Paper Money - Vol. XXXVII, No. 2 - Whole No. 194 - March - April 1998

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VVOL. XXXVII No. 2 WHOLE No. 194 MAR/APR 1998 vv.", 710, ., Int-e;;111.1. . • it J . , t.,-THE ST 1.TE OF FLORIDA DOLLARS. A,"" 4/1; I • t f RI ft AT 447///` ///, it kti:441" stivrtri.t: What's The Best Way To Sell Your Paper Money Collection? The best way to sell your collection is to consign it to someone you trust. Your currency collection probably took years to acquire. Each purchase was thoughtfully considered, each note carefully stored, and handled with respect. The sale of your collection should be accomplished in the same manner. Carefully, and thoughtfully. At Smythe, we care about our consignors, our bidders, and our staff members. We don't mis-grade your lots, or sell them long after midnight, or during convention hours. We strongly support the show organizers and local clubs that work hard to make paper money shows successful, and we are proud that we have consistently been selected as one of the Official Auctioneers of the Memphis International Paper Money Show. We illustrate every major note, using boxes or color where appropriate. Each note is carefully graded and researched by our nationally recognized, full-time paper money experts. Our rates are flexible and highly competitive. There are no lot charges, photo charges or minimum charges on Federal Currency. If you are thinking of selling, take advantage of the strongest currency market we have seen in years, and take this opportunity to showcase your better single items, or your entire collection, in the next R. M. Smythe auction. 1997 -1998 Auction Schedule December 11, 1997. Coins, Tokens, Medals and Related Items. Accepting consignments through November 1, 1997. January 23-24, 1998. Stocks, Bonds and Related Items. Official Auctioneers for the Eleventh Annual Strasburg Stock and Bond Show. Accepting consignments through December 8, 1997. February 21, 1998. Currency, Stocks & Bonds. Official Auctioneers for the Chicago Paper Money Exchange. Accepting consignments through January 5, 1998. June 19-20, 1998. Paper Money, Stocks & Bonds. Official Auctioneers for the Memphis International Paper Money Show & Auction. Accepting consignments through May 5, 1998. To Consign, please call Stephen Goldsmith at 800-622-1880 or 212-943-1880. To Subscribe: Only subscribers can be fully assured of receiving our fully-illustrated thoroughly-researched catalogues. Do you need to check on the status of your subscription? Call Marie Alberti or Mary Herzog at 800-622-1880 or 212-943-1880. A one year subscription to all RMS catalogues is $70 ($100 overseas). Other subscription plans are available. Call today. See Us At Close To 40 Shows This Year! We will be planning to attend almost every major numismatic show, represented by Stephen Goldsmith, Lucien Birkler, Bruce Hagen, Dr. Douglas Ball or Martin Gengerke. If necessary, we will travel to see your collection. Call 800-622-1880 for further information. Stephen Goldsmith Bruce Hagen members .M.SMVM E MEMBER 26 Broadway, Suite 271, New York, NY 10004-1701 SOCIETY OF PAPER MONEY COLLECTORS INC. PAPER MONEY is published every other month beginning in January by The Society of Paper Money Collectors. Second class postage paid at Dover, DE 19901. Postmaster send address changes to: Bob Cochran, Secretary, P.O. Box 1085, Florissant, MO 63031. © Society of Paper Money Collectors, Inc., 1998. All rights reserved. Reproduction of any article, in whole or in part, without express written permission, is prohibited. Individual copies of this issue of PAPER MONEY are available from the Secretary for $2.75 each plus $1 postage. Five or more copies are sent postage free. ADVERTISING RATES SPACE 1 TIME 3 TIMES 6 TIMES Outside Back Cover $152 $420 $825 Inside Front & Back Cover $145 $405 $798 Full Page $140 $395 $775 Half-page $75 $200 $390 Quarter-page $38 $105 $198 Eighth-page $20 $55 $105 To keep rates at a minimum, advertising must be prepaid in advance according to the above sched- ule. In exceptional cases where special artwork or extra typing are required, the advertiser will be notified and billed extra for them accordingly. Rates are not commissionable. Proofs are not supplied. Deadline: Copy must be in the editorial office no later than the 1st of the month preceding issue (e.g., Feb. 1 for March/April issue). With advance notice, camera-ready copy will be ac- cepted up to three weeks later. Mechanical Requirements: Full page 42-57 pi- cas; half-page may be either vertical or horizon- tal in format. Single column width, 20 picas. Halftones acceptable, but not mats or stereos. Page position may be requested but cannot be guaranteed. Advertising copy shall be restricted to paper currency and allied numismatic material and publications and accessories related thereto. SPMC does not guarantee advertisements but accepts copy in good faith, reserving the right to reject objectionable material or edit any copy. SPMC assumes no financial responsibility for typographical errors in advertisements, but agrees to reprint that portion of an advertisement in which typographical error should occur upon prompt notification of such error. All advertising copy and correspondence should be sent to the Editor. Paper Money Whole No. 194 Page 41 Official Bimonthly Publication of The Society of Paper Money Collectors, Inc. Vol. XXXVII No. 2 Whole No. 194 MAR/APR 1998 ISSN 0031-1162 GENE HESSLER, Editor, P.O. Box 31144, Cincinnati, OH 45231 Manuscripts (mss), not under consideration elsewhere, and publications for review should be sent to the Editor. Accepted MSS will be published as soon as possible; however, publication in a specific issue cannot be guaranteed. Opinions expressed by authors do not necessarily reflect those of the SPMC. Mss are to be typed on one side only, double-spaced with at least one-inch margins. A copy should be retained by the author. The author's name, address and telephone number should appear on the first page. In addition, although it is not required, you are encouraged to submit a copy on a 31/2 or 5 1/2 inch MS DOS disk, identified with the name and version of software used: Microsoft Word, Word Perfect or text (ASCII), etc. If disk is submitted, double-spaced printout must accompany disk. IN THIS ISSUE POST CHECK NOTES Forrest W. Daniel 43 WORLD PAPER MONEY DEPICTING TREES Mohamad H. Hussein 47 CIVIL WAR BLOCKADE LEADS TO A CURRENCY VARIETY Benny Bolin 52 THE PAPER COLUMN Peter Huntoon 54 "ARMY BANK HERE ROBBED THIS EVENING" Steve Whitfield 56 ABOUT TEXAS MOSTLY Frank Clark 59 THE GREEN GOODS GAME Forrest W. Daniel 60 WHAT THE DEUCE! Charles A. Dean and Don C. Kelly 61 SO IT WAS FROM NEW YORK CITY AFTER ALL Stephen M. Goldberg 67 BANK HAPPENINGS Bob Cochran 67 UNDERWOOD'S COUNTERFEIT DETECTOR EXCERPTS .... 68 THE BUCK STARTS HERE Gene Hessler 69 OKLAHOMA BANKING TIDBITS 70 SOCIETY FEATURES THE PRESIDENTS COLUMN 71 IN MEMORIAM: CHARLES COLVER 71 NEW MEMBERS 72 MONEY MART 72 For change of address, inquiries concerning non-delivery of PAPER MONEY and for additional copies of this issue contact the Secretary; the address is on the next page. ON THE COVER. Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands abdicated in 1948 in favor of her daughter Juliana. This portrait on notes dated 1943 was engraved by William F. Ford. SOCIETY OF PAPER MONEY COLLECTORS OFFICERS PRESIDENT ROBERT COCHRAN, P.O. Box 1085, Florissant, MO 63031 VICE-PRESIDENT FRANK CLARK, P.O. Box 117060, Carrollton, TX 75011 SECRETARY TO BE APPOINTED. TREASURER MARK ANDERSON, 400 Court St., #1, Brooklyn, NY 11231 APPOINTEES EDITOR GENE HESSLER, P.O. Box 31144, Cincinnati, OH 45231 MEMBERSHIP DIRECTOR FRANK CLARK, P.O. Box 117060, Carrollton, TX 75011 WISMER BOOK PROJECT STEVEN K. WHITFIELD, 14092 W. 115th St., Olathe, KS 66062 LEGAL COUNSEL ROBERT J. GALIETTE, 3 Teal Lane, Essex, CT 06246 LIBRARIAN ROGER H. DURAND, P.O. Box 186, Rehoboth, MA 02769 PAST-PRESIDENT DEAN OAKES, Drawer 1456, Iowa City, IA 52240 COORDINATOR: 1929-1935 OVERPRINTED NATIONAL CURRENCY PROJECT FRANK BENNETT, P.O. Box 8722, Port St. Lucie, FL 34985 BOARD OF GOVERNORS RAPHAEL ELLENBOGEN, 1840 Harwitch Rd., Upper Arlington, OH 43221 GENE HESSLER, P.O. Box 31144, Cincinnati, OH 45231 RON HORSTMAN, 5010 Timber Lane, Gerald, MO 63037 MILTON R. FRIEDBERG, 8803 Brecksville Rd. #7-203, Brecksville, 01-1 44141-1933 JUDITH MURPHY, P.O. Box 24056, Winston Salem, NC 27114 STEPHEN TAYLOR, 70 West View Avenue, Dover, DE 19901 WENDELL W. WOLKA, P.O. Box 569, Dublin, OH 43017 STEVEN K. WHITFIELD, 14092 W. 115th St., Olathe, KS 66062 The Society of Paper Money Collectors was organized in 1961 and incorporated in 1964 as a non-profit or- ganization under the laws of the District of Columbia. It is affiliated with the American Numismatic Associa- tion. The annual meeting is held at the Memphis IPMS in June. MEMBERSHIP—REGULAR and LIFE. Applicants must be at least 18 years of age and of good moral character. JUNIOR. Applicants must be from 12 to 18 years of age and of good moral character. Their application must be signed by a parent or guardian. They will be preceded by the letter "j". This letter will be removed upon notifica- tion to the secretary that the member has reached 18 years of age. Junior members are not eligible to hold office or vote. Members of the ANA or other recognized numismatic societies are eligible for membership. Other applicants should be sponsored by an SMPC member or provide suitable references. DUES—Annual dues are $24. Members in Canada and Mexico should add $5 to cover additional postage; members throughout the rest of the world add $10. Life membership, payable in installments within one year, is $500. Members who join the Society prior to Oct. 1st receive the magazines already issued in the year in which they join. Members who join after Oct. 1st will have their dues paid through December of the following year. They will also receive, as a bonus, a copy of the magazine issued in November of the year in which they joined. BUYING and SELLING CSA and Obsolete Notes CSA Bonds, Stocks & Financial Items 60-Page Catalog for $5.00 Refundable With Order HUGH SHULL ANA-LM SCNA PCDA CHARTER MBR. P.O. Box 761, Camden, SC 29020 (803) 432-8500 FAX 803-432-9958 SPMC-LM 6 BRNA FUN Page 42 Paper Money Whole No. 194 HE fractional currency of the Civil War was discontinued in anticipation of resumption of specie payment on Janu- ary 1, 1879. Postal notes were inaugurated in 1883 to provide a convenient low-cost method to remit amounts less than five dollars without using the complicated process of postal money orders. Then, in anticipation of discontinuance of postal notes on June 30, 1894, public agitation for the return of fractional currency began in 1893. In May newspapers reported the possibility of a new form of postal notes that could be made payable for any value from one cent to $3 by tearing the edge of an indented form to the proper value of dollars, dimes and cents. The cost of the note was pro- posed to be one percent of the value. No writing by the postmas- ter was needed but the sender was required to endorse the scrip like any check or draft. That form was not adopted. In September the St. Paul Pioneer Press newspaper described a postal currency bill introduced by Senator James Henderson Kyle (Ind.) of South Dakota. Although claiming to have suggested a similar bill several years earlier, the Pioneer Press said it was so seldom "a Populist is guilty of a lapse into common sense that when the thing does happen he ought to have full credit for it." T Paper Money Whole No. 194 Page 43 POST CHECK NOTES Double-Duty Convertible Currency By FORREST W. DANIEL Surely the most intriguing proposal for a form of currency convenient for sending money through the mail was the Post Check. Post Checks were in- tended to replace the discontinued fractional cur- rency and postal notes. The virtue of the instrument was studied carefully by the U S. Treasury and Post Office Departments for several years but the inno- vation failed to receive Congressional approval. Even the name is confusing: the word "Post" did not indicate a post note of the state-bank-era type; it did not relate to the post office department, al- though that department would have redeemed the bills and one newspaper headline called it a "postal check"; it was not a post-dated check although a prototype was called a "Post Cheque," and in much of the publicity post-note was hyphenated. The concept was devised by Charles W. Post, and, while he was an active lobbiest for the plan, his name rarely appears in the publicity as the Post in the Post Check note. The essential ingredient was a currency note of low denomination which could be converted into a personal draft drawn on the United States government and cashable at any bank or post office. The bill called for a postal fractional currency in denomi- nations of five, ten, twenty-five, fifty and seventy-five cents; the currency would be issued by the postmaster general and supplied to post offices according to their needs. The notes would be legal tender for sums under one dollar and fur- nished without charge to the applicant and redeemable in lawful money at any post office. Counterfeiting penalties for government bills would apply. The newspaper said the addition of a one-cent bill and a provision that the bills be returned to the post office department for destruction as soon as they were redeemed would "cover the case exactly." Since the government supplied the people with other money without charge for paper and printing, the newspa- per added, it seemed logical they should provide a currency suitable for transmission of small sums through the mail. The time was especially favorable: the mail-order business was beginning to be a major force in American commerce and inauguration of Rural Free Delivery and parcel post service brought U.S. mail delivery to nearly all farm pa- trons. (In a later pamphlet C. W. Post "estimated that up- ward of two billion dollars a year are sent through the mail, .. largely made up of postage stamps, loose money, coins, money orders and little checks on inland banks.") To have the notes issued from the post office to fill the im- mediate need for small sums of cash to mail, and redemp- tion by the receiving post office would keep them from general circulation, the newspaper added. It was a conve- nience much desired but the proposal died when it failed to receive Congressional approval. His business background included sales, advertising and real estate development as well as being the in- venter of farm machinery, men's sus- penders, possum, grape-nuts and other breakfast cereals . C.W. Post began in 1896 to design a currency that would replace the inconvenience of stuck-together postage stamps received and the coins lost from envelopes in transit. His business background included sales, advertising and real estate development as well as being the inventer of farm machinery, men's suspenders, possum, grape-nuts and other breakfast cereals; he was a man of many interests. By 1901 the idea for the Post Check had come together, a patent was received and exclusive rights to his Post Check plan were offered to the government without any charge except that the title "Post Check" be retained. A proposal to implement the DOLLARS CITY SENDER or', A POSTAGE SIAM HERE THIS SAMPLE Is printed to Illastrate the Post Cheque Systent Any Attempt to nee/i this this slip as money/ stabled the fender to the pen- alties prescribed I/ the IL S. Statutes, PAY TO CITY STATE OATS SENT SY STATE O il ANa 5,011 NAME 'ACRose. -.I 70 CANCCI. , B 14965436 * RECO PAY' 4,„r WAN" ,VIMXitv, The sketch presents, in a rude form, Port Cheque Money. It is prOporied to engrave the inns in the highest style of the art known to the National Bureau of Engraving and Printing. THIS SAMPLE Is printed to illustrate the Post Check Sys- tem. Any attempt ,/i to use this slip as A money' Will sub- ject the offender , to thepdnalties prescribed by the s.._;.(7. S. Statutes, 3tIKOVIIPKIS- - PU9Ttralit • PAYABLE TO THE PAYEE NAMED OEM" PAYABLE TO BEARER WREN TOE FOLLOWING ] SPACES AeE UNFILLED. B 149654-30 * All st,e, sc., and ,j.. bills Acfeafter issm,1 oy tne Groerroneut tfoo rootage dank spaces to permit a enange or money no° cbceb, 0 the McMillan-1,nm Post Cheek Bill non bere Congress. This rude sketch scenes to convey the idea. — Paper Money Whole No. 194Page 44 Prototype $2 Post Cheque as illustrated in an 1899 pamphlet published by C. W. Post. (Courtesy Archives Department, Kraft General Foods.) POST CHEQUE re, 67 DAV, Filled in example of the 50-cent Post Cheque, including the postal fee stamp, from the 1899 booklet. (Courtesy Archives Department, Kraft General Foods.) withdrawn and replaced with a currency redesigned with ruled lines on the face whereon to write the name and address of a payee and a space for the signature of the sender. In effect, a circulating currency note could be convened into a draft on the federal government to pay the face value to the named payee for the fee of a two-cent postage stamp pasted on the note and cancelled with the sender's signature. Currency bills of fifty, twenty-five, fifteen, ten and five cents also were sug- gested, with a one-cent stamp fee. Because of the smaller size of fractional-value checks, spaces for the name and address of the sender were placed on the back. National associations of newspapers, manufacturers, ad- vertisers and hundreds of business houses were enthusiastic in their endorsement of the plan when it was publicized in newspapers. Strong opposition came from express companies that issued money orders, retail grocery associations (grocer- The sample $2 Post Check of 1900 was very likely suppressed because it reproduced the current Treasury Seal. (Courtesy Archives Department, Kraft General Foods.) system was first introduced into Congress as the MacMillan- Gardner Post-Check Bill. It provided that all government-issue $1, $2 and $5 bills, other than national bank notes, should be ies were available from mail order houses) and some banking associations. The initial bill failed. Post moved to Washington personally to publicize and TAPPABLE TO TOR PAYEE NAMED IKEREON, PAYABLE. TO BEARER II TOE SPACES ARE NOT WILLED. Paper Money Whole No. 194 Page 45 advocate Post Check currency. He published several pamphlets which described the scheme in detail and reprinted favorable articles and endorsements. Full currency-size illustrations de- pict the development of design suggestions for $2 and 50-cent values. The call was for money safe to send by mail; Post said the demand came from farmers, merchants, magazine and book publishers, newspapers, manufacturers and private citi- zens; all classes of firms and individuals either sent or received money through the mail. Since fewer than had of the post offices issued money orders, it was inconven- ient for many people who needed the service to make a special trip to a town with a money order office. Since fewer than half of the post offices issued money or- ders, it was inconvenient for many people who needed the service to make a special trip to a town with a money order office. When they did, fees began at three cents for up to $2.50, five cents up to $5, advancing in steps to thirty cents for a $75 to $100 money order. In 1902 the average money order fee was 6.02 cents, up from 5.92 in 1900, three cents of the fee was paid as commission to the issuing postmaster. To save the money order fee (and in some cases to spite the postmaster) many people, even as late as the 1930s, used postage stamps to pay for orders to mail order houses. Post said one large publisher in Chicago received upwards of $350,000 per year in postage stamps alone. Through the Post Check system the post office department would have received the entire Post Check fee; and, since there would be no postmaster commis- sion, great increase in postal revenue could be expected. Of the estimated $2 billion in small sums sent through the mails annually, only a tenth or twentieth part was paid in money orders. Small personal checks, too, were inconvenient; they required an exchange fee of from ten to twenty-five cents— often more than a money order fee. Only after exchange-free check clearance was instituted by the Federal Reserve System did personal checks became a major method of transferring funds. * Unfilled-in sample 50-cent note from 1900 pamphlet, calls for a $25 for misuse. A fee stamp was illustrated on the completed example but not on the later samples. (Courtesy Archives Department, Kraft General Foods.) Post Check notes offered convenience, economy, safety and cleaner currency in circulation. It was estimated by Post that fees on small mail remittances would yield an increase in rev- enue, lower costs of clerk hire and supplies and pay the cost of reprinting notes used in remittances. For several years bill after bill to authorize Post Check cur- rency was introduced in Congress, and when action on each was suppressed Post took a personal hand in lobbying for the proposal. C.W. Post established legal residence in Washing- ton, DC in 1902 and his office became a listening post for political and industrial interests and union opposition, as well as for promotion of Post Check currency. The novel currency idea received broad and favorable ac- ceptance; even the House Committee on the Post-Office and Post-Roads's twenty-five-page Report No. 3662, "Post-Check Notes," dated February 7, 1903, was most laudatory. It repeated and expanded the publicity printed by Post and listed officials of the Treasury and Post Office Departments who endorsed the bill. It contains three pages of "Answers to Objections to Original Bill Corrected in the Present"; and a small-type page by H.A. Castle, auditor for the post office department, describes the complicated method of processing and handling postal money orders and said any method of easing the work would be welcome. An appendix included Post's assignment of the invention to the government, endorsements from nearly a hundred businesses and fraternal organizations, and selections from editorials in fifty-three newspapers. Annual reports of the Post Office Department in 1902 and 1903 included sec- tions endorsing Post Check notes. Senator Platt proved to have a vested interest in defeating the proposal—he was president of the U.S. Express Com- pany which operated a money order business and had a special concession at the Treasury Department. In spite of acceptance of the proposal by the federal agen- cies, which would administer the notes, Congress refused to act on the bill. Post began a personal investigation to deter- mine the source of such strong opposition in Congress. He discovered that long before Senator Thomas Collier Platt (Rep.) of New York openly took a stand against Post Check notes, he had worked behind the scenes to assure that Con- gress would adjourn before any of the many sponsoring bills were brought out of committee. Senator Platt proved to have a vested interest in defeating the proposal—he was presi- dent of the U.S. Express Company which operated a money order business and had a special concession at the Treasury Department. Post called for Platt's ouster. Post's investiga- tion unearthed unsavory conditions in several departments of government and exposed many of them in paid newspa- per advertisements in 1905. Post was one of the first activ- ists to purchase newspaper space to express personal opinions on controversial national subjects, and an early crusade was for Post Check notes. While Post was unsuccessful in his attempt to unseat Sena- tor Platt, his charges were later substantiated when a jilted lady IPAYAOLE TO TOEMESE NAMEILEELREOS; SAVABLE TO IICADVE" WIDEN TOE FOLLOWING SPACES ARE. UNFILLED. THIS SAMPLE Is printed to illustrate the Post Check Sys- tem. Any attempt to use this slip as money will sub- ject the offender ( to the penalties prescribed by the U. S. Statutes. 814465430 * 25U ofis%mitok USUAL GOVERNMENT SEAL WILL APPEAR RERE. All $1.110. pow. and $0.01 bill. hereafter IPAlled by the Government to OW.. It blank spat, to permit n change of money into a check, 1- the dint ut ihe• Mc Ilillittollardenr Pont t 'beck 1511 non before Collate., This rule sketch serves to convey the idea. • POST CURRENCY TO BE CONSIDERED BY GOVERNMENT COMMISSION. Oto, r ors. limatftv AL:A010-2.04"' PUST4CHECK (.45!jr.-3--li;'1.#11:‘,1$;141 4011111INCIIK PAYABLE TO TOE PAYEE NAMED REDDEN, PAYABLE TO BEARER WOES TUE SPACES ARE UNFILLED. urp4e 0E504 IMP0.10 ,1 Tel , • 1 , 11.5 Works...le orstsose 0,0 WEL NDESIVOITD ELANCSI 8 14965 43 0 * Ft; 1I SAMPLE Is printed to illustrate the Post Check Sys- tem. Any attempt / to use this slip as / 'money wilt sub- fed the offender to - , the. penalties rescribed by th U. S. Statutes.' ./k im!!!!!s USUAL GOVERIMERT SEAL WILL APPEAR ISERE. wirAriaPUSTAMEOWbar All $1.00, $2.00, and $.6.00 bills hereafter innned by the Government to contain blank spares to hermit a change of money into a check, is the glut of the Gardner Post Check Bill non before Congress, This rode sketch nerves to convey the idea. Page 46 Paper Money Whole No. 194 Sample $2 Post Check from a 1902 brochure. (Courtesy Archives Department, Kraft General Foods.) This is a facsimile of an uncompleted money order note of the kind it Is pro- posed to have the government Issue. The bills, which run In denominations from ten cents to $0, are designed to make easy and sale the sending of money through the mails. The note passes from hand to hand as ordinary currency until some holder de- sires to send it through the mails and tills in the blank spaces with a name and ad- dress, when It becomes payable only to the person to whom it is made out. A com- mission of pest office and treasury officials has been appointed to look into the fess!. Witty of the scheme and report. Newpspaer illustration of the Post Check note from The Griggs Courier, Cooperstown, ND. The 1904 sample from one of Post's booklets shows a rearranged design with provision for the signatures of the Treasurer and Register of the Treasury. The proposed penalty for failure to place and cancel a postage stamp has been reduced to $10 and the word "Note" has been added at the bottom. (Courtesy Archives Department, Kraft General Foods.) (Continued on page 51) Paper Money Whole No. 194 Page 47 World Paper Money Depicting TREES by MOHAMAD H. HUSSEIN Trees are the largest and longest-living of all living things. They dominate the ecosystem because of their large size, enormous number and long life. Some trees reach heights of more than 350 feet. The trunk of a cypress tree in Mexico measures more than 120 feet in circumference. A giant sequoia tree in California contains more than 50,000 cubic feet of wood. Many trees in various parts of the world are thousands of years old. It is speculated that some trees in Australia are 12,000 years old; trees that are 3,000 to 5,000 years old now live in America, Africa and Asia. Trees grow on most of the earth's land and also in shallow water areas. They provide many valu- able products and services that are essential to the sur- vival of man and the environment. Many countries depict trees on their paper money and other national symbols. tree is generally defined as a perennial woody plant A with a single upright stem capable of reaching a heightof at least 15 feet. The 20,000 varieties of trees are gen- erally divided into six main groups. (1) Broadleaf trees are dis- tinguished by their striking autumn colors and spring flowers which produce fruits. They are the most common kind of trees and include: oaks, maples, elms, willows, mahogany and holly trees. Due to their hard wood, foresters refer to them as "hard- woods". (2) Needleleaf trees are mostly evergreen. With scale- like leaves, they have no flowers and bear their seeds in cones. There are more than 500 species of needleleaf trees that in- clude such familiar trees as cedars, pines, firs, redwoods, spruces and hemlocks. They are called "softwood" because most often they have softer wood than broadleaf trees. (3) Palms have no branches but huge fan-shaped or feather-shaped leaves. The more than 2,500 kinds of palm trees range from the coconut palms of the tropics to the desert date palms. (4) Tree Ferns look much like palm trees, but have no flowers or seeds. They reproduce by means of spores. (5) Cycad trees also look like palm trees, but produce seeds in cones like pine trees. The cones are large and may reach three feet in length. These trees are found mainly in the warm, moist regions of Central America and Africa. (6) Ginkgo trees existed millions of years ago in various kinds, but only one species is found today. They bear seeds, with an unappealing odor, but not fruits or cones. A tree has four main parts: (1) roots, (2) stem, (3) leaves, and (4) reproductive system. The root system consists of un- derground branches that mechanically anchors the aerial part of the tree in the ground, and provides water and nutrients from the soil. The two major types of tree roots are the taproot and the horizontal root. The taproot consists of one main large root extending downward from the base of the trunk with other smaller roots which radiate horizontally in the ground; oaks, pines and hickories have taproots. The horizontal root system consists of many branches with no main taproot present; maples, elms and beech trees are supported by horizontal roots. A wild fig tree in South Africa has the deepest penetrating roots, estimated to be 400 feet. The stem system of a tree includes the trunk, branches and twigs. The trunks of some trees grow straight to the top of the tree, while others branch near the base of the crown or even just above ground. The stem sup- ports the tree, gives it shape, and provides pathways for the transport of water and nutrients from the soil and the move- ment of carbohydrates to the ground. In the late 1700s the girth of a chestnut tree in Italy was reported to be about 200 feet. Leaves exist in a variety of shapes and sizes. Their primary function is the manufacturing of food for the tree by the pro- cess of photosynthesis. They get their green color from chloro- phyll. Leaves of some palms are 20 feet long, while those of some needleleaf trees are less than half an inch long. The life span of leaves ranges from a few months to more than 20 years. Most trees reproduce by seeds that are contained in flowers or in cones. Sperms and eggs are developed from pollen and ovules produced by flowers and cones. Seeds are naturally dis- persed by wind, water, gravity and also by man and animals. The seed of the giant fan palm tree found in the Seychelles can weigh up to 50 pounds. The most delayed sexual maturity in all of nature is the giant sequoia. It first flowers at the age of 175 years; the seeds are so small it takes 3,000 of them to weigh an ounce. It was reported that an Arctic lupine seed more than 10,000 years old, found frozen in Canada, was germi- nated in the mid 1960s. The largest living thing in the world today is a giant sequoia, called the General Sherman Tree, in Sequoia National Park in California. It is more than 275 feet tall and 100 feet in circum- ference at its base. The trunk is more than 17 feet in diameter BAH RAIN CURRENCY BOAR DOSCID4AS pesetas ONE HUNDRED FILS Hungary, P.168. 13ANCO DE ESPANA Page 48 Paper Money Whole No. 194 at a height of 120 feet. It is more than 2,000 years old and weighs more than 6,000 tons. Standing more than 365 feet tall, the "National Geographic Society Tree" coast redwood in Redwood Na- tional Park in California is the tallest liv- ing tree. The oldest living thing is a bristlecone pine tree named Methuselah on the White Mountains in California, more than 4,700 years old. The great ban- yan tree in the Indian Botanical Garden in Calcutta has 1,775 prop roots that de- veloped into secondary trunks with a cir- cumference of more than 1,350 feet. It covers an area of several acres and is capable of sheltering 20,000 people. The talipot palm tree in Asia lives 75 years be- fore it bears fruits once, then dies. The traveler's tree of Mada- gascar has a palmlike trunk up to 30 feet tall topped by a large fan of leaves that collect rain water often used for drinking by thirsty travellers. The wood of the ombu tree of Argentina con- tains as much as 80% water and very little tissue, it is so spongy it can not be cut down and so moist it will not burn. Since prehistoric times, mankind depended on trees in many ways. Above all, trees have provided people with wood. Throughout history, people have used wood to make tools, build houses and create works of art. Prehistoric man used wood fire to light his dark nights, cook his food and scare away predators, make the first spear, the first boat and the first wheel. Until recent times, wood provided the main source of energy that sustained many civilizations. Nowadays, wood is a very important natural resource utilized in countless ways in ev- eryday life. Paper is one of the most important products of wood. Live trees are as important to man as dead wood. Trees provide people with fruits, nuts and other essential foods. Other direct and indirect tree products include: latex, turpentine, tan- nic acid, cork, medicines, methyl alcohol, acetone, sugars, quinine, oils, perfumes, soap, filters, fabrics, dyes and decora- tions, in addition to chocolate, coffee, maple syrup, marga- rine and spices. People in Africa use the baobab tree in many ways. They carve its trunk and use it for living or for storage, eat its leaves, fruits, seeds and roots, and use the other parts in various other ways. Trees are critical in preserving a living environment on earth. They play a major role in soil formation, enrichment, stabili- zation and erosion control. They also protect and conserve water supplies, help in keeping the balance of gases in the at- mosphere by producing oxygen and absorbing carbon diox- ide, and modify local climate by intercepting solar radiation and reducing wind velocity. Trees provide habitat for wildlife, and make our cities clean and beautiful. Trees may be found alone, in small groups, or in huge for- ests. The most isolated tree in the world is probably the soli- tary spnice on Campbell Island in the Pacific Ocean, the nearest tree is on the Auckland Islands more than 100 miles away. The Tongas National Park in Alaska is the largest forest in the United States, it covers an area of 17 million acres. Forests covering the Amazon basin cover 800 million acres. The larg- est forested area in the world is in northern Russia with an area of 2.5 billion acres. The forests of the world play a major role in the ecological pattern of nature. In ancient times, most of the earth's land was forested. Man has been associated with forests since his origin. Forests sup- port many kinds of vegetation and provide home for many Yugoslavia, P.64. animals. The future of forests depends on man. Today, the destruction of the world's forests is proceeding at an alarming rate. Deforestation represents a serious environmental world- wide problem, which many scientists believe will cause global warming in the next century through a process called the green- house effect. All over the world, trees have prominently figured in myths, folklore, rituals, and religious beliefs since ancient times. Per- haps because of their size and long life, many cultures revere certain trees and consider them sacred. Trees are believed to Paper Money Whole No. 194 Page 49 COUNTRY DENOMINATION DATE DESCRIPTION/PICK NO. Albania 500 leke 1991 Evergreen trees on face, P.48 Angola 500 angolares100 escudos 1.6.192710.6.1973 Shoreline with palm trees, P.76 Palm tree with fruits on back, P.106 Bahamas 1 pound (1930) Palm trees along shoreline, P.7 Bahrain 100 fils L.1964 Palm trees on back, P.1 Belgian Congo 20 francs 1912-37 Palm trees on waterfront, P I 0 Belgium 5000 francs ND (1982-) G. Gezelle and trees on face, P 74 Biafra 5 shillings ND (1967) Palm tree at left on face, P.1 Bolivia 2 bolivianos L.1986 Trees and buildings on back, P.202 Brazil 20 mil reis D.1890 Palm-lined street on back, P.S577 British W. Africa 2 shillings 1916-18 Palm tree at center on face, P.2 Bulgaria 10 leva zlato ND (1890) Shepherd and flock under a tree, P.A5 Canada 20 dollars 1954 Laurentian Hills in winter on back, P.70 Ceylon 5 rupees 1.7.1929 Palm trees and elephant on back, P.23 China 10 dollars 1921 Palm trees on face, P.516 Colombia 5 pesos 1.1.1880 Trees and shoreline on face, P.S291 Cyprus 500 mils 1.12.1961 Trees and mountain road on back, P.31 Czechoslovakia 20 korun 1988 Citrus tree with roots in book, P.96 Danish W. Indies 5 francs 1905 Palm tree at right on face, P.17 Djibouti 5000 francs ND (1975) Forest scene on face, P.35 Egypt 10 pounds 3.3.1931 Large palm trees on back, P.23 Equatorial Guinea 500 pesetas g. 12.10.1969 Derrick loading tree logs, P.2 Estonia 5 penni ND (1919) Stylized trees on face, P.39 Ethiopia 5 dollars ND (1945) Tree with beehive on face, P.13 Fiji 50 cents ND (1968) House and palm trees on back, P.37 Finland 5 markkaal0 markkaa 19221922 Fir tree at center on face, P.42 Pine tree at center on face, P.43 French W. Africa 25 francs 1925-26 Trees at left and right on face, P.7B Greece 1000 drachmai 1939 Trees in field on back, P.111 Guinea 5000 francs 2.10.1958 Harvesting banana trees on back, P.10 Haiti 20 gourdes L.1919 Palm tree at right on face, P.164 Hejaz 50 pounds (1924) Tree and ruins on face, P.4 Page 50 Paper Money Whole No. 194 Hungary 10 forint 1957-75 Trees and river at center on back, P.168 Indonesia 100 rupiah 1958 Worker and rubber trees on face, P.59 Iraq 1/4 dinar 1958 Palm trees at center on back, P.51 Israel 100 new sheqalim 1986 Carob tree on back, P.56 Lebanon 100 livres 1964-88 Snowy cedar trees on mountain, P.66 Libya 5 piastres 1.1.1952 Palm tree at right on face, P.12 Malawi 1 kwacha 1990 Palm tree at left on face, P.23 Maldive Islands 1 rupee 1947 Palm tree at left on face, P.2 Mexico 500 pesos 1897-98 Palm tree at right on face, P.S200 Netherlands Indies 25 gulden 1946 Beach with palm trees on face, P.91 New Hebrides 1000 francs ND (1972) Hut with palm trees on face, P.20 Nicaragua 100 cordobas L.1912 Palm trees and volcano on face, P.61 Nigeria 50 kobo ND (1989) Two men logging on back, P.14 Norway 100 kroner 1949-62 Logging on back, P.33 Oceania 1 pound ND (1942) Palm trees along beach on face, P.4 Peru 10 libras 3.10.1914 Rubber tree and worker on face, P.28 Poland 100 zlotych 1000000 zlotych 2.6.19321991 Large tree at center on back, P.74 Trees with rural landscape, P157 Saudi Arabia 10 riyals (1983) Many palm trees on back, P.23 Scotland 5 pounds 1922-47 Tree on face, P.186 Seychelles 50 rupees 1954-67 Palms on back, P.13 Sierra Leone 20 leones 1982 Tree at center on face, P.14 Spain 200 pesetas 16.9.1980 Tree on back, P.156 Surinam 5 gulden 9.7.1991 Logging at center on back, P.46 Switzerland 50 franken 50 franken 1910-207.7.1955 Man cutting trees on back, P.146 Family harvesting apples on back, P.176 Syria 500 piastres 1.7.1920 Cedar tree at left on face, P.16 Trinidad & Tobago 1 dollar 1.1.1929 Columbus landing and trees on face,P.3 Yemen Dem. Rep. 5 dinars ND (1965) Palm tree on back, P.4 Yugoslavia 50 dinara 1.5.1946 Man cutting trees on back, P.64 Zaire 20 francs 15.11.1961 Stylized tree on back, P.4 Vri Paper Money Whole No. 194 Page 51 •• !ft( / I on paper money, coins, stamps, coat-of-arms and even flags of many nations around the world. The accompanying table lists notes from 60 countries depicting trees as major design features. All notes are identified by Pick numbers in the Standard Cata- log of World Paper Money volumes 1, 2 and 3 pub- lished by Krause Publications, Inc. of Iola, Wisconsin. The illustrations show a sample of world paper money and the trees portrayed on A I ILA Surinam, P.46 link heaven and earth. Heaven is often described as full of fruit-bearing, shady trees. Ever since Daphne trans- formed to a laurel tree in order to escape from Apollo in Greek mythology, the laurel tree symbolized victory. An olive branch has long been the symbol of peace. The role that a certain fruit from a tree played in shap- ing human destiny is well known in western cultures. Our holidays would not be the same without a Christ- mas tree. Mythical trees are many, including the tree of life and the tree of knowledge. In a way, we all belong to a tree— each to their own "family tree." Benjamin Franklin used impressions of tree leaves as secu- rity devices on early American paper money. Symbolizing lon- gevity, fertility, agriculture, prosperity, beauty, nature and life itself, images of many kinds of trees are prominently displayed Czechoslovakia, P.17. them. It was the invention of paper, a product from trees, that had made paper money possible centuries ago. Without trees, there would not have been paper money; perhaps with paper money depicting trees, we will all always be aware of their importance to our survival, and there will always be trees. ) l'4 4 9rb:910P Ap...e.apixeleRwit■ta..ot fatiaqicol AST{A 0 &ITV,* dvx,11...v., at t£,K 4.„._ ,„.' 7.111'"47 POST (continued from page 46) friend of the senator sued for breach of promise. She outlined her activities on Platt's behalf against the Post Check bill while employed at the post office department and for the senator's interests in express company business. According to Post, the head of the post office money order department, who fought the Post Check currency bill "tooth and nail," also had a vested interest: he had relatives who sup- plied the paper for his department. In his final article Post stated he had been warned that his exposure of Senator Platt would kill any chance for passage of a Post Check bill—and it did. He had placed the facts before the public, and although he was reviled by his opponents, he was never sued for libel. When C.W. Post abandoned the Post-Check proposal as a lost cause in 1906, he felt that public pressure for the bill had forced a number of reforms beneficial to the nation and its people: increased rural delivery of mail, more post offices in rural areas and many more postal money order offices. News- papers of the time were calling for better second- and third- class mail rates, a wider parcel post system and revision of railroad contracts for hauling the mail. There was both the prospect and room for further reforms. And the National As- sociation of Retail Grocers, after having roundly condemned the Post Check bill for six years, published a letter from C. W. Post, acknowledged his personal integrity and admitted the association might have treated him unfairly. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: Without the assistance of the late Darrell Krause, microfilm camera- man who spotted the newspaper picture; lack H. Fisher, who supplied the shortcut to the Post archives; and Stephen A. Carvell, archives tech- nician for Kraft General Foods, for photocopies of the Post pamphlets, the preceeding space would have been blank. NOTE: • As a gasoline station attendant in the early 1940s I was instructed to get ten cents "float" if offered a check from a state bank in a near-by town—it was not a member of the Federal Reserve System. SOURCES: Annual Reports of the Post -Office Department, GPO 1902, 1903. Daily Republican & Leader, LaCrosse, WI, Apr. 9, 1902. 57th Congress Report No. 3662, House, Feb. 7, 1903. "Post-Check Notes." House Committee on the Post-Office and Post Roads, GPO 1903. The Griggs Courier, Cooperstown, ND, Apr. 10, 1902. Hillsboro (ND) Banner, Sept. 8, 1893, quoted the St. Paul Pioneer Press. The Hope (ND) Pioneer, Sept. 29, 1893. Major, N.L. (1963). C.W. Post: The Hour and the Man. Washington: Press of Judd & Detwiler, Inc. Princeton (WI) Republican, May 18, 1893. Sanborn (ND) Enterprise, Mar. 22, 1900. Page 52 Paper Money Whole No. 194 CIVIL WAR BLOCKADE Leach -0 a Cmirency Kale by BENNY BOLIN OME collectors of paper money are aware that many of the second and third issue fractional currency proofs, as well as some of the regular issue fractional currency notes, are printed on paper watermarked "CSA." However, only a few are familiar with the paper itself or how the Union gov- ernment obtained Confederate paper, the same type that had previously been used by Keating and Ball to print $10 Confed- erate notes in 1861 and $100 notes in 1862. The story begins at high tide on September 28, 1861, a dark and moonless night. A steamship, the Bermuda, neared the darkened coast of Savannah, Georgia. She flashed a light on the landward side below the level of her decks so it could be seen only by those on shore. Two lights then lit up on shore. Captain Eugene Tessier sailed forward until the two lights were in line with each other. Keeping the two lights in line as one, he used this as a steering guide for a safe run into the block- aded Confederate port with a much anticipated and needed cargo of dry goods, food stuffs, and other necessities as well as munitions for the Confederacy. THE BLOCKADE When the first six states seceded from the union, President Lincoln declared them to be in a state of insurrection. On April 4, 1861 he imposed a blockade on all sea ports from South Carolina to the Rio Grande. Three weeks later, on April 27, 1861, following the secession of NC and VA, he extended the blockade north to the mouth of the Potomac. He stated that "in order to protect the combination of persons, public peace and the lives and property of quiet and orderly citizens pursuing their lawful occupations, it is deemed advisable to set on foot a blockade of their ports within the states aforesaid. For this purpose, a competent force will be posted so as to prevent the entrance and exit of vessels from the ports aforesaid." The blockade was intended to isolate the Confederacy from the world and deprive it of supplies, thereby weakening its war effort. Most historians agree that the block- ade was the most important factor in bringing about the fall of the Confederacy. In 1863 it was so effective the South was referred to as "a land besieged." Lincoln's Naval Secretary, Gideon Welles, preferred "closing" the ports rather than block- ading them, as a formal blockade would bestow upon the Confederacy certain rights of belligerency that were accorded any legitimate nation at war. Lincoln countered that a block- ade gave the Union the right to search vessels trying to break the cordon and to seize cargo determined to be contraband, actions not allowable if the ports were merely "closed." The blockade was very difficult to maintain, especially in the be- ginning. The South had 3549 miles of coast with 189 open- ings for commerce, and the Union navy consisted of less than 50 ships. However, by December 1861 the Union navy had bought 136 more ships, repaired 34 more and had 52 addi- tional ones in different stages of construction. At war's end they had over 600 ships and 51,500 enlisted sailors. The early odds of successfully running the blockade were high, as only about one of every nine runners was captured. In 1862 this decreased to one in every seven, in 1864 to one in three and by the end of the war it was about even odds. In all, the Union navy captured 1149 vessels, 210 of them steamers, and burned, sank or grounded another 355 more, 85 of which were steam- ers. These 1504 vessels carried cargo valued at over $30 million. THE BLOCKADE RUNNERS Blockade running was very profitable in the beginning, due to the high probability of a successful run and to the decision by the Confederate government to leave blockade running to pri- vateers. This essentially meant that they could charge as much as they wanted for their goods, limited only by what the mar- ket would bear. Salt worth $16 per ton in Nassau brought $700; coffee worth $249 brought $5500. The captain of a blockade runner could make $5000 per run, compared to a normal fee of $150. The ships used as blockade runners were usually side wheel steamers and were much faster than the Union ships. They were built specifically for blockade running. They were long and low (often nine times as long as they were wide) with only two short masts and convex forecastle decks. They were lead colored to minimize visibility and were designed to go through, rather than over, rough seas. When discovered, they relied on their speed and evasive actions to avoid cap- ture. They normally entered port on moonless nights at high tide using the light alignment system to guide them since the Confederates had darkened all their lighthouses to make navi- gation difficult for the Union navy. If the runner arrived at their port before sufficient darkness, they would merely hide out in a nearby inlet and await darkness. The runners burned anthracite coal because it burned without smoke; a fact when discovered by the Union, caused the government to ban its export to foreign ports. When runners discharged their cargo, they would re-load with goods bound for England, usually cotton, and make a return trip. Later in the war, when there was a larger threat from the Union navy, runners began to go to interim ports, such as Nassau and Bermuda to transfer their cargo to much smaller, even faster ships that could even more easily avoid the blockade. About 30 firms entered into the blockade running business. The most successful was Frazer, Trenholm and Company, a southern shipping and banking firm with offices in Liverpool and Charleston. They had ten ships, interim offices in Nassau and Bermuda and shipped out over 50,000 bales of cotton. However, most of the firms even- tually lost money not only due to losing ships and cargo to S Paper Money Whole No. 194 Page 53 capture, but also due to the confiscation of its assets by the Union at the end of the war. For example, one firm shipped out over 10,000 bales of cotton during the war, but had 16,000 bales confiscated at the end of the war. THE "BERMUDA" The first steamer chosen to challenge the blockade was a newly- completed iron-hulled screw merchant ship with a large carry- ing capacity, the Bermuda. She was built in the United Kingdom at Stockton-upon-Tees on the eastern coast of England in 1861. Her first owner was Edwin Haigh, a British cotton broker, but within a few days after completion, a bill of sale was executed to A.S. Herschel and George A. Trenholm of Charleston. Eu- gene Tessier was her first master. She sailed on August 22, 1861 from Liverpool bound for Charleston, but changed her desti- nation to Savannah, Georgia, ran the blockade without prob- lem and docked on September 28, 1861. Her cargo was a large amount of general supplies and weapons valued at over $1 million. On October 29, 1861 she left Savannah with 2,000 bales of cotton and arrived back in Liverpool, England in No- vember 1861. Captain Tessier then changed ships to the Bahama, and on January 17, 1862, Captain Westendorff, a South Carolina citizen, who arrived from Charleston in De- cember 1861 as captain of the Helen was put in command of the Bermuda. The Bermuda sailed again and arrived in St. George's, Bermuda on March 22, 1962 where she stayed for four weeks without discharging her cargo. She left under the British flag on April 23, 1862 bound for Nassau with the in- tent of transferring her cargo to smaller vessels for shipment to the Confederacy. Five days later, on Sunday, April 27, 1862, off Hole-in-the-wall, she was captured by the U.S. S. Mercedita commanded by Captain Steelwagen. She was searched and since her log showed she had previously run the blockade, had contraband among her cargo and since some papers were destroyed by the captain's brother when she was captured, Captain Westendorff and twelve passengers were made pris- oners and the Bermuda was escorted to Philadelphia. She ar- rived on Saturday, May 3, 1862, placed in the hands of Prize-master Abbott and adjudged a prize of war. The Bermuda's cargo was ordered sold as contraband by the Federal Court in Philadelphia. Her owners argued that she was captured while sailing under the British flag, was only 5-7 miles from the east- ern coast of Great Abaco Island, an English colony, was in range of the Abaco light and was steering along the coast, not in the route to any blockaded port, the nearest of which was 160 miles away. They stated she was to take her cargo to Nassau, nowhere beyond and return to Liverpool with a cargo of Brit- ish gold. THE CARGO Much of the cargo of the Bermuda was very evidently contra- band, not only by its nature, but also due to the fact that of the 45 bills of lading on board, none had consignors. Also, a confiscated letter on board from Fraser, Trenholm stated ". . . we cannot too strongly impress upon you the adoption of the most cer- tain means of preventing any of them falling into improper hands." She carried about 80 tons of munitions including heavy pieces of rifled artillery; six 51/2 inch Whitworth guns and five giant 8'/2 inch Blakely guns, in cases with carriages and several thou- sand shells for each, varying in size from seven to 112 pounds each. The Blakely cannons were similar to the one that fired the first shot in the war, shooting a projectile 1250 yards from its mount on Morris Island to Fort Sumter. She also carried two cases of Enfield rifles, .577 caliber rifles that were very popular infantry rifles for both sides; 300 barrels, 78 half bar- rels and 283 quarter barrels of gun powder; 700 bags of salt- petre; 72,000 cartridges; 2.5 million percussion caps, twenty-one cases of swords marked N.D. (Navy Department?); a large amount of army blankets; seven cases of pistols; sev- eral cases of military decorations, military buttons, some with a palmetto tree on them, some with an eagle surrounded by eleven stars (the number of states in the Confederacy); cases of cutlery some stamped "Jeff Davis, Our First President; The Right Man in the Right Place," and some stamped "General Beau regard; He Lives to Conquer." In addition, she carried five cases of lawn, thin or sheer linen or cotton fabric, each labeled with the "Flag of the Confederate States." She also carried 26 boxes marked P.O.D. (Post Office Department?) containing large numbers of Confederate States postage stamps, printing ink for postage stamps, copper plates for printing 400 rebel stamps at a time, 200,000 letter envelopes, a number of print- ing presses and other apparatus, including "CSA watermarked foolscap paper." In addition, there were twelve passengers on board, listed as common sailors, but in fact printers and en- gravers. In another confiscated letter, they and the printing material were described as ". . . presses and paraphernalia com- plete, obtained from Scotland by a commissioner of the Confederate government and sent with a lot of printers and engravers." Round- ing out her cargo were some 50,000 shoes, 24,000 blankets, dry goods, drugs, tea, coffee, surgical instruments, books, leather, saddles, etc. Also on board, confiscated and used to prove that her intention was to run the blockade, were details on how to run the blockade using the series of lights. THE PAPER The amounts and types of paper captured and sold to the Trea- sury department are difficult to ascertain. A letter on board the Bermuda to a Mr. Morris, a lithographer in Charleston who had run the blockade not long before was from a Mr. C. Straker, Stationery Dept., 80 Bishopgate within, 26 Leadenhall St., London and was dated February 12, 1862. It described his company's ability to provide this paper. He stated ". . . we make and can buy paper of all kinds as well as any London house; so we could execute your order for foolscap loan paper, with watermark, "GSA" as shipped you, at 42s. per ream double, equaling two reams single." "Foolscap" is a British term meaning a size of drawing or printing paper. However, court records seem to refer to this paper as "Bank Note" paper, detailing ". . . many reams of fine white Bank Note paper, watermarked 'C S A,' intended obviously for Confederate States banknotes and bonds." It seems from the court records that the United States Treasury Department ac- quired five cases (ten reams as the cases were double reams), at $2 per ream. The rest of the paper was described as 490 reams of Bank Note paper sold at $2.50 per ream, 35 reams foolscap sold at $6 per ream and ten reams of damaged paper sold at $1.50 per ream. The paper bought by the Treasury de- partment was primarily used to print proofs of fractional cur- rency. Since these were primarily used for counterfeit detection, the Treasury opted to use this cheaper paper instead of the more costly and scarce regular bank note paper. It was watermarked "CSA" eight times in block letters. Each sheet was 13.25 inches wide and 16 inches long, an antique white woven deckle edge, full rag content paper. The watermarks appear on approximately four inch centers, are double lined, Page 54 Paper Money Whole No. 194 three inches wide and 7/ 8 inch tall. Most of the sheets, if not all of them, have a crease in the center where they were folded for storage. THE COURTS After the "Bermuda" was adjudged a prize of war and her cargo sold at auction as contraband, her owners appealed to the Dis- trict Court of the Eastern district of Pennsylvania. When this court sided with the prize court, the owners appealed to the United States Supreme Court. The case was heard in Decem- ber 1865 with James Speed as the Attorney General and Salmon P. Chase as the chief justice. The opinion of the court was writ- ten by Chase. They concluded that ". . . the 'Bermuda' was justly liable to condemnation for the conveyance of contraband goods des- tined to a belligerent port, . . . the cargo having been assigned to enemies and most of it contraband, must share the fate of the ship. . . Our conclusion is, that both vessel and cargo, even if both were neutral, were rightly condemned, and on every ground, the decree below must be AFFIRMED." This decision only applied to the ship and its cargo of mu- nitions and other items of war. The residual cargo was initially afforded the same fate and this was appealed to the District Court of the United States on March 31, 1866. District Judge Cadwalder delivered the courts' opinion and also agreed with the prior courts and condemned the residual cargo as well. Bibliography Bemath, S.L. (1970). Squall across the Atlantic. Berkeley, CA: Univer- sity of California Press, pp. 64, 65, 88-97. Cochran, H. (1973). Blockade runners of the Confederacy. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Reprint of 1958 edition by Bobbs-Merrill, In- dianapolis. Dietz, A. (1945). Confederate postage stamps. Richmond, VA: The Press of the Dietz Publishing Co. Faust, P.L. (Ed.) (1986). Historical times—illustrated encylopedia of the Civil War. New York: Harper and Row, pp. 66, 67, 243 & 244. Federal cases of the District Courts of the U.S. (1894). Vol. 70, book 3, cases 1195-1798. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., pp. 514- 559. Jones, V.C. (1961). The Civil War at sea—vol. two, the river war. New York: Holt, Rinehart, Winston. Musicant, I. (1995). Divided waters—the naval history of the Civil War. New York: Harper Collins, pp. 50 & 51. Nash, H.P. (1972). A naval history of the Civil War. Cranbury, NJ: A.S. Barnes & Co., pp. 34, 35, 300 & 301, New York Times. 5 May 1862, p. 1; 7 May 1862, p. 2. Pennsylvania state reporter—cases 768-3216. Ref: case 1345; 23 leg. int. 116; 6 Phila. 187, pp. 270-272. Wallace, H.E., Esq. (1875). Philadelphia reports containing the decisions published in the legal intelligencer from 1865-1868. Vol. VI. Philadel- phia, PA: J.M. Power Wallace publisher, pp. 187-190. Wise, S.R. (1988). Lifetime of the Confederacy—blockade running during the Civil War. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, pp .50-67. 6 ',•'-&,1_,•e-C-.1Z4 INARTISTIC, INFERIOR AND EXCESSIVELY PLAIN $5 SERIES OF 1882 BROWN BACK The following letter nicely explains the three photographs that tional Bank of that place; No. 3072. The letter of the accompany this article. Peoples National Bank is herewith returned with the information that the change in the plate of the First Na- J. Abrahams tional Bank was made for the reason that the engraving Deputy Comptroller of the Currency of the title on its former plate was inferior and inartistic, being produced by the patent lettering process, and that April 25, 1888 a new plate engraved in a more artistic style was pre- I am in receipt of your letter of the 24th instant in-clos- pared, not as a favor to the bank, but for the credit of ing, with the request that I will inform you whether its this Bureau. This course has been pursued at the discre- wish can be complied with, a letter from the Peoples tion of the officers of the Bureau to the extent that the National Bank of Clay Center, Kansas, No. 3345, asking state of the work permitted with those national bank if a change in the character of the title on its plate can be notes plates on which the lettering was conspicuously made so as to remedy its excessive plainness, and stat- inferior. As the Peoples National Bank does not fall ing that a similar favor has been accorded the First Na- within this category, I would not feel warranted in hav- ing a new plate prepared for it. In any event, it would not be desirable to have the titles of two banks in the same town engraved in the same style. CTI I ' THE PAPER COLUMN by Peter Huntoon Edward 0. Graves Chief of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing The First National Bank of Clay Center (3072) issued 4646 sheets of $5 Series of 1882 brown backs. The inferior plate Tt 014 • at. 1,Ai (ENTER Hot t"tt 3" ' Pn `‘‘'." . " 33 • /1,, „ 1,, Ft 1944 Fl 1.1 PTA 1[43 :01i:0 0 4.44,111111111i1f5 lielno ,111 loiNAI , CU it 11c 2 • • I"E4 01"1,ES tve• tit ,t1 1)1.) : it .1,i !IA', ∎)9 tx Paper Money Whole No. 194 Page 55 The Peoples National Bank of Clay Center, Kansas (3345), wanted a new $5 Series of 1882 face plate after an inferior $5 plate was replaced for The First National Bank (3072) in 1887. (Photo By Douglas Mudd, Smithsonian Institution.) was approved for use on November 26, 1883; the improved plate on September 27, 1887. The changeover sheets serial numbers between the two were E317284-1600 and E484315- 1601, respectively delivered from the Bureau to the Comp- troller on June 20, 1887, and October 13, 1887. The $5 Series of 1882 brown back face plate for The Peoples National Bank (3345) was approved on June 23, 1883. A to- tal of 3725 sheets were delivered from it. The plate was not replaced. SOURCES OF DATA Bureau of Engraving and Printing, various dates, Certified proofs from U. S. national bank note face plates: National Numismatic Collec- tions, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Bureau of Engraving and Printing, various dates, Correspondence to and from the Bureau of Engraving and Printing: U. S. National Archives, College Park, MD. Bureau of Engraving and Printing, various dates, National bank note face plate history ledgers: U. S. National Archives, College Park, MD. Page 56 Paper Money Whole No. 194 "ARMY BANK HERE ROBBED THIS EVENING" THREE CIVILIANS DEAD, TWO WOUNDED by STEVE WHITFIELD A few years ago, as I was thumbing through a copy of The Check List, the publication of the American Check Collectors Society, I noticed an illustration of a small, blank check printed for the U.S. Army Bank at Camp Funston, Kansas. At the time I was stationed at Fort Riley, which in- cludes the Camp Funston area. I knew through researching local history that a brutal robbery and murder had taken place at the bank in January, 1918. I thought if I could obtain an example of the check, it would be an incentive to do an article about the bank and the robbery. So, off went a letter to Bob Spence, owner of the check, to see if he had a duplicate. He replied and said that he only had the one check but that he would contact the individual he had obtained his copy from to try and get another. Bob later wrote that he had been un- successful, so I thanked him and forgot about the project. CartIl> Funskon. K,nnas, 191 No. The Army Bank of Camp Funston Dollars The check that inspired this article. "The Zone" at Camp Funston, army bank location. Recently, I received a letter from a fellow Kansas correspon- dent, who informed me that he was the person contacted by Bob Spence several years ago and that he had subsequently obtained another copy of the check. Was I still interested? Of course I was, and so the item finally came to hand. Trips to newspaper archives at Junction City, Kansas and Kansas City, Missouri provided additional details on the crime. Camp Funston was one of 16 National Army Cantonments erected in 1917, to train and house the huge U.S. Army neces- sary to go to war with Germany. The camp was named after General Frederick Funston, a Kansas military hero of the cam- paign in the Philippines. Built by an army of contractors in only twelve weeks, the camp consisted of 1400 buildings with all appropriate infrastructure, utilities, railroad sidings, and support facilities. The camp was constructed on the eastern edge of Fort Riley proper. A private city, appropriately called "Army City" grew up between Camp Funston and the city of Ogden. Fifty thousand soldiers were trained at Camp Funston, including the 89th and 92nd Divisions which served in France. At the center of the Camp was an area set aside for recre- ational and support facilities. This was called "the zone," and it was here that businesses to support the soldiers were estab- lished. Within the zone two banks were operated. One was a "branch" of the Central National Bank of Junction City, Kan- sas and the other was established by management of the Na- tional Reserve Bank of Kansas City, Missouri, Charter 9677. The Kansas City bank was careful to ensure that this bank was not called a "branch", but for all practical purposes, that is what it was. Another bank, The Army City Bank, was established in nearby Army City. These banks were opened to serve the needs of the soldiers and to handle large U.S. Army payrolls, which ran about $1 million a month. Mr. C. Fuller Winters, vice president of the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, Missouri, and an officer of the National Reserve Bank of Kansas City, was in charge of the U.S. Army Bank at Funston and Mr. Kearney Wornall was cashier. The bank was located in a small wood frame build- ing within the zone. Dimensions of the one room bank were approximately 15' x20'. On the night of the robbery, Fri- day, January 11th, 1918, the bank was in the process of preparing for payroll op- erations and had a large amount of cash on hand. The money had been visible on the counter for sev- eral days. Present in the bank were Mr. Winters and cashier Wornall, along with O.M. Hill, clerk, Mr. John W. Jewell, edi- tor of the camp newspaper and Mr. Carl Ohleson, son of a Kansas City contractor. Ohleson was probably doing work at the Camp. Paper Money Whole No. 194 Page 57 NaIlionalCurrency •SECURED 1111111111157ATLSCINCIS RA OTHER SECURITIES - UNITED STATESOFAMERICA M8070838 III:"011SMAte 1V1 ROOM% 967?77:77; —LS" -1=13311r4 M 1115.0.1104441113441.11$4.A. • .)/(//i* - ,2i7/ ryroiarbeb. • • t•-> • • <,1,- • - -••••• • - -,•:—Tt;:5 A $10 date back issued by the parent bank in Kansas City, Mo. At approximately 7:30 in the evening on the coldest night of the year, an insistent knocking was heard at the door. The temperature registered -20° outside and the wind was blow- ing hard. Mr. Winters went to the door and admitted someone that he apparently knew. The robber walked around the counter and pulled out a heavy automatic pistol and covered the men in the bank. At first they did not take him seriously as he mumbled about his accounts being out of balance. He then produced a hatchet and struck Mr. Winters on the side of the head with the flat of the axe. Producing some tent cord he forced the cashier to bind the arms of the others and then tied the cashier. With the five men lying on their backs, tied and gagged, he proceeded to butcher his victims with the hand axe, killing three of them and severely wounding the other two. He then filled a sack with large denomination bills and left the building. The cashier came to and managed to untie himself and exit the bank. Covered in blood he wandered until challenged by a sentry, who sounded the alarm. A party sent to the bank discovered the carnage and rousted the camp. Within twenty minutes the entire camp was locked down with no-one al- lowed to enter or leave and sentries ordered to shoot on sight anyone trying to enter or leave by stealth. A search of the en- tire camp was conducted without success although thirty $1 bills and a bloody handkerchief were found near the railroad tracks. Major General Ballou, Camp Commandant, put out a call for help to the police of all communities within 100 miles of Funston, as follows: "Army Bank here robbed this evening. Three civilians killed, two badly injured. Man, semi-conscious condition says army captain attacked him with gun and hatchet. Believed robber was disguised in the uniform of an army captain. Perpetrator bloodstained. Request co-operation." Photographs of the exterior and interior of the bank, just after the bodies had been removed, appeared in the Kansas City Star on Monday the 14th. The photos were credited to the Union Pacific Railway Press Bureau. Mr. Winters died without regaining consciousness, becom- ing the fourth victim of the murderer. Cashier Wornall was placed in the post hospital and word soon passed through the camp that he would recover and be able to identify the robber. On Saturday, the 12th of January, a National Guard Cap- tain shot himself to death at Funston. Captain Lewis Whisler, commander of Company E, 364th Infantry, apparently over- heard a sergeant discussing the robbery and the survival of cashier Womall. Shortly thereafter he killed himself with a rifle. Subsequent investigation showed that he had gotten his fu- neral unifom tailored the week before the robbery and had stated that he would be buried in it soon. He had also ad- dressed a suicide note to a 17 year old female student at Ot- tawa University. Whisler was divorced and had been seeing the young woman for about a year. He was 36 years old at the time and his ex wife stated that he was insane. In fact a num- ber of people wondered how he had ever been given a com- mission. But it was wartime and expansion requirements of the army undoubtedly allowed a few misfits to slip through the screen. A detailed audit finally determined that $62,826.21 could not be accounted for. Obviously the small change had not been taken by the robber, but he did get more than $62,000. At first the money could not be found and the investigation centered on the possibility of accomplices who could have carried it off the Post. Cashier Wornall's condition continued to improve until doctors were sure that he would make a full recovery. By the following Wednesday a detailed search of Whisler's room had discovered a hidden compartment in the wall, where he had stashed all of the money. With the recovery of the money, interest soon waned in the papers and the case was closed. The last news about the robbery appeared on January 25th in the Junction City Union. At the time of the robbery, the U.S. Army Bank was prepar- ing to move into a new $20,000 building at the Camp. A na- tional charter had just been received and the name would be changed to The First National Bank of Camp Funston, Kansas. An illustration of the new First National Bank building ap- peared in the Kansas City Times on Tuesday, January 15. This bank, unfortunately, did not issue national currency and its fate is unknown to me. With the end of the war in 1918 the soldiers and contrac- tors all went home and the area reverted to its pre-war status. The 89th Division returned to muster out, along with the 35th "Santa Fe" Division. A young Artillery Captain named Harry S. Truman mustered out with the 35th. Army City soon disap- peared as the need for its services went away. During the 1920s (Continued on page 58) Page 58 Paper Money Whole No. 194 SPMC Annual Awards The 1997 SPMC Awards will be presented at the Interna- tional Paper Money Show in Memphis, Tennessee, in June 1998, as follows: 1. Nathan Gold Memorial Award. Established and formerly (1961-1970) presented by Numismatic News, now by the Bank Note Reporter. Presented to a person who has made a concrete contribution toward the advancement of paper money collecting. Recipients, who need not be members of the SPMC, are chosen by the Awards Com- mittee. 2. Award of Merit. For SPMC member (or members) who, during the previous year, rendered significant contribu- tions to the Society which bring credit to the Society. May be awarded to the same person in different years for different contributions. Recipients to be chosen by the Awards Committee. 3. Literary Awards. First, second and third places. Awarded to SPMC members for articles published originally in Paper Money during the calendar year preceding the an- nual meeting of the Society. A. An Awards Committee member is not eligible for these awards if voted on while he is on the com- mittee. B. Serial articles are to be considered in the year of conclusion, except in case the article is a continua- tion of a related series on different subjects; these to be considered as separate articles. C. Suggested operating procedures: The Awards Com- mittee chairman will supply each member with a copy of the guidelines for making awards. Using the grading factors and scoring points which fol- low, each member will make his selection of the five best articles published in the preceding year, listing them in order of preference. The lists will be tabulated by the chairman and the winners chosen. A second ballet will be used to break any ties. D. Grading factors and scoring points: a. Readability and interest—is the article interest- ingly written? (20 points) Is it understandable to someone who is not a specialist in the field? (10 points) Would you study the article rather than just scan through it? (10 points) b. Numismatic information covered—In your opinion, will the article be used by future stu- dents as a reference source? (20 points) Has the author documented and cross referenced his source material? Give credit for original research and depth of study. (20 points) Is the subject a new one, not previously researched, or a rehash? If it presents a new slant on an old subject, give proper credit. (20 points) The Dr. Glenn Jackson Memorial Award will be presented, if someone qualifies. This award, open to any author in any numismatic publications, is for an outstanding article about bank note essais, proofs, specimens and the engravers who created them. This award, when presented, consists of a certificate, which includes an engraving by American Bank Note Co. The Julian Blanchard Memorial Exhibit Award will be awarded for the outstanding exhibit of bank note essais, proofs and specimens, including the possible relationship to stamps. The SPMC Best of Show Award is given for an outstanding exhibit in Memphis on any paper money-related subject. ARMY BANK (Continued from page 57) Camp Funston was auctioned off to wreckers who had com- pletely dismantled the place by 1925, except for roads and walks. In 1919 a monument constructed of building rubble stone was erected in memory of the soldiers who trained there. This monument still stands. During the great depression a CCC project restored the foundation and fireplace of General Wood's home that overlooked the camp as a monument to the gen- eral. These are all that remain of the huge WWI camp. In 1940 however, Camp Funston was entirely rebuilt as a training cen- ter for the approaching WWII. Today that camp is also gone and the army is doing archaeological investigations looking for building foundations in the Army City area, which was incorporated into Fort Riley when the Post expanded just prior to WWII. Unfortunately, no record was made of serial numbers or types of currency included in the loot, so collectors cannot look for "bank robbery" artifacts; however, there must be some issued checks stashed in somebody's old papers somewhere. And the national bank notes of the "parent" National Reserve Bank of Kansas City, Missouri are readily available. In addi- tion, one of the victims, Mr. C.F. Winters, was a vice president of the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City. Federal Reserve Bank notes and Federal Reserve notes of the period would also be appropriate for collectors. References: History of Fort Riley; W.F. Pride; 1926; Reprint 1987 by the U.S. Cav- alry Museum and the Fort Riley Historical and Archaeological Society Junction City Union, Junction City, Kansas. Jan. 12 — Jan. 25, 1918 Kansas City Star, Kansas City, Missouri. Jan. 12, and Jan. 14, 1918 The Kansas City Times, Jan. 12 and 15, 1918 i i[re— '01 it r . • SICURECIVOITLOSTUISIIIMISOROTIIIIISCCURITILS • 33445UNITED STATES OFAMERICA . o 4 .4446.04anywy lusaAlujuktv eao ovval) WWI" TO__AjAdIt.41_11111/t.) 0 *U07-211 , , 3-teematirtv 2909 Paper Money Whole No. 194 Page 59 ABOUT TEZaMOSTLY THE NATIONAL BANKS IN McKINNEY, TEXAS by FRANK CLARK McKinney, Texas is the county seat for Collin County, directly north of Dallas. Both Collin County and McKinney were named in honor of Collin McKinney, a surveyor who authorized the law creating counties in the northern part of Texas. McKinney was an American patriot, Texas legislator, and one of the 56 signers of the Texas Declaration of Independence. Over the years, there were three national banks or- ganized in McKinney. This article will briefly cover the history of these banks. THE FIRST NATIONAL BANK OF McKINNEY RANCIS Emerson (1815-1905) and his son, Thomas, founded the first bank in McKinney in 1869, under the name of F. Emerson & Co. This bank was located in a tiny wooden building on the west side of the town square. On May 8, 1882 the bank was organized as a national bank, with a capital of $50,000. The name chosen was The First Na- tional Bank of McKinney, and it operated under Charter 2729. In 1912 the bank moved to the east side of the square, and built a classical revival style two-story building with glazed bricks and massive columns. A large gilded eagle sits atop the building. The building still stands, and is designated with a Texas Historical Marker. The Depression took its toll on The First National Bank. It was placed in receivership on March 9, 1930. However, it even- tually merged into The Collin County National Bank on Janu- ary 7, 1932. The First National Bank issued $10 and $20 national bank notes in the following types: First Charter Series 1875; Third Charter Series 1902 Red Seal, Date Back, and Plain Back; and Series 1929 Type I notes. The total amount of circulation issued was $808,590. When the bank closed the amount outstanding was $13,820 in large- size notes, and $31,500 in small-size notes. There are no known surviving small-size notes from The First National Bank of McKinney. THE COLLIN COUNTY NATIONAL BANK OF McKINNEY The Collin County Bank was another early private bank in McKinney. The first officers were president Gerard A. Foote and cashier W.L. Boyd. On March 13, 1883 the owners peti- tioned the Comptroller of the Currency for a charter as The Collin County National Bank of McKinney. Their request was approved, and on April 2nd of that year Charter 2909 was issued to the new bank. The original organizers and officers of the bank included J.W. Throckmorton (11th Governor of Texas, 1866-67); G.A. Foote (the first president of the new national bank); H.M. Markham, who became the first vice-president; and W.L. Boyd, who continued as cashier. The directors were I.D. Newsome, Z.E. Raney, J.A. Ashton and H.A. Rhea. Other stockholders in- cluded J.S. White, Thomas B. Wilson, T.C. Goodner, Thomas H. Murray, E.M. McAuley and G.A. Wilson. The bank was located in a two-story brick building on the southeast corner of the town square. The initial capital stock of the bank was $75,000; after one year of operation its first statement reflected an undivided profit of $147.60. The bank remained at this location for nearly 50 years. On January 7, 1932 it merged with The First National Bank of McKinney, and moved into that bank's former quarters on Tennessee Street in McKinney. In 1956 the bank occupied a modern new building on Tennessee Street, one block north of the town square. Third Charter, Series 1902 $10 Plain Back note issued by The Collin County National Bank of McKinney, bearing the signature of Thos. Johnson, cashier, and L.A. Scott, president. ca TEXAS CgAn4h. CT; 41:Car4 F0001331 TOE MLR OMIT NATIONAL BANK OF McKINNEY TWENIRIMELIRS mr.wraxasut The Green Goods Game Conducted by Forrest Daniel Page 60 Paper Money Whole No. 194 There have been 10 presidents of The Collin County Na- tional Bank since it began operations in 1883: G.A. Foote 1883-1902 Jesse Shain 1902-1906 W.B. Newsome 1906-1912 L.A. Scott 1912-1934 Giles McKinney 1935-1936 Thomas Johnson 1937-1949 Henry W. Warden 1949-1950 J.W. Neal 1950-1954 John M. Whisenant 1955-1980 John B. Whisenant 1980- Present Thomas Johnson always told the story that he began his career at the bank as a youth, and his first job was to polish the brass spitoons until they gleamed. His efforts paid off, as he was promoted to president in 1937! The Collin County National Bank became the 13th mem- ber of Texas American Bancshares, Inc., on October 1, 1982. On its 100th birthday the bank's financial statement reflected total assets of $109,851,133. It is today the largest bank in McKinney. The Collin County National Bank issued notes in the fol- lowing types and denominations: Second Charter, Series 1882 $10 and $20 Brown Backs; Third Charter, Series 1902 $10 and $20 Red Seals; Third Charter, Series 1902 $5, $10, and $20 Date Backs; Series 1902 $5, $10, and $20 Plain Backs; Series 1929 Type I and II $5, $10 and $20 notes. The total amount of circulation issued by the bank was $4,242,710. In July of 1935 the amount of notes outstanding was $11,190 in large-size and $105,760 in small size. CENTRAL NATIONAL BANK OF McKINNEY Another bank in McKinney was the Central State Bank. It had begun as the Continental State Bank, but the name had been changed in the 1920s. In July of 1934 its directors decided to reorganize as a national bank. The resulting bank was the Cen- tral National Bank of McKinney, with a capital of $100,000. The charter number issued to the new bank was 14236. This bank was located at the northeast corner of the McKinney town square. The bank's two-story brick building, with large columns in front, still stands. Since this bank was chartered very late in the note issuing period, it issued Series 1929 Type II notes only, in every de- nomination possible at the time: $5, $10, $20, $50, and $100. The total amount of circulation issued was $55,200, and $50,000 of that was still outstanding in July of 1935. Consid- ering this amount, surviving notes are very scarce. REFERENCES McKinney Courier Gazette. October 2, 1983. Carman, W. (1983). One Hundred Years, 1883-1983; Texas American Bank McKinney. Hickman, J. and D. Oakes. (1990). Standard Catalog of National Bank Notes. Iola, WI: Krause Publications. COLONEL BRADSHAW'S MONEY Col. Blythe, while in Topeka, told a good poker story. A north- erner got into a game with some southern gentlemen in Ala- bama. When it came time to quit he was way to the good. Col. Bradshaw, one of the southern gentlemen in the game, owed him $2,600 and gave his check for the amount. The northerner was at the bank bright and early the next morning and pre- sented the check. The cashier looked at it, jammed it down on the [h]ook, went to the vault and got a stack of bills, came back, counted out $2,600, counted it over again to make sure and then shoved it through the window. The northerner was delighted. He gathered it up, went over to the desk and started to count it. As soon as he looked at the first bill, he stopped with a jerk and exclaimed to the banker: "You have made a mistake." "How so?" asked the cashier. "Why, this is confederate money," said the northerner. "That's the only kind Col. Bradshaw has had in the bank since the war," replied the banker.—New York World.—Bisbee (N. Dak.) Gazette, Sept. 7, 1905. A BAD $5 BANK NOTE Receiving Teller Hammond of the sub-treasury recently cap- tured an excellent $5 bank note counterfeit, which was pre- sented by a young man to have changed. The note was evidently very old and was torn and defaced by usage in circulation, but the workmanship was of the highest order. The note was made to represent one of the issue of the National Bank of Pawling, N.Y., which issue was authorized on July 20, 1865. Mr. Hammond is of the opinion that the bogus note has been in circulation for many years. When the young man who pre- sented it was told it was useless he left the office wearing a pronounced expression of disgust. Baltimore American. — (Butte [Mont.] Miner, Sep. 15, 1896.) MONEY TO BURN A young Iowa farmer who had saved up $200 in bank bills, stuck the roll wrapped in a newspaper up the chimney in his bedroom for safekeeping. One cold afternoon his mother put a stove in the room and built a rousing fire in it and when the young man returned to supper the notes could not be found.— Firemen's Herald.—Dakota Globe, Wahpeton, Dak., Mar. 16, 1887. Paper Money Whole No. 194 Page 61 WHAT THE DEUCE! by CHARLES A. DEAN and DON C. KELLY Continued from No. 193. State State Charter Title/Town Type Serial/Grade Charter Title/Town Type Serial/Grade MI 1712 MONITEAU NB OF CALIFORNIA Orig 1439 VG-F 1470 SECOND NB OF HILLSDALE Orig 2913 Good 1712 MONITEAU NB OF CALIFORNIA Orig 1461 1470 SECOND NB OF HILLSDALE Orig 4965 VF 1712 MONITEAU NB OF CALIFORNIA Orig 1462 CU 1470 SECOND NB OF HILLSDALE Orig 6303 XF 1712 MONITEAU NB OF CALIFORNIA Orig 1464 CU 1518 NB OF MICHIGAN AT MARSHALL Orig 3263 VG 1712 MONITEAU NB OF CALIFORNIA Orig 1465 CU 1573 FNB OF OWOSSO Orig 2814 VG 1712 MONITEAU NB OF CALIFORNIA Orig 1466 1722 FNB OF DECATUR Orig 1717 XF 1712 MONITEAU NB OF CALIFORNIA Orig 1470 CU 1731 FNB OF LAPEER 1875 1199 CU 1712 MONITEAU NB OF CALIFORNIA Orig 1471 CU 1761 FNB OF NILES Orig 2 VF 1712 MONITEAU NB OF CALIFORNIA Orig 1472 CU 1789 FNB OF SAINT CLAIR Orig Good 1712 MONITEAU NB OF CALIFORNIA Orig 1473 CU 1924 SOUTHERN MICHIGAN NB OF Orig 3240 VG 1712 MONITEAU NB OF CALIFORNIA Orig 1485 CU 1924 SOUTHERN MICHIGAN NB OF Orig 3294 AU 1712 MONITEAU NB 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4434 1557 RALEIGH NB OF NORTH 1875 1643 VG 2006 NORTHWESTERN NB OF 2020 MERCHANTS NB OF SAINT PAUL Orig 4920 Orig 1473 Good Poor 1756 FAYETIEVILLE NB, 1781 MERCHANTS & FARMERS NB OF Orig Orig 2230 Good 2122 FARMERS NB, OWATONNA 1875 751 VG 2003 PEOPLES NB OF FAYETTEVILLE Orig 1479 2159 FNB OF 'CASSON Orig 75 VF 2135 COMMERCIAL NB OF CHARLOTTE Orig 1 XF 2268 MERCHANTS NB, WINONA Orig 1468 CU Number of Deuces for NC 5 2268 MERCHANTS NB, WINONA Orig 1473 CU 2268 MERCHANTS NB, WINONA Orig 1484 CU NE 2268 MERCHANTS NB, WINONA Orig 1487 AU 1417 OTOE COUNTY NB OF NEBRASKA Orig 307 G-VG 2268 MERCHANTS NB, WINONA Orig 1488 CU 1417 OTOE COUNTY NB OF NEBRASKA Orig 3170 VG 2268 MERCHANTS NB, WINONA Orig 1537 AU 1417 OTOE COUNTY NB OF NEBRASKA Orig 4786 Good Number of Deuces for MN 17 1798 FNB, LINCOLN Orig 231 Good MO 1846 FNB OF BROWNVILLE VG 1846 FNB OF BROWNVILLE Orig 1149 Fine89 FNB OF SAINT LOUIS Orig 1 Fine Number of Deuces for NE 6139 SECOND NB OF SAINT LOUIS Orig 1 Fine 170 THIRD NB OF SAINT LOUIS Orig 12949 VG-F 170 THIRD NB OF SAINT LOUIS Orig 21657 Good NH 170 THIRD NB OF SAINT LOUIS Orig 26915 VF 19 FNB OF PORTSMOUTH Orig 821 VF 1112 SAINT LOUIS NB OF SAINT Orig 9062 Fine 19 FNB OF PORTSMOUTH Orig 3363 Fair 1584 CENTRAL NB OF BOONVILLE Orig 1248 XF 19 FNB OF PORTSMOUTH Orig 5164 VG 1665 NB OF THE STATE OF Orig 3037 Fine 318 FNB OF CONCORD Orig 3091 XF 1665 NB OF THE STATE OF Orig 8365 Fair 401 N MECHANICS & TRADERS B OF Orig Good 1665 NB OF THE STATE OF Orig 24710 VF 574 AMOSKEAG NB, MANCHESTER Orig 1313 1665 NB OF THE STATE OF Orig 30481 Fair 576 FNB OF FRANCESTOWN Orig 984 G-VG 1677 GREENE COUNTY NB OF Orig 2711 Good 758 N STATE CAPITAL B OF Orig 2716 AU 1712 MONITEAU NB OF CALIFORNIA Orig 141 CU 808 NB OF LEBANON Orig XF 1712 MONITEAU NB OF CALIFORNIA Orig 1422 AU 838 FNB OF GONIC 1875 Fine Page 62 Paper Money Whole No. 194 State State Charter Title/Town Type Serial/Grade Charter Title/Town Type Serial/Grade NH 167 FNB OF GENEVA Orig 888 FMB OF NEWPORT 1875 18 Good 179 FNB OF CHITTENANGO Orig 439 VF 1059 MANCHESTER NB, MANCHESTER 1875 1102 XF 185 SECOND NB OF UTICA Orig 16378 VG 1147 N GRANITE STATE B OF EXETER Orig 3901 VG-F 199 FNB OF ATTICA Orig Good 1180 GREAT FALLS NB OF Orig 806 Fine 223 SECOND NB OF COOPERSTOWN Orig 7196 F-VF 1183 SOMERSWORTH NB OF GREAT Orig VG-F 223 SECOND NB OF COOPERSTOWN 1875 35 Good 1242 MONADNOCK NB OF EAST Orig 193 VF 231 FNB OF AUBURN Orig 1242 MONADNOCK NB OF EAST Orig 485 F-VF 280 FNB OF COOPERSTOWN 1875 229 VG-F 1310 INDIAN HEAD NB OF NASHUA 1875 1615 VG 290 FOURTH NB OF THE CITY OF Orig 3815 VF 1353 STRAFFORD NB OF DOVER Orig 1574 290 FOURTH NB OF THE CITY OF Orig 7649 Good 1353 STRAFFORD NB OF DOVER Orig 1783 F-VF 290 FOURTH NB OF THE CITY OF Orig 31058 XF 1688 FNB OF HILLSBOROUGH Orig 2071 Fine 290 FOURTH NB OF THE CITY OF Orig 42085 Good 1688 FNB OF HILLSBOROUGH Orig 2079 AU 295 FNB OF PALMYRA 1875 313 VC; Number of Deuces for NH 22 296 SECOND NB OF OSWEGO Orig 4061 VG 307 TENTH NB OF NEW YORK Orig XF NJ 307 TENTH NB OF NEW YORK Orig VG 52 FNB OF NEWARK Orig 215 VG 307 TENTH NB OF NEW YORK Orig 4763 VG 208 FNB OF NEW BRUNSWICK Orig 66 Fine 316 FNB OF CHAMPLAIN 1875 675 VG 288 FNB OF JAMESBURG Orig 334 FNB OF GREENPORT Orig 1543 F-VF 374 FNB OF JERSEY CITY Orig 13783 CU 345 NEW YORK N EXCHANGE B OF Orig VG 374 FNB OF JERSEY CITY Orig 14035 VG-F 368 FNB OF WATERLOO 374 FNB OF JERSEY CITY Orig 14608 VF 376 CENTRAL NB OF THE CITY OF Orig Fair 395 FNB OF SOMERVILLE Orig VG 376 CENTRAL NB OF THE CITY OF Orig VF 445 FNB OF RED BANK Orig 1148 Fair 376 CENTRAL NB OF THE CITY OF 1875 6451 XF 445 FNB OF RED BANK Orig 1914 Fine 376 CENTRAL NB OF THE CITY OF 1875 7104 VF-XF 452 FNB OF FREEHOLD Orig 3196 VG 384 EIGHTH NB OF NEW YORK Orig 22 G-VG 587 NB OF NEW JERSEY, NEW 1875 3031 387 NINTH NB OF THE CITY OF NEW Orig Fine 892 HUNTERDON COUNTY NB OF Orig 893 VG 387 NINTH NB OF THE CITY OF NEW Orig 787 Poor 892 HUNTERDON COUNTY NB OF Orig 3062 VG 402 FNB OF PORT CHESTER Orig 801 Good 892 HUNTERDON COUNTY NB OF Orig 3525 VG-F 412 FNB OF AURORA Orig Fine 892 HUNTERDON COUNTY NB OF 1875 893 VG 453 FARMERS & MECHANICS NB OF Orig 796 Good 1096 BELVIDERE NB, BELVIDERE Orig 811 Fine 453 FARMERS & MECHANICS NB OF Orig 6054 vG F 1168 FARMERS NB OF NEW JERSEY AT Orig 651 453 FARMERS & MECHANICS NB OF Orig 8056 VG 1168 FARMERS NB OF NEW JERSEY AT 1875 52 456 SECOND NB OF WATKINS Orig AU 1221 FARMERS NB OF DECKERTOWN Orig 456 SECOND NB OF WATKINS Orig 3432 XI' 1251 MECHANICS NB OF NEWARK Orig 8064 VG 456 SECOND NB OF WATKINS Orig 3433 AU 1316 N NEWARK BANKING C, NEWARK Orig 7529 Fine 527 FNB OF ROCHESTER 1327 MECHANICS NB OF TRENTON 1875 291 VG 564 FNB OF ANGELICA Orig 4031 VG-F 1327 MECHANICS NB OF TRENTON 1875 810 VG-F 621 N EXCHANGE B OF TROY Orig 2111 Good 1737 FNB OF HIGHTSTOWN 1875 177 VG 639 NIAGARA COUNTY NB OF Orig 2595 VF 2040 MANUFACTURERS NB OF NEWARK Orig 1872 640 TROY CITY NB, TROY Orig 7019 G-VG 2040 MANUFACTURERS NB OF NEWARK Orig 4081 Fine 640 TROY CITY NB, TROY 1875 121 VG-F 2045 GERMAN NB OF THE CITY OF Orig 139 Good 653 FNB OF YONKERS Orig Good 2076 N UNION B OF DOVER Orig 990 VG 659 FALLKILL NB OF POUGHKEEPSIE Orig Fine Number of Deuces for NJ 28 659 FALLKILL NB OF POUGHKEEPSIE Orig 4522 AU 659 FALLKILL NB OF POUGHKEEPSIE Orig 10297 VG NM 706 FNB OF AMENIA Orig 1750 FNB OF SANTA FE Orig 1 Fine 721 MANUFACTURERS NB OF TROY Orig 12238 VG-F 1750 FNB OF SANTA FE Orig 2612 VG 721 MANUFACTURERS NB OF TROY Orig 12656 VG 2024 SECOND NB OF NEW MEXICO AT Orig 118 Good 729 MERCHANTS & FARMERS NB OF Orig 891 VF 2024 SECOND NB OF NEW MEXICO AT Orig 184 Fine 752 FNB OF RED HOOK Orig 2540 VG Number of Deuces for NM 4 811 CHEMUNG CANAL NB OF ELMIRA Orig 842 NB OF CASTLETON Orig 850 THIRD NB OF BUFFALO Orig 3736 VG NY 862 TIOGA NB OF OWEGO Orig 34 FNB OF RONDOUT 1875 2 G-VG 868 NB OF POTSDAM 1875 VG-F 35 FNB OF FISHKILL LANDING Orig 2564 VF 868 NB OF POTSDAM 1875 2552 XF-AU 35 FNB OF FISHKILL LANDING 1875 532 Fine 868 NB OF POTSDAM 1875 3135 Poor 87 THIRD NB OF NEW YORK Orig XF 868 NB OF POTSDAM 1875 4223 Fine 87 THIRD NB OF NEW YORK 1875 VF 886 GENESEE VALLEY NB OF Orig 66 Fine 87 THIRD NB OF NEW YORK 1875 2390 G-VG 886 GENESEE VALLEY NB OF Orig 608 VF 87 THIRD NB OF NEW YORK 1875 4755 VG 886 GENESEE VALLEY NB OF Orig 3063 Fine 94 FNB OF PORT JERVIS Orig 1219 Good 893 FNB OF SARATOGA SPRINGS Orig VF 99 FNB OF MORAVIA Orig F-VF 905 TRADESMENS NB OF THE CITY Orig Fine 159 THIRD NB OF SYRACUSE Orig 67 VF 905 TRADESMENS NB OF THE CITY Orig AU 166 FNB OF ALBION Orig 2046 G-VG 905 TRADESMENS NB OF THE CITY 1875 1 Good 166 FNB OF ALBION 1875 XF 914 NB OF MALONE Orig 301 Good Paper Money Whole No. 194 Page 63 State State Charter Title/Town Type Serial/Grade Charter Title/Town Type Serial/Grade NY 1223 FARMERS AND CITIZENS NB OF Orig Fine 917 N SHOE AND LEATHER B OF THE Orig VG 1227 COMMERCIAL NB OF SARATOGA Orig F-VF 917 N SHOE AND LEATHER B OF THE Orig Fair 1231 IMPORTERS & TRADERS NB OF 1875 Good 917 N SHOE AND LEATHER B OF THE Orig 23722 VG 1231 IMPORTERS & TRADERS NB OF 1875 5261 VG 917 N SHOE AND LEATHER B OF THE Orig 57810 VG 1231 IMPORTERS & TRADERS NB OF 1875 19388 Good 923 THE FNB OF THE CITY OF Orig 7183 Fine 1231 IMPORTERS & TRADERS NB OF 1875 20758 Good 923 THE FNB OF THE CITY OF Orig 24144 1231 IMPORTERS & TRADERS NB OF 1875 32078 VG 955 STATE OF NEW YORK NB OF Orig 3307 Fine 1231 IMPORTERS & TRADERS NB OF 1875 32636 VF 955 STATE OF NEW YORK NB OF 1875 334 VG 1250 MECHANICS NB OF THE CITY OF Orig G-VG 955 STATE OF NEW YORK NB OF 1875 396 Good 1250 MECHANICS NB OF THE CITY OF Orig 5896 AU 963 UNION NB OF TROY Orig 7369 VF-XF 1250 MECHANICS NB OF THE CITY OF Orig 17405 VG 964 MARKET NB OF NEW YORK Orig F-VF 1250 MECHANICS NB OF THE CITY OF Orig 19549 VG-F 964 MARKET NB OF NEW YORK Orig Poor 1250 MECHANICS NB OF THE CITY OF Orig 31621 VF 964 MARKET NB OF NEW YORK Orig VG 1257 N SPRAKER B OF CANAJOHARIE Orig F-VF 971 NB OF FISFIKILL Orig Fine 1261 N BUTCHERS & DROVERS B OF Orig Good 972 SAINT NICHOLAS NB OF NEW Orig VF 1261 N BUTCHERS & DROVERS B OF Orig VG 972 SAINT NICHOLAS NB OF NEW Orig Poor 1261 N BUTCHERS & DROVERS B OF Orig 5409 VG 972 SAINT NICHOLAS NB OF NEW Orig 192 VG 1264 NB OF VERNON Orig XF 972 SAINT NICHOLAS NB OF NEW Orig 756 Fine 1265 NB OF WEST TROY 972 SAINT NICHOLAS NB OF NEW Orig 46871 VG 1266 WASHINGTON COUNTY NB OF Orig 6091 G-VG 972 SAINT NICHOLAS NB OF NEW Orig 55095 XF 1275 CAMBRIDGE VALLEY NB OF Orig Fine 972 SAINT NICHOLAS NB OF NEW 1875 XF-AU 1275 CAMBRIDGE VALLEY NB OF Orig 2485 Fair 972 SAINT NICHOLAS NB OF NEW 1875 1810 CU 1307 FNB OF AMSTERDAM Orig VG 972 SAINT NICHOLAS NB OF NEW 1875 8252 VG-F 1323 DELAWARE NB OF DELHI Orig XF 990 FARMERS NB OF HUDSON Orig 2731 G-VG 1323 DELAWARE NB OF DELHI Orig 427 VG 991 N STATE B OF TROY Orig 4758 VG 1334 N HAMILTON B HAMILTON Orig VG 991 N STATE B OF TROY Orig 8819 Fine 1335 FARMERS NB OF AMSTERDAM Orig VG 991 N STATE B OF TROY 1875 VG 1344 HERKIMER COUNTY NB OF Orig 991 N STATE B OF TROY 1875 5121 VF-XF 1352 HANOVER NB OF THE CITY OF Orig AU 992 MUTUAL NB OF TROY Orig 3985 VG 1352 HANOVER NB OF THE CITY OF Orig 2696 VG 998 SEVENTH WARD NB OF NEW YORK Orig 8374 G-VG 1352 HANOVER NB OF THE CITY OF 1875 VG 998 SEVENTH WARD NB OF NEW YORK Orig 15365 VF 1352 HANOVER NB OF THE CITY OF 1875 CU 998 SEVENTH WARD NB OF NEW YORK Orig 16815 VF 1352 HANOVER NB OF THE CITY OF 1875 4215 Fine 998 SEVENTH WARD NB OF NEW YORK Orig 17151 VG-F 1352 HANOVER NB OF THE CITY OF 1875 16158 VG 998 SEVENTH WARD NB OF NEW YORK Orig 17708 1357 IRVING NB OF NEW YORK 1875 3700 AU 998 SEVENTH WARD NB OF NEW YORK Orig 17791 VF-XF 1357 IRVING NB OF NEW YORK 1875 5943 VG 998 SEVENTH WARD NB OF NEW YORK Orig 17901 F-VF 1372 NB OF THE COMMONWEALTH, NEW Orig F-VF 998 SEVENTH WARD NB OF NEW YORK Orig 17996 Fine 1376 CENTRAL NB OF ROME Orig XF 1026 NB OF KINDERHOOK Orig 2370 Good 1389 CONTINENTAL NB OF NEW YORK Orig 12648 VG 1026 NB OF KINDERHOOK Orig 5211 VG-F 1389 CONTINENTAL NB OF NEW YORK 1875 XF 1026 NB OF KINDERHOOK Orig 16366 CU 1389 CONTINENTAL NB OF NEW YORK 1875 13306 CU 1026 NB OF KINDERHOOK Orig 16385 Fine 1389 CONTINENTAL NB OF NEW YORK 1875 13311 CU 1039 N EXCHANGE B OF LOCKPORT Orig 5156 Fine 1389 CONTINENTAL NB OF NEW YORK 1875 13313 CU 1067 MERCANTILE NB OF THE CITY Orig VG-F 1393 B OF NEW YORK N BANKING Orig 1075 N MECHANICS BANKING 1875 XF-AU 1397 CLARKE NB OF ROCHESTER Orig 1075 N MECHANICS BANKING 1875 5096 Fine 1410 FORT STANWIX NB OF ROME Orig VF 1080 MERCHANTS EXCHANGE NB OF 1875 Good 1410 FORT STANWIX NB OF ROME Orig 283 CU 1080 MERCHANTS EXCHANGE NB OF 1875 124 Fine 1416 GENESEE RIVER NB OF MOUNT Orig 600 XF 1080 MERCHANTS EXCHANGE NB OF 1875 6388 CU 1422 WESTCHESTER COUNTY NB OF Orig 9156 AU 1104 TRADERS NB OF ROCHESTER Orig Fine 1443 MANUFACTURERS NB OF NEW 1875 831 VG 1110 NB OF FAYET1 EVILLE Orig 2189 VF 1509 ORLEANS COUNTY NB OF ALBION Orig Fine 1157 FNB OF RHINEBECK Orig VG 1655 NB OF NEWPORT 1875 Good 1157 FNB OF RHINEBECK Orig XF 1697 FNB OF PORT HENRY Orig VG 1157 FNB OF RHINEBECK Orig 808 VG-F 1772 EAST CHESTER NB OF MOUNT Orig 4687 Fine 1189 CITY NB OF BINGHAMTON Orig 4194 VG 2136 MERCHANTS NB OF BINGHAMTON Orig 1 XF 1192 WAVERLY NB, WAVERLY Orig 3126 G-VG 2229 NB OF HAVERSTRAW Orig AU 1196 LEATHER MANUFACTURERS NB OF Orig 2553 VG-F 2370 CHASE NB OF THE CITY OF NEW 1875 2658 VF 1196 LEATHER MANUFACTURERS NB OF Orig 22999 G-VG 2370 CHASE NB OF THE CITY OF NEW 1875 3923 1196 LEATHER MANUFACTURERS NB OF 1875 VG Number of Deuces for NY 201 1208 SAUGERTIES NB, SAUGERTIES Orig Fine 1208 SAUGERTIES NB, SAUGERTIES Orig 374 Fine OH 1208 SAUGERTIES NB, SAUGERTIES Orig 467 Good 3 FNB OF YOUNGSTOWN Orig 6917 Fine 1213 QUASSAICK NB OF NEWBURGH Orig 8771 VF 3 ENS OF YOUNGSTOWN 1875 201 VG 1215 MARINE NB OF THE CITY OF Orig 13779 3 FNB OF YOUNGSTOWN 1875 214 Good 1215 MARINE NB OF THE CITY OF 1875 XF 5 FNB OF FREMONT Orig Page 64 Paper Money Whole No. 194 State State Charter Title/Town Type Serial/Grade Charter Title/Town Type Serial/Grade OH 1972 FAYETTE COUNTY NB OF Orig 1 XF 16 FNB OF SANDUSKY Orig 1408 G-VG 1980 POMEROY NB, POMEROY Orig 992 AU 27 FNB OF AKRON Orig 2001 AU 1982 MANCHESTER NB, MANCHESTER Orig 1664 40 SECOND NB OF AKRON Orig 1488 Fine 1999 CITIZENS NB OF NEW Orig 559 VF 59 FNB OF TROY Orig 1888 Fine 1999 CITIZENS NB OF NEW Orig 4093 Good 68 FNB OF PORTSMOUTH Orig VF 2025 MERCHANTS NB OF MIDDLETOWN Orig VF 68 FNB OF PORTSMOUTH 1875 1049 AU 2061 THIRD NB OF SANDUSKY Orig 1931 VG 90 FNB OF UPPER SANDUSKY Orig 1782 VG 2071 THIRD NB OF URBANA Orig 62 XF 91 FNB OF TOLEDO Orig Fine 2071 THIRD NB OF URBANA Orig 858 Good 91 FNB OF TOLEDO Orig 3786 VG 2098 LAGONDA NB OF SPRINGFIELD 1875 693 VG 98 FNB OF IRONTON 133 FNB OF BEVERLY Orig 2680 VG Orig 1686 VF 2181 CENTREVILLE NB OF THURMAN, Number of Deuces for OH 81 Orig 795 Fine 141 FNB OF CAMBRIDGE Orig 79 VG 171 FNB OF SOUTH CHARLESTON Orig 109 Fine PA 215 FNB OF NORWALK Orig 834 VG 143 FNB OF CONNEAUTVILLE Orig 1651 VG-F 215 FNB OF NORWALK Orig 842 VG 143 FNB OF CONNEAUTVILLE Orig 2144 VG-F 220 FNB OF PAINESVILLE Orig 58 Fair 143 FNB OF CONNEALFIVILLE Orig 2593 233 FNB OF ATHENS 1875 VG 161 FNB OF ALLENTOWN Orig 1901 Fine 237 FNB OF BRYAN 1875 1634 VF 161 FNB OF ALLENTOWN Orig 4724 VF 242 SECOND NB OF IRONTON Orig 513 VG 161 FNB OF ALLENTOWN Orig 4989 Fine 242 SECOND NB OF IRONTON 1875 772 VG 189 FNB OF FRANKLIN 1875 219 VG 248 SECOND NB OF TOLEDO Orig 11440 Fine 234 THIRD NB OF PHILADELPHIA Orig Fine 274 FNB OF DELPHOS 1875 1078 VG 234 THIRD NB OF PHILADELPHIA Orig 2292 VG-F 284 FNB OF WASHINGTON Orig 1 AU 234 THIRD NB OF PHILADELPHIA Orig 4574 XF 284 FNB OF WASHINGTON Orig 3147 VG 291 THIRD NB OF PITTSBURGH Orig 284 FNB OF WASHINGTON Orig 3491 G-VG 293 FNB OF BLOOMSBURG Orig 3629 F-VF 289 FNB OF RIPLEY Orig 262 VF 324 FNB OF NEWTOWN Orig 1 350 SECOND NB OF RAVENNA Orig 5328 Fine 324 FNB OF NEWTOWN Orig 5 CU 422 FNB OF VAN WERT Orig Good 325 FNB OF DANVILLE Orig Fine 422 FNB OF VAN WERT Orig 2728 VF 357 FNB OF SELINS GROVE Orig Good 436 FNB OF MANSFIELD Orig VG 386 FNB OF MOUNT PLEASANT Orig 6 XF-AU 436 FNB OF MANSFIELD Orig 992 VF 469 SECOND NB OF MAUCH CHUNK Orig 1373 CU 438 FNB OF ELYRIA Orig VF 469 SECOND NB OF MAUCH CHUNK Orig 2401 XF 480 RICHLAND NB OF MANSFIELD Orig 544 KENSINGTON NB OF Orig 492 FNB OF MOUNT PLEASANT Orig VG 546 NB OF GERMANTOWN, Orig 3031 Fine 738 FNB OF FRANKLIN Orig 1109 VG 546 NB OF GERMANTOWN, Orig 12637 VF 773 MERCHANTS NB OF CLEVELAND Orig 4420 Fine 546 NB OF GERMANTOWN, Orig 14706 VG 787 HILLSBOROUGH NB Orig 901 F-VF 546 NB OF GERMANTOWN, Orig 14952 Fine 828 WAYNE COUNTY NB OF WOOSTER Orig 227 VG 546 NB OF GERMANTOWN, 1875 3031 Fine 829 SECOND NB OF HAMILTON Orig 890 VG 557 MANUFACTURERS NB OF Orig 6162 Fine 844 MERCHANTS NB OF CINCINNATI Orig 4242 Fine 566 FNB OF NORTHUMBERLAND Orig 955 VF 858 FNB OF NEWARK Orig 4229 CU 566 FNB OF NORTHUMBERLAND Orig 1635 VF-XF 858 FNB OF NEWARK Orig 4235 AU 606 SECOND NB OF ERIE Orig 156 VF-XF 858 FNB OF NEWARK Orig 4238 AU 610 MECHANICS NB OF 1875 VG 858 FNB OF NEWARK Orig 4328 AU 610 MECHANICS NB OF 1875 313 Fine 858 FNB OF NEWARK Orig 4335 AU 632 NB OF BEAVER COUNTY, NEW Orig 1493 VG 858 FNB OF NEWARK Orig 4344 CU 632 NB OF BEAVER COUNTY, NEW Orig 1886 F-VF 858 FNB OF NEWARK Orig 4345 VF-XF 644 HONESDALE NB, HONESDALE Orig VG 859 MARIET1A NB, MARIE11A Orig 1880 CU 655 VALLEY NB OF LEBANON Orig VG-F 908 FNB OF MOUNT VERNON Orig 699 G-VG 655 VALLEY NB OF LEBANON Orig 722 VF 911 FNB OF BARNESVILLE Orig 134 VG 667 FNB OF MOUNT JOY Orig VF 911 FNB OF BARNESVILLE Orig 926 XF 668 PITTSBURGH NB OF COMMERCE Orig 186 VG 1006 PIQUA NB PIQUA Orig 1 VG 668 PITTSBURGH NB OF COMMERCE 1875 891 XF 1044 FNB OF WELLSVILLE Orig 444 F-VF 675 IRON CITY NB OF PITTSBURGH Orig VG 1784 BELLEFONTAINE NB, 1788 MERCHANTS NB OF DAYTON Orig 3304 Good Orig 309 VG 675 IRON CITY NB OF PITTSBURGH 678 TRADESMEN'S NB OF Orig 6895 Orig VF 1788 MERCHANTS NB OF DAYTON Orig 4032 Good 685 FARMERS DEPOSIT NB OF Orig 51 VF 1904 FNB OF PLYMOUTH Orig 2 VF 696 FARMERS NB OF READING Orig Good 1904 FNB OF PLYMOUTH Orig 1613 Fine 696 FARMERS NB OF READING Orig 5583 VG-F 1906 DEFIANCE NB, DEFIANCE Orig 6214 VG 696 FARMERS NB OF READING Orig 5908 F-VF 1912 NB OF WOOSTER Orig 844 Fine 700 MECHANICS NB OF PITTSBURGH Orig Fair 1917 FNB OF NAPOLEON 1875 638 Good 722 ALLEGHENY NB OF PITTSBURGH Orig 5978 Fine 1920 FNB OF COSHOCTON 1875 1 XF 722 ALLEGHENY NB OF PITTSBURGH Orig 7960 VG 1923 FNB OF MILLERSBURG Orig 7 VF 723 CENTRAL NB OF PHILADELPHIA Orig 4009 Fine 1930 FNB OF MINERVA Orig 692 XF 745 LEWISBURG NB, LEWISBURG Orig Good 1942 GUERNSEY NB OF CAMBRIDGE Orig XF 768 FNB OF CLEARFIELD Orig 1041 CU 1942 GUERNSEY NB OF CAMBRIDGE Orig 1759 VG-F 835 WYOMING NB OF TUNKHANNOCK Orig 972 G-VG Paper Money Whole No. 194 Page 65 State State Charter Title/Town Type Serial/Grade Charter Title/Town Type Serial/Grade PA 1409 N UNION B OF WOONSOCKET 1875 1207 VF 839 FARMERS & DROVERS NB OF Orig 350 Fine 1409 N UNION B OF WOONSOCKET 1875 1209 VG 879 SECOND NB OF TITUSVILLE 1875 1174 VF 1423 N GLOBE B OF WOONSOCKET Orig 700 Good 912 MANHEIM NB, MANHEIM Orig 3380 Fine 1472 AMERICAN NB OF PROVIDENCE Orig 387 VG 926 FNB OF BIRMINGHAM, 1078 DANVILLE NB, DANVILLE Orig 2260 Fine 1472 AMERICAN NB OF PROVIDENCE 1472 AMERICAN NB OF PROVIDENCE Orig 3780 Orig 6268 Fine 1078 DANVILLE NB, DANVILLE Orig 3560 VG 1472 AMERICAN NB OF PROVIDENCE Orig 8897 Good 1152 GOVERNMENT NB OF POTTSVILLE Orig 1472 AMERICAN NB OF PROVIDENCE Orig 11896 G-VG 1579 MIFFLIN COUNTY NB OF Orig 75 VG-F 1472 AMERICAN NB OF PROVIDENCE Orig 20778 Fine 1647 NB OF THE REPUBLIC OF 1875 254 1472 AMERICAN NB OF PROVIDENCE Orig 32514 Fair 2050 LEHIGH VALLEY NB OF Orig 313 VG-F 1472 AMERICAN NB OF PROVIDENCE 1875 198 Fine Number of Deuces for PA 63 1492 NEWPORT NB, NEWPORT Orig 935 XF-AU 1492 NEWPORT NB, NEWPORT Orig 1411 G-VG RI 1492 NEWPORT NB, NEWPORT 1875 3 CU 134 FNB OF PROVIDENCE Orig 12735 XF 1492 NEWPORT NB, NEWPORT 1875 4 134 FNB OF PROVIDENCE 1875 9490 1492 NEWPORT NB, NEWPORT 1875 5 134 FNB OF PROVIDENCE 1875 9814 Good 1492 NEWPORT NB, NEWPORT 1875 6 VG-F 565 SECOND NB OF PROVIDENCE Orig 4149 Good 1492 NEWPORT NB, NEWPORT 1875 7 VG-F 565 SECOND NB OF PROVIDENCE Orig 7417 F-VF 1492 NEWPORT NB, NEWPORT 1875 8 565 SECOND NB OF PROVIDENCE 1875 129 VF 1492 NEWPORT NB, NEWPORT 1875 9 Fine 673 FNB OF WARREN 1875 1492 NEWPORT NB, NEWPORT 1875 11 F-VF 772 FOURTH NB OF PROVIDENCE Orig 622 G-VG 1492 NEWPORT NB, NEWPORT 1875 15 Fine 772 FOURTH NB OF PROVIDENCE Orig 6393 Fine 1492 NEWPORT NB, NEWPORT 1875 17 VG 772 FOURTH NB OF PROVIDENCE Orig 12695 XF 1492 NEWPORT NB, NEWPORT 1875 21 G-VG 772 FOURTH NB OF PROVIDENCE 1875 Good 1492 NEWPORT NB, NEWPORT 1875 23 Fine 843 FNB OF PAWTUCKET 1875 936 VG-F 1492 NEWPORT NB, NEWPORT 1875 24 VG-F 843 FNB OF PAWTUCKET 1875 1487 1492 NEWPORT NB, NEWPORT 1875 32 VG-F 843 FNB OF PAWTUCKET 1875 4241 VF 1492 NEWPORT NB, NEWPORT 1875 37 VG 856 SLATER NB OF NORTH 1875 315 VG 1492 NEWPORT NB, NEWPORT 1875 48 VF 856 SLATER NB OF NORTH 1875 1823 Fine 1492 NEWPORT NB, NEWPORT 1875 49 F-VF 856 SLATER NB OF NORTH 1875 2244 VF 1492 NEWPORT NB, NEWPORT 1875 53 Good 856 SLATER NB OF NORTH 1875 2250 VF 1492 NEWPORT NB, NEWPORT 1875 55 F-VF 856 SLATER NB OF NORTH 1875 3433 VF 1492 NEWPORT NB, NEWPORT 1875 57 948 PHENIX NB OF PROVIDENCE Orig 20226 VF 1492 NEWPORT NB, NEWPORT 1875 58 VF 948 PHENIX NB OF PROVIDENCE 1875 6171 VF 1492 NEWPORT NB, NEWPORT 1875 59 952 WASHINGTON NB OF WESTERLY 1875 533 VF 1492 NEWPORT NB, NEWPORT 1875 69 VF 983 RHODE ISLAND NB OF Orig 11230 Good 1498 N EXCHANGE B OF GREENVILLE Orig 1809 VG-F 983 RHODE ISLAND NB OF Orig 17392 VF 1512 PASCOAG NB, PASCOAG Orig 699 VG 1002 FIFTH NB OF PROVIDENCE Orig 969 1532 NB OF RHODE ISLAND, NEWPORT Orig 1083 1007 MECHANICS NB OF PROVIDENCE 1875 6288 G-VG 1546 AQUIDNECK NB OF NEWPORT Orig 2091 F-VF 1008 N HOPE B OF WARREN Orig VG 1565 N EXCHANGE B OF NEWPORT Orig Fine 1008 N HOPE B OF WARREN Orig 64 XF 1616 PACIFIC NB OF NORTH Orig 6363 Good 1030 N EAGLE B OF PROVIDENCE Orig 1616 PACIFIC NB OF NORTH Orig 10869 VG 1030 N EAGLE B OF PROVIDENCE 1875 2736 Good Number of Deuces for RI 93 1030 N EAGLE B OF PROVIDENCE 1875 4670 XF 1030 N EAGLE B OF PROVIDENCE 1875 6708 VG 1036 NB OF NORTH AMERICA, 1126 GLOBE NB OF PROVIDENCE Orig Orig 4912 AU G-VG SD 2068 FNB OF YANKTON Orig 2 F-VF 1131 MERCHANTS NB OF PROVIDENCE Orig AU 2068 FNB OF YANKTON Orig 1274 CU 1151 OLD NB OF PROVIDENCE Orig 13004 Fine Number of Deuces for SD 2 1151 OLD NB OF PROVIDENCE 1875 2774 Fair 1158 N LANDHOLDERS B OF KINGSTON Orig 3328 G-VG TN 1283 MANUFACTURERS NB OF Orig 19131 VF 336 FNB OF MEMPHIS VF 1283 MANUFACTURERS NB OF 1875 10274 VG 1834 NB OF FRANKLIN Orig 345 VF 1283 MANUFACTURERS NB OF 1875 11441 CU 1834 NB OF FRANKLIN Orig 435 Good 1283 MANUFACTURERS NB OF 1875 11451 CU 1990 GILES NB OF PULASKI Orig 746 VG 1283 MANUFACTURERS NB OF 1875 11481 VG-F 1990 GILES NB OF PULASKI Orig 1628 Fair 1283 MANUFACTURERS NB OF 1875 11482 VG 2000 STONES RIVER NB OF Orig 1006 Fine 1284 CENTREVILLE NB OF WARWICK, 1284 CENTREVILLE NB OF WARWICK, 1328 BLACKSTONE CANAL NB OF Orig 149 Orig 1020 1875 4190 F-VF VG Number of Deuces for TN 6 1339 N EXCHANGE B OF PROVIDENCE 1875 8549 Fine TX 1339 N EXCHANGE B OF PROVIDENCE 1875 9400 F-VF 2092 N EXCHANGE B OF HOUSTON 1875 97 Good 1366 NB OF COMMERCE OF Orig Good Number of Deuces for TX 1 Page 66 State Charter Paper Money Whole No. 194 Title/Town Type Serial/Grade State Charter Title/Town Type Serial/Grade UT 1921 SALT LAKE CITY NB OF UTAH, Orig 3135 2059 DESERET NB OF SALT LAKE Orig 320 2059 DESERET NB OF SALT LAKE Orig 702 2059 DESERET NB OF SALT LAKE Orig 821 Number of Deuces for UT 4 VT 122 FNB OF SPRINGFIELD Orig 1801 228 FNB OF ORWELL Orig 228 FNB OF ORWELL Orig 588 228 FNB OF ORWELL Orig 7196 278 FNB OF BRANDON Orig 489 FNB OF SAINT JOHNSBURY 1875 604 748 FNB OF MONTPELIER Orig 748 FNB OF MONTPELIER Orig 2936 748 FNB OF MONTPELIER Orig 5336 820 RUTLAND COUNTY NB, RUTLAND 1875 994 857 MONTPELIER NB, MONTPELIER Orig 857 MONTPELIER NB, MONTPELIER Orig 8013 861 FNB OF BURLINGTON Orig 1004 ORANGE COUNTY NB OF CHELSEA Orig 316 1133 WOODSTOCK NB, WOODSTOCK Orig 1629 1133 WOODSTOCK NB, WOODSTOCK Orig 1632 1133 WOODSTOCK NB, WOODSTOCK Orig 1635 1133 WOODSTOCK NB, WOODSTOCK 1875 3351 1140 NB OF LYNDON 1197 MERCHANTS NB OF BURLINGTON Orig 1364 NB OF VERGENNES Orig 865 1406 NB OF NEWBURY, WELLS RIVER Orig 1406 NB OF NEWBURY, WELLS RIVER Orig 1430 VERMONT NB OF BRATTLEBORO Orig 1450 NB OF RUTLAND Orig 11333 1450 NB OF RUTLAND Orig 14285 1450 NB OF RUTLAND Orig 14976 1488 BATTENKILL NB OF MANCHESTER Orig 2420 1638 NORTHFIELD NB, NORTHFIELD 1875 1429 1653 NB OF BELLOWS FALLS 1875 511 1673 NB OF ROYALTON 1700 BAXTER NB OF RUTLAND Orig 691 2305 PEOPLES NB OF BRATTLEBORO 1875 474 Number of Deuces for VT 33 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 1875 14 CU F-VF 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 1875 15 CU Good 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 1875 16 CU VG-F 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 1875 17 ALI VF 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 1875 18 ALI 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 1875 19 AU 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 1875 20 AU 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 1875 21 AU 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 1875 22 CU VG 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 1875 23 VG 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 1875 24 ALI Fair 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 1875 25 AU VF 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 1875 34 AU VG 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 1875 47 VG Fair 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 1875 57 VG VF 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 1875 65 CLI F-VF 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 1875 66 AU Fine 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 1875 67 AU VG-F 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 1875 68 CLI VG 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 1875 69 CU XF 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 1875 70 XF 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 1875 71 ALI F-VF 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 1875 72 AU Fine 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 1875 73 CU VF 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 1875 88 F-VF VF 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 1875 94 CU XF 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 1875 97 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 1875 98 Fine 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 1875 99 CU Good 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 1875 247 Fair VG 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 1875 255 Fine XF 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 1875 265 CU XF 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 1875 266 AU Good 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 1875 267 CU VF 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 1875 269 AU VG 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 1875 270 ALI VG 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 1875 271 CU VG 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 1875 275 VF VG Number of Deuces for WI 56 VG WY VF 2110 WYOMING NB OF LARAMIE CITY Orig 907 Fair Number of Deuces for WY 1 WI 124 FNB OF WHITEWATER 124 FNB OF WHITEWATER 144 FNB OF MADISON 874 FNB OF GREEN BAY 1115 FNB OF SPARTA 1749 FNB OF APPLETON 1802 MANUFACTVRERS NB OF RACINE 1933 FNB OF BURLINGTON 1998 FNB OF GRAND RAPIDS 2069 FNB OF EAU CLAIRE 2125 FNB OF CHIPPEWA FALLS 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE 2344 LACROSSE NB, LA CROSSE Orig Orig Orig Orig Orig 1875 2207 F-VF 67 VF 1722 Good VG KENTUCKY OBSOLETE NOTES & SCRIP Orig Orig Orig Orig 1875 1875 1875 1875 1875 1875 1875 548 VG 1509 1823 204 AU 7 AU 8 AU 9 AU 10 AU 11 Fine 12 CU 13 AU by Earl Hughes, ed. by Steven K. Whitfield Latest book from the Society of Paper Money Collectors Softcover (unbound, if you prefer) — $29.95 Dealer lots of 12 copies — $240.00 Prices include shipping This will be a limited edition, based in part on the number of orders received. No orders accepted after April 1, 1998. Send checks payable to SPMC to: Mark Anderson (SPMC), 400 Court St., #1, Brooklyn, NY 11231 yang, eVATAH Acker, Men-all and Company / Park and Tilford, 50 cents, July 21, 1862, printer un- known. This particular specimen was signed for Acker et al. Paper Money Whole No. 194 Page 67 SO IT WAS FROM NEW YORK CITY AFTER ALL by STEPHEN M. GOLDBERG A couple of years ago I bought a Civil War era 50- cent scrip note issued by Acker, Merrall and Com- pany on a form also used by the firm of Park and Tilford. I'd been told that it was a New York City item, but when I finally got around to looking at it closely, I realized that there was no indication of any place of issue on the note. Neither was there a printer's imprint that could put the note in the general area. scrip notes give the issuer's address because the city was rela- tively large and an address would facilitate circulation over a wider area than the issuer's immediate neighborhood. The absence of an address usually makes me suspicious. I did find an early 1980s Smythe and Company auction catalogue list- ing a 25-center from the same two firms and placing the note in New York, but without an illustration I couldn't be sure of the attribution. The next time I saw the dealer who had sold me the 50-cent note, I mentioned the problem and he offered a refund although he stated his be- lief that the note was properly identified. How- ever, a city directory from 1861 has confirmed that the note was from New York City after all. David D. Acker and William J. Merrall ran a grocery store at 132 Chambers Street in lower Manhattan, while both Joseph Park, Jr. and John M. Tilford are listed as grocers at 921 Broadway and 112 6th Avenue, which sounds like two different locations but the streets intersect at Herald Square and the two addresses likely refer to entrances on the two sides of the corner. The 50-cent note has a signature for Acker et al. The 25-cent note was prob- ably unsigned since the Smythe cataloguer ascribed it to both issuers. The notes were obviously redeemable at both loca- tions. Likely a 10-cent note was issued but I've never seen or heard of one. Most New York City B NK Happenings (Taken from History of Pulaski County, Georgia) In 1831 the first bank in Hawkinsville opened for business with a capital of $200,000. General Hartwell H. Tarver of Twiggs County, a man of great wealth and connected with banks in Savannah, Darien, and Macon, and John Rawls, a pioneer citizen of Pulaski County and a man of large means, owned the bank. It was known as the Bank of Hawkinsville, John Rawls, president. The banking business of the early days of Georgia was a personal venture, and stood or fell on the financial strength of its owners. Facilities for checking a "run" on a bank were extremely limited. This is a true story of a threat- ened "run" on the Hawkinsville bank. One of the owners, while on a tour of inspection, found rumors were afloat that the bank was without funds. Omi- nous groups of men were standing around waiting for the doors of the bank to open. The banker, a shrewd pioneer of finance, knew something had to be done at once. Suddenly, through the brooding groups came men hurriedly rolling two clinking kegs into the bank. After much splintering noise of opening kegs, the doors were thrown open, and the waiting men invited to come in. Quickly faces began to brighten, and after many cheery greetings were exchanged, the waiting men dispersed. They said the "General" had arrived, bringing two kegs of money; they had seen the kegs and heard the money rattle. The kegs held only nails. The noise was merely to gain time until General Tarver and John Rawls could receive assistance from the banks in Darien, Savannah, and Macon. Page 68 Paper Money Whole No. 194 Treasurer of U.S. Rulings Regarding Redemption of National Bank Notes Underwood's Counterfeit Detector, March, 1879 1. "National Banks are not required to redeem their notes elsewhere than at their own counters." 2. "Assistant Treasurers are not required to redeem Bank Notes." They should, however, receive in payment of pub- lic dues any Bank notes which are redeemable at their full face value. 3. "Bank Notes should not be cancelled before being for- warded for redemption." The unfit notes are cancelled by the Treasurer, and any prior cancellation would interfere with the cancellation by the Treasurer. 4. "Bank Notes are not rejected because the signatures have become illegible from wear." 5. "U.S. Currency and Bank Notes for redemption should be forwarded in separate packages." They are counted in dif- ferent branches of the offices, and mixing them in remit- tances causes annoyance and delay. 6. "Precautions taken against reporting false shortages in notes forwarded for redemption." The "counters in" of the Agency are ladies, most of whom have been employed in the department for many years, and all of whom are known to be of good character and antecedents. 7. "Exchange cannot be furnished for Bank Notes redeemed." The arrangements between the Treasurer and the express companies absolutely forbid the furnishing of exchange for Bank notes redeemed. The rates established by the con- tract with those companies are very much lower than pri- vate rates, and it was one of the conditions upon which these low rates were assented to by them that the Trea- surer should not furnish exchange. The companies claim that if the Treasurer were to furnish exchange in redemp- tion of Bank notes, it would utterly destroy a large and lucrative portion of their business. 8. "Liability for destruction by fire of Bank Notes and U.S. Notes in transit by Express." In case of the partial or total destruction by fire of a package of Bank notes, sent via Adams Express Company to the Treasurer for redemption while the same is in the custody of said Company, the Adams Express Company is liable. In case of the like de- struction, under similar circumstances, of United States Notes, forwarded from the Treasurer's office under the government contract with Adams Express Company, the United States are liable. 9. "Notes lacking a signature should be presented to bank of issue." National Bank notes of which either signature is lacking should be presented for redemption to the bank of issue and not to the Treasurer. 10. "Mode of reporting counterfeit Bank notes detected." The packages of National Bank notes received for redemption are delivered singly to the counters, and all counterfeits detected are attached to the proper strap, or if there is no strap to the wrapper of the package, are noted in the counter's report of the case, and are returned by the counter with the report to the proper clerk. 11. "Redeemed Bank notes are forwarded in alphabetical or- der of banks." National Bank notes redeemed are assorted, put up, and forwarded in the alphabetical order of the banks of issue, and no departure can be made from this rule without causing confusion. 12. "Bank Notes are redeemable at par only at the counter of the bank and at the Treasurer's office." The notes of each National Bank are redeemable at par in lawful money of the United States only at the counter of the bank itself, and at the office of the Treasurer. 13. "Fractional Currency may be sent for redemption at Gov- ernment expense, but must not be mixed with legal ten- ders or bank notes." It is not desirable to receive remittances of fractional currency mixed with either Na- tional Bank notes or legal-tender notes. Fractional currency may be sent to the Treasurer for redemption in multiples of $500 at the expense of the Government. 14. "Bank Notes, redeemable by the Treasurer at face value, must be received for public dues and transfers of depos- its." Assistant Treasurers and depositaries of the United States and National Bank depositaries are required to re- ceive in payment of public dues and on account of trans- fers of funds all National Bank notes redeemable at their full face value by the Treasurer's office. 15. "Notes of National Gold Banks will be exchanged for United States notes by the Treasurer." An arrangement has been made by which the notes of the National Gold Banks will be exchanged for United States notes on presentation at the Treasurer's office on the same terms as the notes of the other National Banks. The "New" Series 1875 National Currency DIFFERENCES IN FIVE-DOLLAR NATIONAL BANK NOTES ISSUED BY MANUFACTURERS' NATIONAL BANK, AMSTERDAM, N.Y. We have received several inquiries regarding differences in the above-named five-dollar notes. The five-dollar notes on this bank, "Series of 1875," have the check-letters "E, F, G, H," while the notes of the old series are lettered A, B, C, D. The following explanation, furnished by the Comptroller of the Currency, will be found sufficient to satisfy the public that the notes are genuine, even if the use of these check-letters is an innovation upon the practice of his office: "The plates for $5 Manufacturers' National Bank, Amsterdam, N.Y., became so much damaged while it was be- ing prepared for printing the new series of 1875 that it became necessary to prepare a new plate, upon which new check-let- ters were engraved, (E, F, G, H.) The check-letters on the old plates were A, B, C, D. The new check-letters were engraved so that the currency printed from the new plate could be readily distinguished from that printed upon the original plate." Submitted by Bob Cochran BANCO CENTRAL DE REHM NEL PERU A 5 9 5 8 0 0 6 V A 595864"6 Paper Money Whole No. 194 Page 69 Starts Here A Primer for Collectors by GENE HESSLER NFLATION is a way of life in some South American countries. By 1983 the largest denomination note in Argentina was for 1,000,000 pesos, P(ick) 310. At that time it was decided to issue a new set of notes called Pesos Argentinos, one of which would equal 10,000 of the previ- ously issued pesos. By 1985 the 10,000 Pesos Argentinos, the largest denomination, proved inadequate. So, a new series of notes replaced the previous one. Now the austral would be the unit and one of them would equal 1000 of the short-lived Pesos Argentinos. In 1992, after notes as large as 500,000 australes were printed, yet another series of notes entered cir- culation, and the unit was once again the peso. One of the new pesos was equal to 10,000 of the previously-issued australes. In 1995 the new peso replaced the australes series. With a few exceptions most of these notes are available for a few dollars each, some for less. Most of the notes are engraved and have sophisticated anti-counterfeiting devices. They are very attractive. After six years of inflation in Bolivia, with emergency issues that resembled checks in amounts as high as 10 million pesos Bolivianos, nine denominations dated 1984, including those that resembled checks were overprinted with new denomina- tions as a provisional issue. The 10,000 peso note was over- printed to equal one centavo, and the 10,000,000 Bolivianos note, the highest denomination, was overprinted with the words 10 Bolivianos. A regular issue was printed starting in 1986. Peru has gone from soles to libras, then back to soles again, then a new unit, the inti, was adopted, and in 1991 the new sole was introduced. The change for the last two units was equal to 1000 of the previous unit. Most of these engraved notes are extremely attractive and affordable. Some denominations, in particular the 5000 intis note, P137-139, was printed by three different security printers. The first was prepared by the German firm Giesecke & Devrient, the second is the product of IPS in Rome, and the last by Tho- mas De La Rue in England. The same portrait of M. Grau was used on an earlier 1000 soles note, P122, prepared by Ameri- can Bank Note Co. This note was engraved by an engraver- friend of mine who died in 1993, Edwin R. Cranz. At a glance each portrait looks like the other. However, if you take the time to examine each of the four different notes, you will see the different engraving techniques that were used. This should be done with a glass that magnifies at least 10 times. Uruguay went from pesos to new pesos in 1975 when one new peso equaled 1000 old pesos. There was an initial provi- sional issue with overprints. The notes are engraved and most are affordable. In 1993 the peso Uruguayo was introduced, and as you have already assumed, one peso Uruguayo now equaled 1000 new pesos. Israel went from a lirot system to a sheqalm system and then to a new sheqalm system. The designs for the 1000, 5000 and 1,000 sheqalms were reprinted as 1, 5 and 10 new sheqalm notes. Notes as high as 200 new sheqalm were issued, all with new designs. These notes are engraved and some are available at modest prices. As one who appreciates wine my favorite is the 500 sheqalm note, P48, with the likeness of Baron E. Rothchild. Some readers will associate this name with French wine. To underscore this relationship, on the back of this vivid red note are grape vines. Yugoslavia, and after 1992 what survived as diminutive Serbian-controlled Yugoslavia, has gone through a few cur- rency reforms; the dinar has remained the unit. In 1990 one new dinar equaled 10,000 of the old; in 1992 one new dinar equaled 10 of the old; in 1993 one new dinar equaled one million of the old; in 1994 one new dinar equaled 1 milliard (billion) of the old. By the time these words are printed there might be more reforms in place. Through this maze of reforms some designs remained the same, only the number of zeros were deleted. Rather than con- centrate on all denominations, which might become expen- sive, you might consider one denomination and follow it through its many alterations of zeros added and deleted. An African country currently in political and economic chaos is Zaire, the former Belgian Congo. In 1992 the inflation in this central African country made it necessary to introduce a note for 5 million Zaires, P46. The following year a currency reform was introduced where one new Zaire equaled 3 mil- lion of the previous Zaires. All the notes have the portrait of the dictator Mobutu on the face of the note. The most attrac- tive note is the 50,000 Zaires, P40, with a family of gorillas on the back. These gorillas are probably an extension of the goril- las studied by Jane Goodall in neighboring Rwanda. This beau- tiful note should be available for about $3. Since this was fist printed, Zaire issued a 1 million Zaire note, and the country changed governments and is now called the Democratic Republic of Congo. So, be a trillionaire for a few dollars and be glad that the value of our currency remains relatively stable when compared to some other countries. (Copyright story reprinted by permission from Coin World, May 22, 1995.) I Page 70 Paper Money Whole No. 194 Oklahoma Banking Tidbits (Courtesy of David Koble at Mid American Currency and An Oklahoma Adventure of Banks and Bankers by James Smallwood) THE COMMERCIAL NATIONAL BANK OF MUSKOGEE The Commercial National Bank of Muskogee was started by John H. Dill in 1890. Dill was a sewing machine salesman who found the lending business more profitable. He saved up $750, rented a small storeroom, added office fixtures, and opened his bank. One good account from a wealthy cattle- man put the bank on a solid foundation until it was liqui- dated in 1926. THE CHICKASAW NATIONAL BANK OF PURCELL When the Chickasaw National Bank of Purcell was started in November of 1890, it stressed its "bank by mail" service. The Chickasaw Bank of Indian Territory was organized by H.P. Farrar in Cowley, Kansas, and received a Kansas charter. Banks in Texas, Kansas, or other nearby states would establish branches in the Indian Territory where they were unrestrained by their state charters. While the bank operated in Kansas, its only connection to the Indian Territory was a rented post of- fice box in Purcell. Depositors used the mail to send in money and receive passbooks. Later the bank moved to Purcell, merged with the private Bank of Purcell in 1891, and finally received its national charter in June of 1892. WHEN THE STARR GANG TRIED TO COPY THE DALTONS On March 27, 1915, a gang of seven outlaws led by Henry Starr (husband of Belle Starr) set out from Tulsa to simulta- neously rob the First National Bank of Stroud and the Stroud State Bank. The First National Bank yielded $4,215 in silver and currency, while the rest of the gang got about $1,600 from the Stroud State Bank. The townspeople fired on the bandits as they tried to escape, and Starr was hit in the leg. The marks- man responsible was a seventeen-year-old boy named Paul Curry. As Paul stood over Starr and reloaded his .30-.30 Win- chester, Starr decided to surrender. He spent several years in prison for his part in the robbery. THE FIRST BANK IN ANADARKO Anadarko, the county seat of Caddo County, was named for the Anadarkos, the Nadako tribe, which was a branch of the Caddoan group. Anadarko's first business was a bank, set up in a tent three weeks before the official land opening. It an- nounced its mission on a large piece of canvas hung in front of the tent on which the names of the directors were painted. ENGLISH, OKLAHOMA'S FIRST BANKER Lawton is the county seat of Comanche County and owes its status as a city mostly to its proximity to Fort Sill. Lawton was the last of the Oklahoma cities to be born out of the dust and clamor of an Indian reservation opening. On August 6, 1901, the city lots were auctioned off. Those who were unsuccessful in the August 1st lottery for a 160-acre homestead streamed onto the 320-acre townsite, pockets bulging with currency, hoping to be a lucky bidder at the sale. Lawton's first banker was one F.M. English, whose one room shack—he called it a bank—was perched on crude rollers, ready to be rolled to the lot the banker had his eye on. The procedure for the sale of lots is worth recounting. The government auctioneer stood on a dry-goods box and for several days, cried the lots, beginning at the northern edge of the platted townsite. A soldier would escort the winning bidder to a well guarded tent. There he received title to his lot, if he paid the full price bid, in cash. If he didn't have the full amount, a $25 deposit would hold the lot for 30 minutes, when it would be resold. That 30 minutes was to allow him time to withdraw the needed cash from one of the town's two banks. (By this time someone else had discovered how easy it was to open a bank.) Long lines at the banks caused many to forfeit their deposits. The first lot sold for $420. The highest price paid, for the lot opposite the land office, was $4,555. It was probably purchased by Mr. English, with the bank's "building improvement fund." It was these wild and frantic beginnings that gave rise to the expression, "a landoffice business." FRANK ENGLISH STOPS A RUN In 1920, many of the banks that had helped finance the oil industry became desperate. The price of crude dropped from $3.50 to $1.00 a barrel, and many bankers feared a run. Frank English, now in a permanent location at the City National Bank of Lawton, stopped a run with a clever plan. He set up tables in front of the bank and brought out the ledgers. After the depositors had lined up to close their accounts and in the midst of the run, a black limousine pulled up, as prearranged by English. The car was filled with money sacks showing dollar signs. These were ostentatiously carried into the bank. Seeing this, some people decided to redeposit their money at the newly set up deposit table. This cash was carried into the bank, placed into sacks, and returned to the withdrawal table. Finally the panic subsided and everyone went home. Unknown to the crowd was that the money sacks brought by the limousine contained only blank paper. ORVILLE McCLURG'S "CONCRETE COLLATERAL" Orville G. McClurg, cashier of the First National Bank of Harrah, had come to town when the banker he worked for, Ben Miles, moved his bank to Harrah from Choctaw. As the First National Bank grew with the economy, so did McClurg's functions. He soon found himself serving as cashier, janitor and bookkeeper. And that wasn't all he was expected to know. Once in the 1920s a farmer, who had an agricultural loan with the bank, brought McClurg a rolled up newspaper, put it on the banker's desk, and told McClurg to look inside. There McClurg found a blob of wet, freshly mixed cement. The farmer wanted to know if the sand and the other ingredients were right. When the cashier denied knowing anything at all about cement, the farmer could only exclaim, "Well, you should. That's what you lent me the money for." ■ Paper Money Whole No. 194 Page 71 THE PRESIDENT'S COLUMN Springtime! Actually, Mother Nature's getting a head start; it was 65° in St. Louis today, late January. I'm not complaining. The January/ February PAPER MONEY came today, containing an excellent variety of articles written for your education and enjoyment by YOUR FEL- LOW SPMC MEMBERS! These folks contributed generously of their time and abilities to share their knowledge of some topic with YOU! It can be hard work, I know that personally, but trust me, it is FUN! Why don't YOU try it? Nothing fancy, just write a paragraph or two about a favorite item. Want to see how its done? Go back and look at page 21 of the Jan./Feb. 1998 PAPER MONEY and read Eric Vicker's article. Is he proud of that note, or what? Is there a better feeling than crossing off something on your "WANT LIST?" On that one page Eric's acquainted all of us with himself, Glassport, and the only note known to exist from the only national bank in town. Tell the truth: When you visit your bank box (or wherever you keep your collection), isn't there ONE item that you ALWAYS look at, pause for a moment, and remember the day you GOT IT? I've got one. Tell you what—you write a 1-page article (double-spaced), about your item and send it to me. I'll forward your story on to Gene Hessler and send you the story of MY note! The International Paper Money Show is just around the corner. I called today and made reservations at the host hotel. We're already hard at work planning the annual breakfast meeting and the wonder- ful Tom Bain Raffle. Look for news about the date, time, location and costs—then order your tickets! We had a record crowd for the breakfast last year, over 100 people. This year promises to be even better! (I know, I've peeked at some of the prizes.) Some sad news to bring your way. Arri Jacob informed me earlier this month that Charles Colver had passed away. If you're not famil- iar with that name, you're new to this hobby. Charlie lived in Covina, California, and served as mayor. He was for many years the west coast representative of Krause Publications, the model and first choice as their "Numismatic Ambassador." The auctions in Memphis are usually held in the meeting room on the mezzanine in the Holiday Inn. There's a couch and a couple of chairs over by the wall. On Saturday night, John Hickman would invariably be holding court on that couch for hours, spinning fantas- tic and hilarious tales to those of us lucky enough to find a seat (or sit on the floor). The "audience" would vary, as we went back into the room to bid, then come back out for more. Charlie Colver was always in that group; usually quiet, but Hickman would draw him out a little, mentioning the name of some long- gone collector or dealer, and they would share a laugh. Charlie was collecting national currency in the 1930s! Here's a "Charlie story" from Pete Huntoon: "Years ago he landed the only known 1929 note from Flagstaff, Arizona. It still ranks as unique. His was in Fine/VF and he knew it was good. He even let me borrow it to photograph for a PAPER MONEY article about Arizona small-size notes. At the 1987 Mem- phis Show he came up to me and said it was about time he let me have it. Naturally, I salivated all over him! He then said all he really needed was a decent Arizona small-size note that was reasonably scarce, and Ken McDannel over there has a Prescott small-size note that would do the trick. He liked the town of Prescott, anyway. If I wanted to get Ken's note, he would trade me straight across! No check was ever written faster than the one for Ken's Prescott note, and I got the Flagstaff note in the mail a short time later. How often does that happen to you? That is a mark of real human decency." Thanks, Charlie. EXHIBITS FOR MEMPHIS If you wish to place an exhibit at the Memphis International Paper Money Show please contact Mart Delgar, 9677 Paw Paw Lake Drive, Mattawan, MI 49071. Applications must be re- ceived by May 16, 1998. In addition to the plaque that each exhibitor receives, awards will be presented by the SPMC, the IBNS, the BNR, the FCCB and the SCCS. IN MEMORIAM Charles Colver (1920-1998) Charles Colver, an avid collector of California national bank notes, has left us. Charlie served as a board member of the SPMC. He promoted our society whenever and wherever he was able. He was also a spokesman for the ANA, and was named Outstanding Club Representative in 1981. In 1974 Charlie be- came the first recipient of the Numismatic Ambassador Award. This honor is bestowed on numismatists by Krause Publica- tions. A member of the California State Numismatic Associa- tion, Charlie served as president, secretary and staff member of Calcoin News, the association's quarterly. He was a member of other organizations including his hometown Covina Coin Club. Charlie was a ranger and fire dispatcher for the U.S. Forest Service. When he retired in 1988 a 5,511-foot peak in the San Gabriel range was given his name. Charlie was extremely civic- minded. In addition to other positions he served as mayor of Covina, California. Illness has kept Charlie from recent Memphis shows. We will miss him knowing that he will not return. (See the President's Column for more.) Always Wanted Monmouth County, New Jersey Obsoletes - Nationals - Scrip Histories and Memorabilia Allenhurst - Allentown - Asbury Park - Atlantic Highlands - Belmar Bradley Beach - Eatontown - Englishtown - Freehold - Howell Keansburg - Keyport - Long Branch - Manasquan - Matawan Middletown - Ocean Grove - Red Bank - Sea Bright - Spring Lake N.B. Buckman P.O. Box 608, Ocean Grove, NJ 07756 800-533-6163 Fax: 732/922-5055 Page 72 Paper Money Whole No. 194 NEW MEMBERSHIP COORDINATOR Frank Clark NEw Carrollton ,po. 0Box 1 7175 61 01 MEMBERS 9394 Stuart Jones, P.O. Box 118, Bel Air, MD 21014-0118; C&D, U.S. notes. 9395 Albert L. Smith, RD 2 Box 886, New Columbus, PA 17856; C, PA small-size NBN. 9396 Brian R. Bishop, 2861 Wildpepper Ave., Deltona, FL 32725; C, U.S. and world. 9397 Bennett Nathanson, The Fairmont Apt. 308, 41 Conshohocken State Rd., Bala Cynwyd, PA 19004-2412; C, U.S. notes. 9398 Paul C. Peach, 204-15 Foothill Ave., Apt. A47, Hollis, NY 11423; C, small-size silver certs. 9399 Francis X. Klaes, 13 Primrose Path, Hatfield, MA 01038-9726; C, obsoletes, web notes. 9400 Kenneth S. Orlando, 30 Shadyside Ave., Lakewood, NY 14750- 1314; C, NBN. 9401 David W. Dmytryka, 3851 Branch Dr., Toledo, OH 43623; C, Toledo, OH NBN. 9402 Arden H. Brame, Jr. II, 9545 E. Guess St., Rosemead, CA 91770- 2104; C. 9403 Ephraim Gorlin, 2509 Farringdon Rd., Baltimore, MD 21209; C. 9404 Coleman Leifer, P.O. Box 577, Garrett Park, MD 20896; C, type notes, checks and drafts. 9405 Wm. Andrew Pinkley, 6462 Richfield, Bartlett, TN 38134-3777; C, U.S. & world. 9406 William L. McNease, 7217 Riviera Dr., Fort Worth, TX 76180; C&D, MPC & U.S. J9407 Jonathan Stromberg, 9 Rockview Rd., Quincy, MA 02169-1811; C, CSA, small-size notes. 9408 Bruce Hacker, 11138 NW 38th St., Sunrise, FL 33351-7585; C. 9409 Daniel D. Biddle, 2120 Sunset Dr., Paris, KY 40361; C&D, KY NBN & gold certs. 9410 Kevin Lonergan, Box 4234, Hamden, CT 06514; C, small-size U.S. and silver certs. 9411 Rick Peterson, 860-2C Pimlico Dr., Centerville, OH 45459; C, Alliance, OH & NE OH bank notes & paper. 9412 V. Sageer, Golden Coffee, Valancheri-676552, Malappuram District, Kerala State, India; C&D, world notes. 9413 Eileen Exton, 910 Wainee St., Lahaina, HI 96761; C, Western PA NBN. 9414 Richard J. Ostroski, 2530 Fox Chase Run, Ft. Wayne, IN 46825; C. 9415 M.A. Orzano, go Coin World, Box 150, Sidney, OH 45365- 0150; C. 9416 David P. Pohl, 2729 Royal Palm Dr., Edgewater, FL 32141; C, Fract. and obsoletes. 9417 Larry Corner, Box 296, Eaton Rapids, MI 48827; C&D. 9418 Larry D. Berg, 2209 E. Blvd. Ave., Bismarck, ND 58501; C&D, small-size type notes. 9419 Thomas M. Gregg, 215-A Hudson St., Raleigh, NC 27608; C, small-size type notes. 9420 Donna L. Wasmer, 325 Coney Ave., Watseka, IL 60970; C, Iroquois County NBN. 9421 Eugene D. Rex, P.O. Box 964, Ravenna, OH 44266; C, Portage County, OH. 9422 George J. Durany, 205 Boyce Rd., Dothan, AL 36305; C, NBN and small-size type notes. 9423 Glenn G. Wright, Box 311, Campbellsport, WI 53010; C&D, U.S. type and NBN. 9424 Donald Pester, 2707 E. Taylor Rd., Ceres, CA 95307; C, large- size star notes. 9425 Steve Kudler, 26500 W. Agoura Rd. #341, Calabasas, CA 91302; C&D, silver certs. and large-size notes. 9426 Thomas J. Brown, 3316 Krem Ave., St. Ann, MO 63074-3504; C. 9427 Ron Buswell, RR1 Box 79, Newark, MO 63458; C, NBN. 9428 Joseph Licavoli, 1326 Coburg Lands Dr., St. Louis, MO 63137- 3006; C, large-size $1 & $2. 9015 Bill Schwyhart, P.O. Box 800, Rogers, AR 72757; C&D, large- size type notes (reinstatement). LM240 Michael Seebode, 18651 Barton Rd., Evansville,IN 47711; C, C.S.A. and southern states. LM241 Donald L. Benson, 310 Main Ave., SW, Glen Burnie, MD 21061; C, C.S.A. obsolete & large-size U.S. LM242 Allen G. Fletcher, 20543 Holly Cir., Strongsville, OH 44136; C, converted from 9358. LM243 Jim Hodgson, P.O. Box 3876, Joliet, IL 60434; C, converted from 6055. LM244 Alan D. Bailey, 24530 S. Tonka Ave., Channahon, IL 60410; C, small-size stars, webs, large-size type. moneymart Paper Money will accept classified advertising from members only on a basis of 15(t per word, with a minimum charge of $3.75. The primary purpose of the ads is to assist members in exchanging, buying, selling, or locating specialized material and disposing of duplicates. Copy must be non-commercial in nature. Copy must be legibly printed or typed, accompanied by prepayment made pay- able to the Society of Paper Money Collectors, and reach the Editor, Gene Hessler, P.O. Box 31144, Cincinnati, OH 45231 by the first of the month preceding the month of issue (i.e. Dec. 1 for lan./Feb. issue). Word count: Name and address will count as five words. All other words and abbreviations, figure combina- tions and initials count as separate. No check copies. 10% discount for four or more insertions of the same copy. Sample ad and word count. WANTED: CONFEDERATE FACSIMILES by Upham for cash or trade for FRN block letters, $1 SC, U.S. obsolete. John W. Member, 000 Last St., New York, N.Y. 10015. (22 words: $2: SC: U.S.: FRN counted as one word each) OLD STOCK CERTIFICATES! Catalog plus 3 beautiful certificates $6. Also buy! Ken Prag, Box 14817-PM, San Francisco, CA 94114. (415) 586-9386. (198) MASSACHUSETTS LARGE- AND SMALL-SIZE NATIONAL BANK NOTES WANTED from Buzzards Bay, Edgartown, Falmouth, Harwich, Hyannis, Nantucket, Tisbury, Provincetown and Yarmouth. Frank Bennett, P.O. Box 8722, Port St. Lucie, FL 34985. (197) WW II MILITARY CURRENCY MY SPECIALTY! Periodic price lists for 55c1 SASE; MPC, Philippine Guerilla, Japanese invasion, world coins-paper-stamps, U.S. coins-paper-stamps, Confederate, obsoletes, FRN, stocks-bonds. 702-753-2435. Edward B. Hoffman, P.O. Box 6039- 5, Elko, NV 89802-6039. (199) MARYLAND WANTED. Obsoletes and National Bank Notes from "The Howard Bank," "Howard Park Steam Cotton Factory," "Howard Street Savings Bank," and "National Howard Bank of Baltimore (Charter 4218)." I will pay a substantial premium above current pricing. Howard L. Cohen, 3170 N.E. Loop Drive, Otis, OR 97368. Tel: (541) 994- 8988; Fax: (541) 994-7189, or e-mail to "lakeside@wcn.net." (195) STOCKS & BONDS wanted! All types purchased including railroad, mining, oil, zoos, aviation. Frank Hammelbacher, Box 660077, Flushing, NY 11366. (718) 380-4009 (fax 718-380-4009) (norrico@ compuserve.com). (205) n-At*, c,,mfrimMTrogy , /1/4,7, 0e4N //et, t th-ve