from the upper level until the lock was full, and then open the upper gates and let the boat pass out upon the level; and when the boats were descending, locks were to be filled and upper gates opened so that the boat would glide in. On the 4th of July the "Lady Carrington" carried excursion parties to Scott's Pond, six miles, amid great rejoicings. The paper then added the following amusing incident: A Mr. Arnold, who keeps a store opposite Smith Street, in com- pany with a Mr. Olney, was sitting on a box or railing of the Boat "Lady Carrington" and was very earnest telling a story when the Boat Paper Money Whole No. 177 Page 105 struck the bank of the Canal, and overboard he went. After pulling him in all wet through, he sat down and said "as I was saying" and went on with his story as though nothing had happened. John W. Haley, in "The Old Stone Bank" History of Rhode Island (Volume III), published in 1939 by the Providence Institution for Savings, wrote the following about the canal: If you had been a resident of Providence in the early 1800s, all the foregoing would have been perfectly familiar to you, for you probably would have been one of the citizens on the "Lady Carrington" or, at least, one of the spectators on the bank or some housetop. The completion and opening of the Black- stone Canal in 1828 was a great event in Providence history and one that deserved acclaim. The year itself was doubly signi- ficant to the business interests of the town, for, before it was out, the Arcade, a pioneer building in the present business sec- tion of the city, had been finished. Yet the canal served for only twenty years and then was abandoned, while the Arcade still prospers, though encircled by modern business offices. How easily the situation might have been reversed is a story that evolves out of the story of the canal itself. John Brown, with characteristic enterprise, began in 1796 to make the first plans for a canal from Providence to Worcester. He had the enthusiastic support of many influential citizens in both Rhode Island and Massachusetts, but, due to some legis- lative difficulties with the latter state, his plans never matured. Twenty-six years passed before the subject was brought up again—this time with success. Citizens in both Worcester and Providence held meetings, discussed the need of a canal, and ended by forming commissions and engaging engineers to in- vestigate every detail which such an enterprise would involve. Benjamin Wright, the chief engineer of the middle section of the Erie Canal, headed the party of surveyors and assayers who laid out the proposed route. The results of the survey were very encouraging. The soil was found easy to excavate. There were large ponds all along the route from which water could be ob- tained. The difference in elevation between tide water in Provi- dence and Thomas Street in Worcester was found to be 451/2 feet, not a great difference considering that the canal was to be 45 miles in length. After the favorable report of the engineers, promoters of the enterprise went to work to stimulate the enthusiasm of the people with a view to raising the necessary money for the proj- ect. The estimated expense was $323,319, and the sum set to be raised was $400,000. Here a first great mistake was made. So successfully did the promoters present the canal proposition that they could have raised $1,000,000 as easily as the $400,000 they asked for. Later on, when the actual cost of the canal proved to be $750,000, and they needed more money, the public had lost its faith in the enterprise and was unresponsive. It was a marked contrast to the mad scrambling for stock when the Blackstone Canal Company was first formed. Then, people in Providence bought all that was offered and hurried to Worcester to buy up any more shares that might have been left over. Excavation of the canal was begun in 1824 in Rhode Island, and two years later in Massachusetts at the Thomas Street end. This gave a lot of employment to Rhode Islanders and stimu- lated Providence business to a very considerable extent. About 500 men from Providence were engaged in the work at one time, and North Water Street (later called Canal Street) was transformed into a busy business center. New warehouses were built along it with wharves facing on the canal. And general business throughout the city increased proportionately. There were forty-nine locks in all between Worcester and Providence, all of them heavily constructed out of granite at a cost of $4,000 each. As for the canal itself, it was 32 feet wide at the top with sloping banks that made it only 18 feet wide at the bottom. Water was kept at a depth of 31/2 feet. But the canal was actually only dug nine-tenths of the way between the two towns. For the rest the engineers depended upon slack water navigation, making use of the ponds along the way. They did not figure on such things as drought in the summer and ice in the winter, and consequently the loaded canal boats frequently became stranded for days and weeks at a time for lack of navigable water. This was, of course, ruinous, both to the canal company operating the boats and to the merchants who used them for shipping goods. As a matter of fact, the Blackstone Canal was always of more value to the public than to its stockholders. The latter received only decreasing dividends from the start of the project, but the former had the advantages resulting from the reservoirs which had been built along the route to hold back spring flood water in the ponds. More water flowed in the Blackstone River and there was enough increased hydraulic power to encourage the building of many manufacturing plants along the canal. The final trouble that involved the canal came in constant quarrels between the boatmen and the various mill owners over the water itself. The latter were drawing just enough water for their manufacturing to ruin the boatmen's business, and there was many a near-riot over the matter. Mill owners even went so far as to tip loads of rocks into the locks so that the barges could not pass through and the boatmen threatened to set fire to the mills. All this trouble might have been avoided had enough money been raised in the first place so that the canal company could have controlled all the water rights. But matters went from bad to worse, and in 1848 the last toll was collected on barges. Before that time portions of the canal had been closed to passage. Providence auctioned off the boat- house terminal, and following year the locks and land as far as Woonsocket were sold. Taking the place of the canal was the new railroad con- necting the same two towns, and giving rise to the remark that of "the two unions between Worcester and Providence, the first was as weak as water—the last as strong as iron" One can still (in 1939) trace the route of the old canal as it follows along Canal Street, by the American Screw Company's works, and under Randall Street. Farther out in the country it becomes distinct for various intervals, disappearing entirely where it has been filled in. It was a noble experiment, one which could easily have been more fruitful in its results, and we might have seen the picturesque barges moving slowly along today through the Lower Blackstone River Valley. The organizers of the Blackstone Canal included some of the most prominent businessmen in Providence. Among them was Richard Jackson, Jr.; he was the president of the Providence Washington Insurance Company, and was selected as president of the Canal Company. Most of the directors of the Providence Washington Insurance Company were connected with the Canal Company; in 1829 the Canal Company applied to the Insurance Company for a five-year loan of $16,000. This appli- cation passed by a single vote. Another director of both institu- Nicholas Brown, first president of The Blackstone Canal Bank. 64,14A4.4e h4.4444 tys):21. -- MST, 0-NR CANAL BANK-/ 4 .garb) met) A th 7471440,,,-$.74Veci4*4.644/0,4-''' Early $1 note (Durand 1095) issued by The Blackstone Canal Bank. According to Mr. Durand, the center vignette is a view of the Blackstone Canal. Page 106 Paper Money Whole No. 177 tions, Moses Brown Ives, recommended that the amount of the loan be increased to $32,000. Richard Jackson, Jr., the president of both organizations, was the sole dissenting vote! The stockholders of the Canal Company subscribed to 4,881 new shares at $15 a share, and later to another issue of 14,275 new shares at $10 a share. The Canal Company also tried to get the U.S. government to subscribe to $120,000 worth of stock, but this request was refused. Blackstone Canal Bank In 1830 the toll receipts for the canal were $12,000; the invest- ment in the canal by that time had reached $700,000. The Canal Company realized that their future was short unless they generated new operating revenue. The directors decided that a bank would provide the financial support necessary. The finan- cial committee of the Canal Company, Benjamin Hoppin, Thomas P. Ives and Sullivan Don, succeeded in obtaining a bank charter from the General Assembly, and in February 1831 the Blackstone Canal Bank was organized. The scheme was that the bank would invest $150,000 in the Canal Company; the owners of the Canal Company stock were advised to invest in the bank, with the idea put forth that also owning bank stock would bring them double profits. Nicholas Brown, a son of John Brown who originally conceived the canal project, was elected President, and Thomas B. Fenner was elected cashier. Brown was a major benefactor of a school known as Rhode Is- land College, and upon his passing it was renamed Brown University in his memory. The new financial arrangement was successful to a degree, in that it allowed the Canal Company to pay its debts, including the loan from the Providence Washington Insurance Com- pany. The stockholders of the Canal Company received a one dollar dividend in 1832 and lesser amounts in 1834 and 1835. But because of the problems described earlier by Mr. Haley, the Blackstone Canal was doomed to failure. Not so the bank. Be- cause so much of the bank's funds were being used to operate the Canal Company and retire its debt, it was continually seeking financial support, including that of the State of Rhode Island. The bank's directors decided that it might become necessary to distance themselves from the Canal Company in order to survive. On July 1, 1833 the directors of the Blackstone Canal Bank passed the following resolution: Voted and resolved, that James DWolf, Nicholas Brown and John Whipple be and they are hereby authorized and empowered in be- half of this corporation, to consider and adopt the most beneficial method of enlarging the capital stock of this Bank; and at their dis- cretion to apply to the Honourable General Assembly for such aid in the promotion of object as in their opinion may appear most proper, so that the Bank may be relieved of the heavy loss sustained in that part of its capital invested in the stock of the Blackstone Canal Company; in such a way that the Honourable General As- sembly may think proper. On December 13 of that same year, President Brown and Secre- tary Thomas B. Fenner were appointed as delegates of the bank "to attend the meeting or meetings of the Blackstone Canal Company, and to act therein for and in behalf of this insti- tution" The Rhode Island General Assembly approved the bank's resolution. The directors voted, in September of 1834, to "di- vide out or dispose of that portion of the Capital Stock which consists of shares in the Capital Stock of the Blackstone Canal Company" The goal of the plan was that the bank would have none of its assets tied up in the stock of the Canal Company, and would hopefully achieve a sounder financial footing. Be- ginning in February 1835, everyone who owned original shares in the bank received an equal amount of shares the bank held -; (7-.11- Try:I, Sr-37N ADWASAVI D2196579 itrovoitincmht itt ur-I eccuennv rnmo orr.m.ncrats POWEDIRIIIITRIS TREARLIIEHOr ryrr, PRCIVIIDENCE Paper Money Whole No. 177 Page 107 in the Canal Company. In this manner the bank disposed of 9,220 shares of Canal Company stock. The bank also assigned each holder of its stock an additional five shares of stock in the bank for each share currently owned. The price of these new shares was $8.50 each, and the stockholders were given 63 days to take advantage of the offer. The bank moved into the former offices (coincidentally owned by Nicholas Brown) of the closed branch of the Bank of the United States in Providence in 1836. In May of 1837 the Blackstone Canal Bank suspended specie payments, as did all of the other banks in town. This was due to the financial panic of that year. It was not until January of 1840 that the banks began to redeem their notes in coin. John Carter Brown succeeded his father as president of the bank on July 27, 1841. During his presidency the bank pur- chased the property at 20 Market Square and erected a building it would occupy for over one hundred years. Tully D. Bowen succeeded John Carter Brown as president in August of 1850, and guided the bank until March of 1869. The Blackstone Canal Bank issued many beautiful obsolete notes as described and illustrated in Durand. It was obviously a very stable and successful bank; an issue dated in 1863 has a vignette of General Ambrose P. Burnside, who was from Provi- dence. Also attesting to the stability of the bank are the several counterfeits of notes issued by the bank, and, more impor- tantly, the number of notes which were altered to the Black- stone Canal Bank. These notes are fully described by Durand. Two in particular that are interesting to me are (1) a $1 note (Durand 1095, page 112) dated 1841, which has a view of the Blackstone Canal itself, and (2) a note issued by the Stillwater Canal Bank of Orono, Maine (Durand 1113, page 114); when it was altered to the Blackstone Canal Bank, the "d" was mis- takenly placed backwards, so the location reads "Provibence' All of the obsolete notes issued by the Blackstone Canal Bank are rare. The Blackstone Canal National Bank of Providence The bank was reorganized as The Blackstone Canal Bank of Providence on May 17, 1865, after it was granted charter 1328 by the Comptroller of the Currency. In March of 1869 J. Halsey DeWolf was elected president of the bank. He was followed in office by General William Ames. Ames was a student at Brown University when the Civil War began, and he left school to en- list in the Union Army. He served throughout the war, and rose from the rank of Second Lieutenant to Brevet Brigadier General. General Ames served as president of the bank until his death in 1914. Frank W. Matteson succeeded Ames, and served until October 1916. Albert R. Plant followed Matteson, and was the last president of the Blackstone Canal National Bank. The national currency issues of the Blackstone Canal Bank began with First Charter Original Series notes and spanned all four charter periods, including 1929 Type 2 small-size notes. 4.). ) ' ' 'F.'Ssit"'3°— 4 ‘ 1A '''Y II" 1: 11 1 1.4 I PIS -'". ' " . '''IL .,!?.,f.4,4",;.,..,,,,,,:01 V..),„y! „<.; (F. ". , ,c. ..,, or corizg;/=',1/em,„, .- 1 i I e .44° J 441 ''''' V j'"0 r , A---,, '/ 1 L',---- - ai'°' --.----.`"'"")',-;LsrnEiro , 06 r isfp.D smock= 1323 a /<,';',-,..-,_, A.,...;,-,.... .v.,„ ) (0- 4"?,- *1.211M Series 1882 $5 Brown Back issued by The Blackstone Canal National Bank. Oren Westcott, cashier and William Ames, president. at •0301 •, • •lap AUe cAx`ihrauxiva Series 1902 $5 Plain Back issued by The Blackstone Canal National Bank. Charles P. Brown, cashier and Albert R. Plant, president. THE BLACXSTONE CANAL 4: ‘ NATIONAL BANN OF PROVIDENCE TmE,00410-7"-*Wala-Anto. \■\4•14"' 1328 1003752 -4 RHODE ISLAND Val.,/ TO 11, MAP. ON O.A. FIVE DOLLARS 1003752 1328 Page 108 Paper Money Whole No. 177 1929 Type 2 $5 note issued by The Blackstone Canal National Bank. Delos A. Howland, cashier and Albert R. Plant, president. (Illustration courtesy of Steven K. Whitfield.) Many high quality notes of the bank are known (including uncut sheets of 1929 notes), and are available to collectors at reasonable prices. Merger with the Providence National Bank In 1945, Albert Plant was serving as only the sixth president in the bank's 114-year history. He recommended to the directors that the Blackstone Canal National Bank be merged with the Providence National Bank, and his recommendation was ac- cepted. Providence National Bank was a successor to the fifth bank chartered in the United States, and traced its roots back to 1791. The Providence National Bank merged with the Union Trust Company of Providence in 1951; the resulting corporation was titled "Providence Union National Bank and Trust Company," but it was later shortened to "Providence Union National Bank:' In 1954 the Providence Union National Bank merged with the Industrial Trust Company (also of Providence), and the corporation became the Industrial National Bank. Some- time between 1966 and 1980 the bank adopted its present name, Fleet National Bank. In 1966 Providence National Bank laid claim to holding the second oldest continuous charter of any bank in North America, the oldest being the Bank of New York which was founded in 1784. First Pennsylvania Bank in Philadelphia can trace its roots back to the original Bank of North America char- tered in 1781, but it is not a successor to the original bank. So the memory of the Blackstone Canal and the Blackstone Canal Bank survives in the nation's second-oldest continuous banking institution. Chronology of Presidents and Cashers Blackstone Canal Bank President Cashier Nicholas Brown (1831-1841) Thomas B. Fenner (1831-1845) John Carter Brown (1841-1850) Daniel W. Vaughan (1845-1853) Tully D. Bowen (1850-1869) John Luther (1853-1876) Blackstone Canal National Bank President Cashier Tully D. Bowen (1865-1869) John Luther (1865-1876) J. Halsey DeWolf (1869-1876) Oren Westcott (1877-1909) William Ames (1876-1914) Albert R. Plant (1909-1916) Frank W. Matteson (1914-1916) Charles P. Brown (1916-1930) Albert R. Plant (1916-1945) D.A. Howland (1930-1945) SOURCES: Durand, R. (1981). Obsolete Notes and Scrip of Rhode Island and The Provi- dence Plantations. Roger H. Durand, in cooperation with the Society of Paper Money Collectors, Inc. Haley, J.W. (1939). 'The Old Stone Bank" History of Rhode Island. Volume III. Providence Institution for Savings. Hedges, J.B. (1952). The Browns of Providence Plantations. Harvard University Press. Hickman, J. & D. Oakes (1982). Standard Catalog of National Bank Notes. Krause Publications. Weston, F. (1966). The Passing Years 1791 to 1966. Industrial National Bank of Rhode Island. The Hundredth Milestone. (1931). Blackstone Canal National Bank of Providence, Rhode Island. My sincere thanks to Roger Durand for his assistance in the prepara- tion of this article and for permission to use illustrations from his book; and to Steven Whitfield, for graciously furnishing me with a photocopy of The Hundredth Milestone and the photocopies of several notes which accompany this article. AUTOGRAPH (Continued from page 103) On July 28, 1974 the Watergate grand jury indicted Connally on five counts of accepting a bribe, conspiring to obstruct jus- tice and committing perjury, in connection with his acceptance of $10,000 in two cash payments from dairy lobbyists in 1971. He entered a not-guilty plea and in 1975 was acquitted. Within weeks of his acquittal, Connally plunged back into Republican Party politics. President Gerald Ford had deemed it acceptable to pay a private visit to Connally even before his ac- quittal. Connally resumed his legal practice and business ac- tivities and remained active in Republican Party politics throughout the late 1970s. His business ventures covered a large range of endeavors, in- cluding oil, oilfield services, radio and television, carbon, ranches, insurance and the New York Central Railroad. He was Senior Partner of Vinson, Elkins, a Houston law firm. He was also involved in the Patten Corp., Kaiser Tech., and served as Special Counsel: Board of Directors and Executive Committee of American General Companies. He was Director of several banks, and sat on the Board of numerous large corporations. Connally filed for bankruptcy in 1987 and was forced to sell most of his assets, including his ranch, home and personal be- longings. A long and distinguished career as a politician and businessman ended in personal tragedy. Bibliography Friedberg, R. (1989). Paper money of the United States. New York: Coin and Currency Institute. Hessler, G. (1992). The comprehensive catalog of U.S. paper money. Port Clinton, OH: BNR Press. International who's who. (1989-90). Chicago, IL: Marquis. Oakes, D. & I. Schwartz. (1994). Standard guide to small-size U.S. paper money. Iola, WI: Krause Pub. Shafer, N. (1979). Modern United States currency. Racine, WI: Western Pub. Co. Schoenbaum, E. Political profiles—the Nixon/Ford years. Paper Money Whole No. 177 Page 109 Catalog of Enveloped Postage by MILTON R. FRIEDBERG (Continued from No. 175, page 27) Catalog Number 175 Catalog Number 181 Paper WHITE Paper WHITE 69x37mm Ink BLUE Ink BLUE Commentary U.S./POSTAGE STAMPS Commentary U.S. POSTAGE STAMPS Advertising Message NONE Numerical Value 25 Numerical Value 25 Value Message 25 cts. Word Value cts. Flap Printed MISSING Value Message 25 cts. Pedigree MTG X-MOREAU (BACK AND FLAP Flap Printed NO MISSING) Pedigree RW X-SEEMAN LOT 1353 Catalog Number 176 Catalog Number 182 Paper VIOLET Paper BRIGHT YELLOW 73.35mm Ink BLACK Ink BLACK Commentary U.S. POSTAGE STAMPS. Commentary U.S. POSTAGE STAMPS Numerical Value 25 Numerical Value 50 Word Value Cts. Value Message 50 Cents. Value Message 25 Cts. Flap Printed MISSING Flap Printed NO Pedigree MRF-XWL X-MOREAU (BACK AND FLAP Pedigree MRF MISSING) Catalog Number 177 Paper Lt.LAVENDER 84x46mm Catalog Number 183 Ink BLUE Paper LIGHT BLUE 71x35mm Commentary U.S. POSTAGE STAMPS Ink BLACK Numerical Value 20 Commentary U.S. POSTAGE STAMPS Value Message 20 CENTS Numerical Value 50 Flap Printed MISSING Value Message 50 Pedigree MRF X-MOREAU (MISSING FLAP AND Flap Printed MISSING BACK) Pedigree DKH X-MOREAU (BACK AND FLAP MISSING) Catalog Number 178 Paper APPROX 92x53 mm Ink ? Commentary U.S. POSTAGE STAMPS Catalog Number 184 Numerical Value 25 WHITEPaper Value Message 25 CENTS Ink BLUE Flap Printed MISSING FLAP AND BACK Commentary U.S. POSTAGE STAMPS. Pedigree KRAUSE 155-25 X-COLE Numerical Value Word Value 30 CTS. Catalog Number 179 Value Message Flap Printed 30 CTS. YES Paper LEMON 71x35mm. Ink BLACK Flap Message Pedigree 30 RW X-SEEMAN LOT 1353 Commentary U.S POSTAGE STAMPS Numerical Value 25 Value Message 25 CI'S. Flap Printed MISSING Catalog Number 185 Pedigree DKH X-MOREAU Paper WHITE 61.32mm Ink BLACK Catalog Number 180 Commentary U.S./Postage Stamps (FLOWING SCRIPT) Paper MANILLA 70(73)x40(43)mm. Numerical Value 30 Ink BLACK Word Value cts. Commentary U.S. POSTAGE STAMPS Value Message 30 cts. Numerical Value 25 Flap Printed MISSING Value Message 25 Cents. Pedigree RW X-MOREAU (BACK AND FLAP Flap Printed MISSING MISSING) Pedigree MRF-XWL X-MOREAU (To be continued) Page 110 Paper Money Whole No. 177 Confederate Green Goods: TWO CASES by FORREST W. DANIEL The green goods swindle operated by Edwin J. Davis and Charles Jacobs was a strictly penny-ante operation compared to some; and their one secu- rity precaution, and alias, was their immediate downfall. Of course, they would have been caught eventually because they violated almost every rule of the professional green goods operator. D AVIS and Jacobs were arrested in St. Paul, Minnesota, on July 17, 1894, charged by postal authorities with dealing in green goods and using the mails to carry on the business from the back room of a little cigar store at 56 East Fifth Street. They operated openly by advertising in national newspapers using the name John Ross and received their mail at the store. The suspicions of Letter Carrier George Exely were aroused, especially when he delivered registered letters ad- dressed to John Ross. Ross was never at the cigar store to receive the mail so Davis or Jacobs signed for it. The carrier could tell there was money in some of the letters so he called it to the at- tention of Postmaster Henry A. Castle. Castle, with permission of the post office department, put a stop on all mail addressed to John Ross and it began to ac- cumulate at the post office. No one called for the mail so a no- tice was sent to the cigar store that Ross should come to the post office and identify himself. He never did. When Deputy U.S. Marshal Ed Brown and Detectives McGuiggen and Meyer- ding arrested the young men it was claimed they were about to leave the city but were late in their preparations. A preliminary hearing was held before United States Com- missioner Ambrose Tighe a week later and Davis and Jacobs were charged with using the mails for fraudulent purposes. They were defended by Attorneys Ben Davis, uncle of Edwin Davis, and McHugh. After the government presented its case, the defense asked for a dismissal on the ground that no case had been made. Commissioner Tighe, too, saw a lack of proof and gave the district attorney another day to build a case. To bolster their case the prosecution produced Wilson S. Tuttle who was engaged in the insurance and loan business; he said Davis readily admitted he was in the green goods business. Tuttle said he met Davis frequently while trying to collect a $129 note owed to George T. Davies, an associate of Tuttle. Tuttle testified that when the Ross mail was withheld, Davis asked him to go to the post office and get the postmaster to re- lease the mail; and if he did, Davis could pay $50 on the note and $10 a week thereafter from money that would be in the mail. He added that in another conversation, near the post office, with Davis, Jacobs and Attorney A.B. Davis (his ques- tioner), he was again asked to get the mail released in return for the promise of a note for the amount owed; but the mail had to come first. Under cross examination by Defense Attorney McHugh Tuttle admitted he had worked up the case against the defen- dants because he couldn't collect the note. Postal Inspector James D. Wood testified the information that Davis and Jacobs were about to leave town came from Tuttle. The defense again called for a dismissal of the charges. Commissioner Tighe still doubted the government had made a solid case: he said the men were not charged with being in the green goods business but only that they had deposited mail in the post office and taken mail from it. Again he gave additional time for the prose- cution to build a case. The circular contained information where and how counterfeit money "green articles; 'bills; 'paper goods; 'spurious treasury notes; and other spurious articles" could be obtained . . . On July 26 Assistant District Attorney John E. Stryker moved the original charge be dismissed and that Davis and Jacobs be re-arrested on a specific charge with a complaint sworn out against them. The new complaint stated that on April 27, Davis and Jacobs, using the name John Ross, sent a letter and circular to Joseph Wieseler of Rhinelander, Wisconsin. The circular contained information where and how counterfeit money ,, 'green articles', 'bills', 'paper goods', 'spurious treasury notes', and other spurious articles" could be obtained, and on May 5th they took from the post office a registered letter containing $5 which had been mailed by Wieseler. The defendants and their attorneys were surprised at the turn of events. Davis and Jacobs were arraigned immediately, pled not guilty, and bond was set at $500 each. Attorney Davis offered bail, but Assistant DA Stryker insisted on two sureties and the defendants spent the night in jail. Here the story splits into two versions. According to the St. Paul Pioneer Press, July 31, 1894: ... The charge brought by the government does not allege the men have been guilty of issuing counterfeit United States money, but that they have been counterfeiting rare Confederate money. The "John Ross," alias Davis and Jacobs, the government claims, adver- tised by means of private circulars, much like the regulation "green goods" circular in appearance, that he would sell for $5, $100 worth of genuine Confederate money, in bills of the denominations of $100, $50, $20, $10, $5, $2 and $1. In its complaint the government Paper Money Whole No. 177 Page 111 claims these bills, forwarded to patrons through the mails, were not genuine Confederate money, but were printed in St. Paul; that they were reproduced here from the originals, and therefore were counterfeits of the Confederate money, and that in disposing of them as genuine Confederate money Davis and Jacobs, under the alias of Ross, were perpetrating a fraud which they were carrying on by means of the United States mails. And that since the previous October had received, in the name of John Ross, 144 registered letters containing not less than $700. But that is not the story found in the transcript of the hearing. The words "Confederate" and "counterfeit" never ap- pear together in the photocopies of the information or tes- timony received from the Federal Court archives. In the information and arrest warrant Davis and Jacobs are charged with a scheme to" .. distribute, supply and furnish for unlawful use counterfeit and spurious bank notes, paper money, obligations and securities of the United States, .. " It was a standard green goods charge. The witness identified himself as Joseph Wieseler of Rhine- lander, Wisconsin, and was questioned by Assistant DA Stryker. Wieseler said he entered into correspondence with John Ross through an advertisement in a newspaper, but he did not remember what paper it was. Asked about the nature of the ad- vertisement he said, "I think it was something about money. I wrote to him and told him to send terms and samples" In re- turn he got terms, but no samples. Wieseler was shown a circular and asked if it was the one from which he got the terms. He would not swear it was the cir- cular he received but it was one just like it. The circular was en- tered in evidence but it does not survive in the case file. Wieseler sent five dollars to John Ross in St. Paul; he said the address was on the envelope—it was not on the circular. "Q. After you sent that letter containing the Five Dollars, what did you receive? A. I received just what I ordered, green backs" Asked if he had the bills with him, he said, "Some of them!' The children destroyed the others. The bill presented in evidence is not in the file. Next an envelope dated April 27 was shown; Wieseler did not know if it was the one the bills or the circular came in, but he said it came through the post office. Entered in evidence. Under cross examination the witness said he knew the cir- cular he received was the one entered in evidence because the price list was on both; and identified the envelope only by the words at the top. In addition to the bill entered in evidence he received a $100, $20, $10, $5, $2 and $1 bills. Postal records in St. Paul showed that the registered letter sent by Wieseler to John Ross was mailed in Rhinelander on April 19 and signed for by E.J. Davis on April 21. Postmaster DeWitt S. Johnson of Rhinelander confirmed the dates from his records. Attorney Benn Davis moved to strike the testimony of wit- nesses Tuttle and Davies, testimony of conversations, and of mailing and receipt of mail. Especially, he protested the use in evidence of an envelope dated April 21 to prove Davis's May 5 receipt of Wieseler's order, the date specifically charged in the warrant. Even the April 21 date was six days earlier than the first contact of the parties alleged in the complaint. Commissioner Tighe denied all his motions to dismiss for lack of evidence to match the exact charges made in the complaint so Davis ad- vised his clients not to put up any defense. They were held to the January term of federal court in bond of $1000 each. Bail was provided by Benn Davis and Edward I. Darragh, Demo- cratic candidate for Congress. Edwin J. Davis was arrested January 11 on a bench warrant and the case took on a new perspective and other twists. Charles Jacobs had skipped the country. Attorney Darragh told reporters Jacobs was in Brussels, Belgium, with his parents and would return to stand trial, but his bail was forfeited. Davis stood trial charged by the grand jury on three charges. First: that he and Jacobs devised a scheme to obtain money from di- vers persons through the post office "by what is commonly called the counterfeit money fraud, and by dealing and pretending to deal in what is commonly called 'green articles; 'bills, 'paper Goods' 'spurious treasury notes; 'United States goods; . . "; that the text of their advertisement in the Police Ga- zette and other newspapers was: "MONEY. Send 2 cents for par- ticulars. John Ross. 53 E. 5th St., St. Paul, Minn"; and that when they received an order they sent "worthless confederate paper money" with intent fraudulently to obtain genuine money; and that on April 12, 1894, sent a "certain packet, letter and writing directed to Mr. Joseph Wieseler, Rhinelander, Wiscon- sin" The second charge is essentially the same text except that on April 21 Davis and Jacobs received a "letter and packet" from Jacob Wieseler. The third charge covers the packet sent by Davis and Jacobs to Wieseler on April 27. This indictment mentions "worthless confederate paper money," but does not say that it was counterfeit as the news- paper reported from the hearing earlier. Reporters for both the Pioneer Press and Dispatch newspapers may have confused the issue of "worthless Confederate" with counterfeit, thus mud- dling the facts of the story. But their stories are so detailed it is difficult to believe the subject of counterfeit Confederate money did not arise in the court room—officially or otherwise. Davis was held in jail. According to the Pioneer Press, their attorneys said the pair had no connection with mail matter sent "to a wood and coal office on East Fifth Street" (What happened to the cigar store?) It added that Davis and Jacobs had a business on East Sixth Street where they dealt in curios, especially Confederate money; and their circulars reportedly offered genuine Con- federate money for sale, but they substituted spurious scrip, hence the fraud was carried on through the mails. These details are at odds with earlier reporting and court records, but they do place the men in the business of dealing in Confederate currency. Davis and Jacobs were said to have sent their clientele seven counterfeit Confederate notes from $1 to $100 denominations for $5 of United States money. Scott's Standard Catalogues. No. 2. Paper Money 1894. advertised similar sets for less than $2. Counterfeiting notes which retailed for fifty cents or less seems a foolish enterprise, but the court record furnishes neither the advertising circular nor the sample $50 note for examination to determine the reality of the case. Davis went to trial on January 14, 1895, but there is no record of the trial in the archives. Newspapers said the trial ended with a hung jury—seven for acquittal and five for conviction—after thirty-six hours of deliberation. Davis, who had been in jail since January 11, was allowed to plead guilty on March 22 to the charge of using the mails to carry on a swindle of the green goods nature. He was fined $200, sentenced to sixty days im- prisonment in the county jail; the sentence was said to be light because Davis maintained he had been the dupe of Jacobs and Page 112 Paper Money Whole No. 177 with the understanding that he "leave the country" at the end of his sentence. Since he had no money it was expected he would work out the fine with another thirty days, according to the newspaper. Two years later the Minneapolis Journal said Jacobs was still in Europe. The Second Case Edwin J. Davis received no vocational retraining during the time he spent in Ramsey County jail; a year or so later he was charged with the same scheme in Hennepin County, Min- neapolis. Complaint was made on May 7, 1897 that Davis, alias George Can, was back at his old scheme and had netted Almer Simons, Cavalier, North Dakota, on February 25. Davis ap- peared before H.S. Abbott in U.S. Commissioners Court the next day; he was arraigned, pled not guilty and was held in lieu of $2500 bail until a preliminary hearing on May 15. At that hearing Simons said he was a farmer in North Dakota, that he took the Police Gazette and saw an "ad" for money; it was signed by George Carr, Minneapolis. He an- swered the advertisement about the 27th of February asking "how much a $100 it was," the size of the bills and the price of $5000 worth. "I told him a lie when I said I had been in the business for some time!' About ten days later Simons received a letter saying he would get what he wanted and that it would be enclosed in an envelope in a newspaper. The price quoted in the circular was $5 a hundred or $250 for $10. He sent $5 folded in a newspaper but never received a reply; Simons's neighbor Albert Homer mailed the parcel for him. Under cross-examination Simons said he did not know what he was to get or what he intended to do with the money. He had been receiving mail at 251 Hennepin Avenue, but did not want his wife to know where his mail was delivered. Thos. Gallagher, Minneapolis, testified he kept a saloon at 110 3rd Street South and knew the defendant, Davis, three or four months. A man named LeBarre received his mail at the sa- loon; one day he brought Davis into the place and Davis said he wanted his mail delivered there. He had been receiving mail at 251 Hennepin Avenue, but did not want his wife to know where his mail was delivered. He added that the mail would be addressed to George Carr—Davis used his own name openly at the saloon. Gallagher said letters and newspapers arrived fre- quently, but sometimes Davis would not pick it up for a week. Under cross examination Gallagher said LaBarre worked in a gambling house at the address Davis had used earlier and that Davis received some letters from England. Minneapolis Postmaster EG. Holbrook testified a (wrapped news]paper addressed to George Carr containing a letter signed by Almer Simons, Cavalier, North Dakota, was turned over to Capt. D.J. Wood, postal inspector. Wood opened the letter, it contained a $5 bill, asked for a sample, wanted to know the cost of $5000 and said the writer had been in the business. The wrapped newspaper was an unusual cover for a green goods letter and money, and it might have fooled the authorities for a long time if they had not been tipped off by a hoped-to-be counterfeit passer from Massachusetts. George A. Plummer, assistant superintendent of city de- livery, presented George Carr's change of address card in evi- dence and said he witnessed the opening of Simons's letter. Capt. Wood's evidence duplicated previous testimony. Commissioner Abbott felt a green goods offense had been committed and directed Davis to be held in $1500 bail to ap- pear at the next term of federal court in Minneapolis. He was sent to jail in lieu of bail. The grand jury indictment dated September 7 contains the essence of the preliminary hearing but adds details to the case against Davis. Victims were Charles Jackson, John Stafford, Frank Clark, J.W. Rose and R. Sharp in addition to Almer Simons. The advertisement from the National Police Gazette was exhibited and quoted: "MONEY. Send stamp for particulars. Geo, Carr. 251 Hennepin Ave., Minneapolis, Minn" Those who responded received a circular: Confidential: Friend. Yours of recent date at hand and we are glad to inform you that you have been selected as Agent to distribute our Goods. They come in $5. $10. and $20. bills and are perfect in every respect. To our Agents only we will send sample lots so that they can see what they are get- ting before ordering a large quantity. We have only two sample prices: $5.00 for $100. $10. for $250. and we will not send more than $250 or less than $100. in any sample order. After you have had a sample order sent you we will make arrangements to send you a large quantity on easy terms. Sample orders are sent by return, and we guarantee you safe and prompt delivery. They are sent the same way that this is. This grand offer only holds good for ten days from the date you receive this as we shall give some one else the chance, should you not wish to be our agent, but it is not likely that you will refuse such an opportunity that comes but once in a lifetime, ORDER RIGHT AWAY. Be prompt, for we waste no time filling orders. If you cannot afford to take advantage of this great chance alone, you may take one friend in with you, in ordering, but don't do so unless you are compelled to do so. THERE IS ONLY ONE WAY TO SEND MONEY AND WE WILL NOT RECEIVE IT ANY OTHER WAY: It is this: Place money in bills in a newspaper the same way this reaches you, and ADDRESS PLAINLY. THIS WAY IS ABSOLUTELY SAFE, as we have received hundreds of dollars by this method and have not lost one order. Place a wrapper around paper the same as we have, and take care to seal firmly. We will not receive MONEY ORDERS, REGIS- TERED LETTERS OR EXPRESS ORDERS. Care must be taken to obey this rule. Once more urging you to be prompt and not delay we are confidently Your friends. When the several persons answered the circular, Edwin J. Davis, under the "false, fictitious and assumed name of George Carr," sent them "bills theretofore issued by the Confederate States of America of various denominations to said Grand Jurors unknown . . . which said bills . . . were of no value what- soever . . !' and that Davis took possession of the money sent "without rendering anything of value therefor": It was a fraud carried on by means of the United States post office establish- ment by mailing the circular to Almer Simons on February 20, 1897. The second charge said that in reply to the letter and packet Almer Simons sent the following letter enclosing a $5 silver certificate, series 1891: Paper Money Whole No. 177 Page 113 Cavalier Feb. 27 '97. Dear Sir Please find 5 and send me sample your stock and what you would take for 5000 as a friend and one is going to start in business. Yours truly Almer Simons Cavalier N.Dak. Box 8 We have been in the business for sometime with a firm in No loca- tion was cited.] The third and similar charge said that on May 6th Davis received a letter and packet containing a $5.00 silver certificate series 1896 from Charles Jackson, Kalispell, Montana. The letter: Kalispell, Mont. Mr. George Carr Dear Sir Yours of recent date at hand and was pleased to hear from you. Please send sample order in $5 and $10 bills. Hoping to hear from you soon, I remain, Your friend Charles Jackson All of which actions are "against the peace and dignity of the United States and contrary to the form of the statute in such case made and provided," according to the indictment. While the indictment was based on the testimony of Almer Simons (he was probably the victim nearest the court) the ac- tion that exposed Davis began several months earlier. Simons and the others were caught in a trap set by postal inspectors. On February 3 a man from Fitchburg, Massachusetts, began correspondence with "George Carr" in Minneapolis. The rou- tine that followed was described in the preliminary hearing. The righteous Yankee was indignant at being swindled and, being an innocent victim, complained to the postmaster general .. . The Fitchburg man expected to receive a $100 sample of bright new "goods" for the $10 he sent to Carr wrapped in a newspaper. According to the Minneapolis Journal the bills he received under cover of a newspaper were not crisp and were "about 35 years too old to be good. They were the bills of the late confederacy" The righteous Yankee was indignant at being swindled and, being an innocent victim, complained to the postmaster general: To the Postmaster General—Honored Sir: There is a man in the City of Minneapolis, Minn., by the name of George Carr, 251 Hennepin avenue, who advertises in Police Ga- zette this way: "Money: Send stamp for particulars" I wrote him; he told me to send him $10 done up in a newspaper and he would send $100 in bills. I sent him $10; he sent me a lot of old con- federate bills. I have lost my $10. I claim that he is using the mails for a fraudulent purpose and that he has obtained hundreds of dollars by defrauding his fellow men. He wrote me he had received hundreds of dollars in newspapers. A friend of mine sent him $10. Carr wrote him that he never received it, but if he would send him $5 more he would send the goods. I persuaded him not. He is the meanest fellow I ever met. I hope for the sake of my fellow men that the law will be enforced. I enclose one of the bills as sample, with the ad. I remain, honored sir, yours respectfully. The post office department turned the case over to Inspectors Wood and Thiele in Minneapolis. A stop order was placed on Carr's mail, and since the correspondence was carried on under the cover of a newspaper it was not first class and therefore liable to inspection. Names of the suckers were discovered and the newspapers sent on to Carr/Davis. Gallagher's saloon was put under casual surveillance but Carr's appearance at the sa- loon was so irregular it was some time before he was appre- hended. Marshal Henry happened to be in the saloon "when he came in all out of breath, hurriedly borrowed a dollar from Gallagher, and ran out of the door without taking a couple of newspapers that were waiting for him" Henry ran after him, and with the postal inspectors, made the capture. Carr sub- mitted coolly, according to the Journal. The preliminary hearing was held on May 8 and Davis was committed to jail in lieu of bail. A grand jury indictment fol- lowed on September 7, but a century later there is nothing more in the federal court file: no bail bond, no arrest warrant, no trial record, no dismissal and no hint of a trail to follow. Newspapers said Edwin J. Davis, green-goods man, jumped bail and the $1,500 bond was forfeited. The evidence of these cases shows the post office department was determined to root out all green goods operators—anyone selling an unknown product whether counterfeit money or not. Insufficient evidence, evidence not fitting the charge and equivocal testimony did not deter prosecution for using the mails to defraud. Davis advertised money, he sent money; but because it was not the type of money the customer or the Post Office Department thought it should have been he was prosecuted. If the Fitchburg customer's complaint was that he did not re- ceive counterfeit money, could he not have been prosecuted for conspiracy to purchase counterfeit money? The Minneapolis Journal called him a "fraud," "guileless Yankee," who having been suckered, "The righteous.., man was broken hearted and justly indignant at the way he had been swindled. He was de- termined that justice should overtake the man who had at- tempted to deceive such an innocent man as himself' His only punishment was probably the scorn of his neighbors who learned of his indiscretion in exposing himself as a possible counterfeit passer for the loss of a measly ten dollars. As for Almer Simons, who was caught as a result of the Fitchburg man's sanctimonious complaint, a nearby newspaper said he had "gained an unenviable notoriety" Perhaps they, too, had to "leave the country" as Jacobs and Davis did. SOURCES: National Archives: Federal District Court Records, St. Paul and Min- neapolis. Newspapers: St. Paul Pioneer Press; St. Paul Dispatch; Minneapolis Journal; The Pioneer Express, Pembina, ND; Sanborn (ND) Enterprise. Page 114 Paper Money Whole No. 177 BENJAMIN FRANKLIN Paper Money Printer by FLORENCE FINKEL I became a paper money collector by serendipity, just six years ago, in my 69th year. I am what you might call a "book detective:" That is, I locate out-of-print books for my customers, and along the way, I find books for myself that I like to collect. One of my collecting interests is Benjamin Franklin. I have accumulated about fifty biog- raphies of this great American and am always interested in anything concerning his life. 0 NE spring day, I read an ad in the auction page of ourlocal newspaper which listed a piece of currency"signed by Benjamin Franklin:' I knew nothing about currency collecting at that time, but the idea of having a signa- ture of Franklin piqued my interest, and I made a few calls to local coin dealers. No one had heard of any currency signed by Franklin. I decided that it must be a forgery, but like most col- lectors, I am an unregenerate optimist, and I had to see that sig- nature. The next afternoon my husband, always eaager to satisfy my whims, drove me along a treacherous, winding country road to the site of the estate auction. Of course, we discovered that the bill was not signed by Franklin, but contained the words "Printed by B. Franklin and D. Hall, 1756:" In the parlance of an- tique dealers and auctioneers, who describe any printed mark on a piece of pottery or other object, such as "Wedgwood" or "Rookwood," as a "signed" piece, it was thus described. Nevertheless, I was the high bidder, and I proudly carried home my first Colonial note and became an instant currency collector. But that sent me on the quest to discover more about Franklin, the printer of some Colonial paper money. Perhaps you already know the story of how Franklin as a boy learned the printing trade, but I think it bears retelling in a paper money journal. Benjamin only had about two years of formal schooling, and when he was twelve years old, he was apprenticed to his older brother, James, who was a printer. Ben This portrait was engraved by John Eissler agreed to serve until he was twenty-one, since he loved to read, and where better to find books than in a print shop? However, there was not much time for reading, and James was a hard master. Ben managed, by a ruse, to break his contract and leave Boston, and we next find him on his celebrated walk up Market Street in Philadelphia, with two loaves of bread under his arms. Ben worked for various printers in Philadelphia, followed by a fruitless stay in England. Back to Philadelphia, he again worked for Samuel Keimer, his former employer. While he was working there, he had the opportunity to travel to Burlington, NJ, where Keimer had a contract to print some paper money. Ben designed the bills for New Jersey, built the press and cut the ornaments to decorate them. The New Jersey Assembly was pleased with his work, and he made many important friends in that colony. Not long after that, Keimer had money problems and was forced to sell his shop. Franklin bought the unsuccessful news- paper that Keimer was printing, and with some help from a col- league, he became the owner of his own printing shop, and the editor, reporter, writer and salesman of the Pennsylvania Ga- zette. Ben initiated some unusual methods to sell his papers, and one of his first efforts was to print some speeches from the Pennsylvania Assembly, distributing them to the members without charge. In two years Benjamin Franklin became the official printer for the Colony of Pennsylvania. At age twenty-four, this self-educated young man wrote a paper titled A Modest Proposal into the Nature and Necessity of a Paper Currency. His purpose, in his own words, was "to foster business generally and the economic good of the people!' Its principles were probably based on the writings of Locke and Defoe. He stated that money is only a medium of exchange, and its value is based on labor. He argued that more money was needed to foster business generally and to promote com- merce. The representatives in the Assembly supported his ideas and voted to order an emission of £30,000, which Ben was authorized to print. The profit he made on this contract started _nu (Courtesy of the New York Public Library) C OMMONLY known as the Enemy Alien Internment Camp, Weingarten Internment Camp, or just Camp Wein- garten, it was built in 1942 and 1943. On 6 May 1943 over 700 Italian prisoners of war from the campaigns in North Africa began arriving, and at one time the total reached 7,200. Newspaper reports of the time quickly showed the value the prisoners were to the surrounding community. Later in May 1943, they were utilized for emergency flood control in the St. Genevieve Levee District, and later that summer, some went to Iowa to help in the detasseling of corn. Local farmers were encouraged to request prisoner labor. Under a contractual agreement, the farmer would pay the U.S. Treasury a sum equal to each man-hour of labor required. a." Paper Money Whole No. 177 Page 115 Ben on the road to financial security and led to contracts from New Jersey and Delaware to print their money. Ben was an astute business man and made it a practice to set- up young journeymen printers in business, buying the equip- ment for them and paying one-third of the running expenses. In return, he received one-third of the net profits. He set up eight different shops in the colonies and the West Indies. In 1748 he took David Hall, his foreman, into partnership and re- tired from business to devote himself to science and his other interests, a rich man at the age of forty-three. Early Paper Money of America by Eric P. Newman affords us the opportunity of tracing the development and history of Franklin's printing of paper money. In New Jersey, the first mention of Franklin is in 1728, when he was just twenty-two years old. This was during the time he was working for Keimer when Ben evidently did all the work for the emission. Four years later, an emission was printed by William Bradford, their competitor in Philadelphia, but just four years after that Franklin is listed as the printer, and also for the next emission in 1746. By the time of the next contract, Franklin had already retired from the printing business. In Delaware, Franklin is listed as printer for all emissions from 1734 to 1746. Starting with 1753, after he had entered into partnership with David Hall, notes are listed with both names, Franklin and Hall, and continue thus until 1760. It was in Pennsylvania where Franklin had the most long- lasting experience and influence. Although he printed some issues for "small change," his first major contract was on April 10, 1731. There appears to be a long hiatus when no bills were issued until August 10, 1739. In that issue, Ben introduced "na- ture printing" where he used impressions of leaves, and that de- sign continued in use until 1776. The bills were printed in his name only until 1749, after he had formed the partnership with David Hall, and then both names appeared on the paper money for eighteen years, when Franklin's agreement with Hall expired. The successor partnership of Hall and Sellers then took over the printing. As an interesting postscript, we see an emission for the Bank of North America of August 6, 1789 for small change bills, "printed by Benjamin Franklin Bache on paper furnished by Benjamin Franklin" (Newman 314). And there is Grandpop Benjamin, at age eighty-three, still keeping his influence in the currency printing and still extending his unabashed nepotism to his namesake. I have only touched on one small aspect of Franklin's long and distinguished career, but of all his accomplishments, this is the one area in which we, as paper money collectors, should be most interested. SOURCE Cousins, M. (1952). Ben Franklin of old Philadelphia. Landmark Books. New York: Random House. Epstein, S. and B. Williams. (1952). The real book about Benjamin Franklin. Garden City, NY: Garden City Pub. Co. Fay, B. (1929). Franklin, the apostle of modern times. NY: Little, Brown & Co. Keyes, N.B. (1956). An affectionate portrait. NY: Hanover House. Life of Benjamin Franklin (The Young America's Library). (1846). Philadelphia, PA: Lindsay & Blakiston. Newman, E.P. (1976). The early paper money of America. Racine, WI: Westem Pub Co. Russell, Phillips. (1926). Benjamin Franklin, the first civilized American. NY: Brentano's. Smythe, J.H. (1929). The amazing Benjamin Franklin. NY: Frederick A. Stokes Co. Camp Weingarten, MO by BOB SCHMIDT Today it is difficult to imagine that many small commu- nities across the U.S.A. were home to prisoners of war during World War II. Weingarten, Missouri, located in St. Genevieve County about 60 miles south of St. Louis was one site. Camp scrip measures 53mm x 26mm. Examples of 5(t & lot are also known in the same format; all have blank backs. The prisoners received 80 cents per eight-hour day, payable in camp scrip. This was in addition to the $3 they received each month. Of the total amount accumulated, $10 per month could be withdrawn, again all in camp scrip. This could be used at the canteen to buy cigarettes, confections, writing paper, etc. In addition, prisoners at Weingarten Camp were permitted to purchase one bottle of beer per day. The government credited any remaining sums to the individual's account, payable upon release. On 8 September 1943, a scant four months after opening of the camp, the fall of Fascist Italy occurred. Shortly thereafter the 50,000 Italian POWs in the U.S. were reclassified as "co- beligerents." Though not released, they were given more freedom than the Japanese or German POWs. Other events in Europe and Asia, and the need for prisoner labor in other parts of the country, led to the demise of Camp Weingarten. In the fall of 1945 the camp was closed and dismantled. Hardly any- thing of Camp Weingarten remains today. SOURCES Krammer, A. (1979). Nazi POW Camps in America. New York: Stein and Day. The Farmington News. (Various issues July 17, 1942 to July 4, 1947). Farmington, Missouri. Notes From All Over JudithMurphy Page 116 Paper Money Whole No. 177 Finally, Spring, and how welcome it is. And you will be reading this in the May/June issue so it will no doubt be Spring every- where by then. Here in the South we sometimes think that the Northern part of the country stays frozen until about the first of May. I know we were concerned about driving, at the end of February, to the CPMX (sponsored by Krause Publications and managed most excellently by Kevin Foley) but, as it turned out, our fears were groundless; the weather was fine and the show was superb. Those of you who missed it should definitely plan to attend next year. Of course, as you read this we will all be making plans for Memphis. Put the SPMC breakfast on your list. This event was a lot of fun last year, and it paid for itself, between the ticket sales and the Tom Bain raffle, so outrageously produced and directed by Wendell Wolka. If you wish to contribute material for the raffle, contact Wendell, and please, make our lives just a little easier, and mail your checks for your breakfast tickets to me or any other board member, in advance. Please remember: NO TICKETS WILL BE ON SALE AT THE SHOW ADVANCE SALES ONLY (though your tickets will be delivered to you on Thursday evening). All board members are listed along with their addresses at the beginning of this magazine. Come and enjoy an hour or so of fun and fellowship and a good breakfast for only $6. We'll be looking forward to seeing you there, on Friday morning at the convention center, before the bourse opens. Please remember that the A.N.A. will be sending the ballots inside the Numismatist this year. Don't miss your chance to de- cide which direction that organization will take. You will have read about the candidates' forum held in Atlanta-1 was there and the two candidates that I endorsed in the last issue of PAPER MONEY acquitted themselves admirably. I truly believe that these two people, John Wilson and J.T. Stanton, will be a factor for change in the attitudes that have sometimes prevailed in the past. There has been enough in the numis- matic press lately so I need not reiterate here what the prob- lems have been. I will say, however, that if you wish to be part of the solution it is mandatory that you VOTE! See you in Memphis. As they say here, Y'all come. Judith New Board Members Once again only four SPMC members came forward when there was a call for candidates for the SPMC Board of Governors. They are Raphael Ellenbogen, Dean Oakes, Steve Whitfield and Wendell Wolka. Secretary Bob Cochran will cast the necessary vote to legitimize the election. The SPMC will save money by not having ballots printed and mailed. However, the SPMC would have looked better if a ballot with more than four names had been presented to the membership. In this instance participation, rather than thrift, would have been preferred. Please see "Please Read" in PAPER MONEY No. 164, page 73 and get involved. If the handful of members who "carry" your organization de- cide not to continue, who will? THE ANSWER MAN (Bob Cochran) Member D. of Kentucky writes: "I have purchased a Colonial Note, 2/9 of a Dollar, 1774 Maryland. Do you have any books on this note, or do you know of any person who can help me learn about this odd denomination— 2/9 of $1.00'.' ANSWER: Yes, and Yes. The standard reference for Con- tinental and Colonial Currency is The Early Paper Money of America by Eric P. Newman. There are three editions of this wonderful work, the latest published by Krause Publications of Iola, Wisconsin, a couple of years ago. I use the 1976 edition, but the information should suffice. As stated on Mr. D's note itself, the bearer of the note is enti- tled "to receive Bills of Exchange payable in London, or Gold and Silver, at the Rate of Four Shillings and Six-pence Sterling per Dollar ... The Colonists used both the Dollar and the Pound in their monetary transactions. The Dollar was comprised of "8 Bits',' and the Pound was divisible into Shillings and Pence (Cents). So the exchange rate in the English system was printed on this note, to facilitate its use. At the note's stated exchange rate, 2/9 of a Dollar was equivalent to 1 Shilling. IThe Early Paper Money of America, by Eric P. Newman. Copyright 1976, Western Pub- lishing Company, Racine, Wisconsin. P. 1331 Mr. D. had another question: "I have a friend who collects (vignettes of?) Angels. We noticed an angel on the $5 Educa- tional note, but I have not been able to find any reference to the angel in any of my books. Can you be of help?" ANSWER: Yes. The standard reference that The Answer Man uses is The Comprehensive Catalog of U.S. Paper Money, by Gene Hessler. Of the several similar publications available, Mr. Hessler's book is the best-arranged and provides, by far, more information than do the others. Page 125 of the 1992 (5th) Edition provides illustrations of the original painting by Walter Shirlaw used as the model for the $5 Silver Certificates Series of 1896, popularly known as one of the "Educational Notes:' Also illustrated are the face and back of the issued design. The "angel" Mr. D. refers to is the vignette in the upper center on the back of the note. In the margin next to the illustration, Mr. Hessler states: '7.F. Morris designed the back; the female head, which greatly resembles the designer's wife, was engraved by G.F.C. Smillie' Obviously, Mr. Hessler traced down a refer- ence to the similarity of the image of the "angel" to Mrs. Morris. [The Comprehensive Catalog of U.S. Paper Money (Fifth Edition), by Gene Hessler. Copyright 1992, BNR Press, Port Clinton, Ohio. P. 125). If anyone would like to read about a woman who appeared on U.S. currency, but who was definitely NOT an "angel," please see the article by Gene Hessler in PAPER MONEY, November/De- cember 1991, pp. 188-191. PLEASE READ See Notes From All Over, on this page, for information regarding the SPMC breakfast in Memphis. Paper Money Whole No. 177 Page 117 RARE CURRENCY COLLECTION TO COLONIAL WILLIAMSBURG Mr. Joseph Lasser of New York has enhanced Colonial Wil- liamsburg's holdings of primary research materials by donating his colonial and Continental Currency notes, which are among the largest privately owned holdings. "This is one of the most extensive collections of colonial cur- rency in this country;' said John Caramia, Colonial Williams- burg's assistant director of historic trades. "It is an excellent study collection that adds another aspect of learning about 18th-century Virginia and other colonies. It has a great deal of educational value" "I've wanted the collection to be used as a research and teaching resource, not only for exhibition," Lasser explained. "I believe Colonial Williamsburg is the best place for the collec- tion because it will be used as extensively as possible in the fu- ture and will not be restricted to limited purposes!' ANA To Offer U.S. Paper Money Course at 1995 Summer Seminar For the first time at its annual summer seminar, the American Numismatic Association will offer a course on U.S. Paper Money at ANA headquarters in Colorado Springs, July 8-14, 1995. The course instructors will be author and PAPER MONEY editor Gene Hessler and Maryland currency dealer and paper money expert Mark Hotz. The course will cover all areas of fed- eral currency: large- and small-size. There will be special em- phasis on national currency due to the large variety of notes and the many interesting collecting aspects of this fascinating category. Grading, market conditions and investment tips will be cov- ered. In addition, the designs and the engravers who created the notes will be discussed. The course will offer unique insight into the history of our federal currency that only an interactive course such as this can offer. Besides slide presentations, students will have the opportu- nity to examine the fantastic Bebee collection at the ANA Museum. If time permits, U.S. obsolete and Confederate cur- rency will also be discussed. The summer seminar takes place on the campus of Colorado College, next to the ANA. The tuition of $399 covers the course fee, accommodations at Colorado College and three daily meals. Optional attractions include trips to Pikes Peak and Cripple Creek. A graduation ceremony and banquet complete the five days. For a detailed brochure write to: ANA Education Dept., 818 North Cascade Avenue, Colorado Springs, CO 80903-3279 or call (719) 632-2646 or FAX (719) 634-4085. CONSIDER donating a subscription of PAPER MONEY to your college alma mater, local historical society or library. NEW LOCAL CURRENCY The Valley Trade Connection in Greenfield, MA has joined Boulder, CO, Ithaca, NY, Santa Fe, NM and Halifax, Nova Scotia to issue local currency. Valley Dollars, in denominations of $1, $5, $10 and $20 are accepted by over 100 participating merchants. They circulate on a par with U.S. dollars. 'The government even encourages local currencies to add vitality to local economies" (Hampshire Gazette, 6 March 1995). These multi-colored scrip notes, each with a different back de- sign, are being offered to collectors in the form of specimen sheets of four notes: one of each denomination. The sheets are mailed with a protective insert. Interested collectors should send $12.50 plus $2.50 (for shipping and handling) to: Valley Trade Connections, c/o Franklin County Community Develop- ment Corp., 324 Wells St., Greenfield, MA 01301-1628. Discovery Note A Russo-Asiatic Bank $1 note issued in Hankow with an un- recorded overprint on a Russo-Chinese note from Tientsin, dis- covered in a Los Angeles book store by Andy Lustig, was announced and shown to the public by Ron Gillio at the Singa- pore International Coin Convention in February. This rarity and about 200 other notes, including a 10 yuan PS255, $10 PS2938 and 30 coppers PS597A were in the pages of a book of essays written by and that once belonged to Chinese coin and currency specialist, cataloger and author Eduard Kann. (Donn Pearlman Productions) SPMC Annual Awards The 1994 SPMC Awards will be presented at the Inter- national Paper Money Show in Memphis, Tennessee, in June 1994, as follows: 1. Nathan Gold Memorial Award. Established and for- merly (1961-1970) presented by Numismatic News, now by the Bank Note Reporter. Presented to a person who has made a concrete contribution toward the ad- vancement of paper money collecting. Recipients, who need not be members of the SPMC, are chosen by the Awards Committee. 2. Award of Merit. For SPMC member (or members) who, during the previous year, rendered significant contributions to the Society which bring credit to the Society. May be awarded to the same person in different years for different contributions. Recipients to be chosen by the Awards Committee. 3. Literary Awards. First, second and third places. Awarded to SPMC members for articles published originally in Paper Money during the calendar year preceding the annual meeting of the Society. A. An Awards Committee member is not eligible for these awards if voted on while he is on the com- mittee. B. Serial articles are to be considered in the year of conclusion, except in case the article is a continua- tion of a related series on different subjects; these to be considered as separate articles. C. Suggested operating procedures: The Awards Committee chairman will supply each committee member with a copy of the guidelines for making awards. Using the grading factors and scoring points which follow, each member will make his selection of the five best articles published in the preceding year, listing them in order of preference. The lists will be tabulated by the chairman and the winners chosen. A second ballot will be used to break any ties. D. Grading factors and scoring points: a. Readability and interest—Is the article interest- ingly written? (20 points) Is it understandable to someone who is not a specialist in the field? (10 points) Would you study the article rather than just scan through it? (10 points) b. Numismatic information covered—In your opinion, will the article be used by future students as a reference source? (20 points) Has the author documented and cross referenced his source ma- terial? Give credit for original research and depth of study. (20 points) Is the subject a new one, not previously researched, or a rehash? If it presents a new slant on an old subject, give proper credit. (20 points) The Dr. Glenn Jackson Memorial Award will be presented, if someone qualifies. This award, open to any author in any numismatic publication, is for an outstanding ar- ticle about bank note essais, proofs, specimens and the engravers who created them. This award, when presented, consists of a certificate, which includes an en- graving by American Bank Note Co. The Julian Blanchard Memorial Exhibit Award will be awarded for the outstanding exhibit of bank note essais, proofs and specimens, including the possible relation- ship to stamps. The SPMC Best of Show Award is given for an outstanding exhibit on any paper money-related subject. BUYING AND SELLING Obsolete—Confederate STOCKS & BONDS Continental—Colonial Large Price List 19th Century Stocks-Bonds Over 200 Different Small or Large Collections Mostly 19th Century Send List or Ship (305) 853-0105 Railroads, Mining, etc. SPMC Richard T. Hoober, Jr. P.O. Box 3116, Key Largo, FL 33037 Page 118 Paper Money Whole No. 177 01W ltfiliI:NP1R174).:1A01;141/.5', ------ "A Distinguished Member of the Humane Socie Book itt Series ABOUT VIGNETTES by Roger H. Durand Many of the great works of art were named by the artists who created them or the people who commissioned them. Several vignettes that were used on Obsolete Bank Notes & scrip were also named by the engravers who created them. In fact, several vignettes were taken from the paintings of artists such as Sir Edwin Landseer, F.O.C. Darley, and many others equally as fa- mous. This book records and illustrates the named engravers that appear on notes and scrip, the engravers & the artist who painted the original painting when known. A refund if you are not satisfied for any reason. $22.95 pp Order from your favorite dealer or from the author: P.O. Box 186 ROGER H. DURAND Rehoboth, MA 02769 More Cash for your Cash WISCONSIN NATIONAL BANK NOTES WANTED C. Keith Edison PO. Box 26 Mondovi, Wisconsin 54755-0026 (715) 926-5001 FAX (715) 926-5043 Paper Money Whole No. 177 Page 119 In Memoriam Long-time member Harold E. Helm (3596) of Oshkosh, Wisconsin, passed away on December 19, 1994. He was 67. According to The Numismatist, he was a collector and numismatic author who specialized in Oshkosh, Wis- consin tokens and memorabilia. Mr. Helm also enjoyed tracing genealogies. He was a former president of the Numismatists of Wisconsin, as well as serving on the board of NOW; he was a member of the Oshkosh Coin Club and the Central States Numismatic Society. Mr. Helm earned several awards from the Wisconsin Numis- matic Writers Association. mongy mart Paper Money will accept classified advertising from members only on a basis of 154 per word, with a minimum charge of $3.75. The primary purpose of the ads is to assist members in exchanging, buying, selling, or locating specialized mate- rial and disposing of duplicates. Copy must be non-commercial in nature. Copy must be legibly printed or typed, accompanied by prepayment made payable to the Society of Paper Money Collectors, and reach the Editor, Gene Hessler, P.O. Box 8147, St. Louis, MO 63156 by the first of the month preceding the month of issue (i.e. Dec. 1 for Jan./Feb. issue). Word count: Name and address will count as five words. All other words and abbreviations, figure combinations and initials count as separate. No check copies. 10% discount for four or more insertions of the same copy. Sample ad and word count. WANTED: CONFEDERATE FACSIMILES by Upham for cash or trade for FRN block letters, $1 SC, U.S. obsolete. John W. Member, 000 Last St., New York, N.Y. 10015. (22 words: $2: SC: U.S.: FRN counted as one word each) OLD STOCK CERTIFICATES! Catalog plus 3 beautiful certificates $4.95. Also buy! Ken Prag, Box 531PM, Burlingame, Calif 94011. Phone (415) 566-6400. (182) OHIO NATIONALS WANTED. Send list of any you have. Also want Lowell, Tyler, Ryan, Jordan, O'Neill. Lowell Yoder, P.O.B. 444, Holland, OH 43528, 419-865-5115. (185) NEW JERSEY—MONMOUTH COUNTY obsolete bank notes and script wanted by serious collector for research and exhibition. Seeking issues from Freehold, Monmouth Bank, Middletown Point, Howell Works, Keyport, Long Branch, and S.W. & W.A. Torrey-Manchester. Also Ocean Grove National Bank and Jersey Shore memorabilia. N.B. Buckman, P.O. Box 608, Ocean Grove, NJ 07756. 1-800-533-6163. (185) NEW ADDRESS FOR PERIODIC PRICE LISTS: U.S., CSA, OBSO- LETED, STOCKS, FRN, MPC, JIM, WWII, GUERRILLA, WORLD, NOT- GELD, STAMPS, FDC, COINS, CHITS. 52t SASE APPRECIATED. 702-753-2435. HOFFMAN, BOX 6039-S, ELKO, NEVADA 89802-6039. (180) WANTED: TEXAS NATIONALS, especially Hickman-Oakes R4-6, large or small, all grades. Please send list with prices to Roger Moulton, 3707 Waltham Ct., Yardley, PA 19067. (178) WANTED: EDINBORO, Penna the FNB of Edinboro Ch. #7312. Hal Blount, 535 Autumn Oak Dr., Baton Rouge, LA 70810 or 504-756-5583 after 9 p.m. or leave message. (179) WANTED: NEW YORK FOR PERSONAL COLLECTION. TARRY- TOWN 364 & 2626, MOUNT VERNON 8516 & 5271, MAMARONECK 5411 & 13592, Rye, Mt. Kisco, Hastings, Croton on Hudson, Sommers, Harrison, Sing Sing, Ossining, White Plains, Irvington, Bronxville, Ardsley, Crestwood, New Rochelle, Elmsford, Scarsdale, Larchmont, Portchester, Tuckahoe, Mt. Vernon, Peekskill, Pelham, Hartsdale, Chappaqua. Send photocopy, price: Frank Levitan, 4 Crest Ave., Larch- mont, N.Y. 10538-1311, 914-834-6249. (187) LEBANON WANTED. Private collector pays top prices for paper money from Lebanon in any condition. Also buying worldwide paper money. Please contact: MHH, 6295 River Run Place, Orlando, FL 32807 USA. (182) WANTED: ORIGINAL ART used for Bank note engravings. John Jackson, P.O. Box 4629, Warren, NJ 07059, 908-604-4841. (A) WHITEHALL, NEW YORK MATERIAL WANTED FOR PERSONAL COLLECTION. Looking for any material pertaining to Whitehall, New York including nationals, obsoletes, city scrip, private scrip, advertising notes, bank histories, etc. Jeff Sullivan, P.O.B. 895, Manchester, MO 63011. Rare Kirtland, Ohio $100 Important Historical Mormon Issue 77'18.1/r FitrAtil 533 Kirtland, Ohio, The Kirtland Safety So- ciety Bank, OH-245. $100. Haxby. G-18. EF. Dated July 4, 1837. Serial: 113. Made payable to Joseph Smith. Signed by War- ren Parrish as cashier and Frederick G. Williams as President. The central vi- gnette features the signing of the Decla- ration of Independence. The writer Alvin E. Rust described the issues of this bank as the first Mormon currency endeav- our." Very rare denomination. It111/1111M11171RINIA141$